Marriage migration is an important aspect of population migration in rural areas. Under the background of different economies and societies, the marriage migration of rural residents manifests different spatial characteristics, and with the changes of economy and society, the spatial characteristics present corresponding changes. In this article, by taking Sichuan Basin as an example and adopting method of empiricism research, the main characteristics of spatial evolvement of marriage migration of rural residents in the Sichuan Basin were analyzed based on a large number of on-the-spot investigation data. The results showed that changes of spatial range of intermarriage had taken place in different forms in different periods. From pre-1950s to the 1950s, the intermarriage area of rural residents was the smallest. In the 1960s and 1970s, the period of collective economy, it enlarged gradually. With the carrying out of rural family contracted responsibility system in the 1980s, it began to shrink. After the establishment of market economy system in the 1990s, the intermarriage area enlarged once again. Since 2000, the tendency has been more obvious. But, in general, the spatial range of intermarriage had gradually enlarged with the elapse of times. As far as reasons are concerned, geographic environment, educational level and career type have had close connection with distance of marriage migration, and economic factors have increasingly played a significant role in regional choice of marriage migration. Furthermore, internal mechanisms that cause spatial evolvement of marriage migration of rural residents were discussed in this article. Results showed that with the development of economy and society, manifold factors jointly had brought about the spatial evolvement of intermarriage, including transformation of production and management mode in rural areas, execution of national society policies, pursuit of economic profit, and existence of spatial resistance as well as change of medium means of marriage.