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Table of Content

    25 July 2009, Volume 28 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Economy and Regional Development
    Deepening division of labor, knowledge creation and the growth of industrial clusters: A case study of the flowers and plants industry in Yanling County, Henan Province, China
    MIAO Chang-hong, WEI Ye-hua
    2009, 28 (4):  853-864.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040001
    Abstract ( 2079 )   PDF (532KB) ( 2277 )   Save

    Questions regarding the evolution and mechanisms of clusters have generated heated debates. While some scholars have followed the perspective of the deepening of division of labor, others have adopted the lens of knowledge creation. In fact, these two processes are not mutually exclusive but complimentary, and they function interactively to shape the growth of industrial clusters. Drawing from perspectives of evolutionary economic geography, this paper develops a conceptual framework to integrate these two driving forces of clusters and their path dependent relationship, and uses this framework to analyze the flowers and plants industry in Yanling County. The case study shows that the key mechanisms underlying the growth of the cluster depend on a series of cumulative causation processes including the expansion of external market demands, the deepening of division of labor, the creation and diffusion of knowledge, and increasing returns. This study also finds that local governments, entrepreneurs, and channels of knowledge transfer play a pivotal role in cluster growth during the process of the deepening division of labor and knowledge creation.

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    The diversification of research approaches in human geography in Chinese Mainland
    TANG Mao-lin
    2009, 28 (4):  865-882.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040002
    Abstract ( 2405 )   PDF (796KB) ( 2629 )   Save

    Beginning with the problems facing the Chinese geographical academia from a review paper on the issues of the progress and retrospect in geography in Chinese mainland, the paper reviews the related research results, and guides the readers to the methodological issues of human geography research. Through the retrospect of the development of human geography approaches and philosophies in the Anglophone world, the author comes to a conclusion that the research paradigm and methodology has been diversified since the 1970s. Through the period from the 1970s to the present, geography was in a state of turmoil. Although Chinese human geographers need not dance to the pipe of the Anglophone counterparts, the diversification of approaches in the Anglophone world can be used as a reference point. Just because of the realization of the limitations of positivist paradigm and reaction, structurism (including Marxism), humanism, feminism, and post-modernism (including poststructurism) appeared and exerted much effect on the research methodologies and paradigms of human geography in Anglophone world. During this course of methodological diversification, geography lost its traditional core but now has a strong periphery. China, as a giant transitional developing country, has a complex geographical pattern of human activities. This complexity is attributed not only to its long history and giant internal inequality, physically and economically, but also to the market-based social and economic reforms. The result is that the postmodern issue parallels the modern problem. This situation gives Chinese human geographers an unprecedented opportunity. The related researches by Chinese human geographers are dominated by empiricism, particularly positivism, and the attention that the researchers paid to the human aspects is not enough. So it is badly needed to diversify the research methodology and approach in order to deepen the researches. The paper discusses the necessity, and gives the countermeasures about the diversification of research approaches in human geography in Chinese Mainland, with the aim to do a little bit to the rational development of human geography in China.

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    An empirical study on the spatial organization variation with the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs): A case study of textile and apparel enterprises in China
    DING Jiang-hui, SONG Zhou-ying, LIU Wei-dong
    2009, 28 (4):  883-892.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040003
    Abstract ( 1959 )   PDF (2028KB) ( 2107 )   Save

    It has been gradually accepted that the information and communication technologies have influence on the spatial reorganization of the economic activities. However, the reorganizations of the distinct spatial hierarchy and departments have different characteristics, which bring about fierce arguments and come to different conclusions. As the most basic economic unit, the variations of enterprises with the application of ICTs grow to be a very important research subject. Through the means of case study on the clothing and textile enterprises and collecting materials by enterprises interviews, this paper aims to explore the features of the traditional manufacturing's development by using ICTs, especially the features of the spatial organization variation of the production chain based on time cost. The present paper achieves two main goals. Firstly, the paper analyzes the application of ICTs to the clothing and textile enterprises' operating. Secondly, it probes into the features and the variation of the spatial organization of the production chain with the aid of ICTs in the enterprises at different developing stages. Finally the paper draws a conclusion that these enterprises have shortened the cycle of designing, manufacturing, and dispatching with the help of ICTs, which proves that the time factor plays a key role in the spatial organization variation of the production chain by the application of ICTs. At the same time the present research discovers that the application of ICTs to the traditional processing and manufacturing clothing and textile enterprises chiefly boosts their management of some sections in the whole production chain; while for the industrial upgraded enterprises, the application of ICTs greatly affects the spatial organization of the whole production chain.

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    Heterogeneity measurement of population distribution
    YAN Qing-wu, BIAN Zheng-fu
    2009, 28 (4):  893-900.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040004
    Abstract ( 1988 )   PDF (2020KB) ( 1982 )   Save

    Heterogeneity is an important characteristic of geographical system, which is receiving more and more attention because of its determining role in geographical pattern and process. Based on the theory of data heterogeneity measurement, the paper put forward a Gini index of population distribution (GPD), which can be used to measure the heterogeneity of population distribution. Taking advantage of a GIS data set of county-level administrative regions census data in 2005 in Jiangsu, this research uses the GPD index to analyze the heterogeneity of population distribution in Jiangsu. By computing the GPD index of Jiangsu in 2005 at county and city levels, the conclusions can be drawn as follows. Heterogeneity of population distribution at city level is small, while that at county level is big. Heterogeneity of population distribution in southern Jiangsu is bigger than that in northeastern Jiangsu. Moran scatter plot and local Moran's I are employed to study local spatial autocorrelation of population density distribution in Jiangsu based at county level. The results indicate that the heterogeneity of population distribution in low-high and high-low spots is big, while that in high-high and low-low spots is small. The above results are consistent with the actual conditions, indicating that the GPD index is effective.

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    Methodology of estimating railway network scale: A case study of China
    MO Hui-hui, JIN Feng-jun, WANG Jiao-e
    2009, 28 (4):  901-910.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040005
    Abstract ( 1630 )   PDF (1000KB) ( 1433 )   Save

    Railways are playing an increasingly important role in economic, social and urban development in China. Now the government expects to stimulate consumption by increasing investment especially in infrastructure due to the influence of the world economic crisis. This macro-economic setting provides a very good opportunity for the development of railways and high-speed railways. Firstly, this paper compares various methods of network scale estimation, such as network analysis method, transport demanding method, analogy method and statistical analysis method, and finds that different methods have different demands for data, and their adaptability is also different. However, in all these methods, geographical & spatial characteristics and economic & social indicators are the basic elements which decide the final scale of railway network. Based on the above conclusion, this paper builds a methodology of analyzing railway network scale, and considers the railway network of China will be composed of three parts, i.e., basic railway network, high-speed railway network and inter-city railway transit. This paper deals with the first two networks. Based on the available data and appropriate method, an accessibility model is chosen to estimate the basic scale of China's railway network, and absolute connection intensity and dominant flow analysis are used to estimate high-speed railway network scale. Finally the whole railway network scale is combined and decided with GIS method. The result shows that China's railway network scale is estimated to be 150,000 km, twice as long as it is now, and its spatial service will be greatly advanced.

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    Construction of hub-and-spoke logistics network based on road traffic cost in Yangtze River Delta
    XU Jian, CAO You-hui, SUN Wei
    2009, 28 (4):  911-919.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040006
    Abstract ( 1742 )   PDF (1943KB) ( 2131 )   Save

    Undoubtedly, the rise of modern logistics will be great and particular significance to the development of our world. Modern logistics, as one of the new productive service industries, creates time value and the spatial value in every link of production, transportation and sale. At present, related research on regional logistics and logistics network mainly concentrate in the scope of small regions, and most studies focus on traditional transport manners and the impact of transport in the nationwide scope. In view of this, this paper attempts to construct a theory frame of logistics network from the scope of macroscopic scale. Taking the Yangtze River Delta as the examples, the authors try to give some advice to regional logistics and construct a logistics network in the Yangtze River Delta. Because of the current situation in the Yangtze River Delta that grade system is chaos, foundation of logistics is not constructed, the authors analyze the conception of regional logistics, and discuss its competitive advantage. On account of the confusion of the concept and network distribution of logistics in the Yangtze River Delta, the authors choose the estimation indexes to appraise hub cities in this region. Considering the intention between the cities was difficult to evaluate, the authors point out the effective region of the hub cities based on road traffic cost. Finally, the hub-and-spoke network is constructed in the Yangtze River Delta, and a concrete analysis is done on the main logistics cities about their orientation.

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    Urban and Rural Studies
    The local response of transnational social space under globalization in urban China: A case study of African enclave in Guangzhou
    LI Zhi-gang, XU De-sheng, DU Feng, ZHU Ying
    2009, 28 (4):  920-932.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040007
    Abstract ( 2375 )   PDF (680KB) ( 2615 )   Save

    After a successful market reform featured by opening-up, urban China is facing a tremendous sociospatial restructuring in recent years. The rise of a new type of social space, i.e., ethnic enclaves has been remarkable. Taking Xiaobei of Guangzhou City as a study case, this paper examines the response of local residents and communities. Method of triangulation is mainly used, along with both quantitative analysis such as questionnaire and logistics regression and qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews, focus group and so on. As shown by the empirical study, a negative representation of African communities has been constructed in Guangzhou. Attitudes of local residents surveyed upon African enclaves do not show a consistent result of either acceptance or exclusion. Through a logistic regression, it is found that in terms of the variables of age, gender, educational attainments, the length of living time or religions, no variables can stand out to be significant. Employment, however, is important, while traders, workers or those involved in service sectors mainly put a positive attitude towards Africans, in contrast to professionals, self-employed or students. Moreover, interviews of traders in Xiaobei further disclose that interactions between local residents and Africans are an important determinant of the relations, which, however, are purely economic-based rather than cultural or social based. According to a study of local media reports and website, it is found that the local state-owned newspapers produce a negative impact upon the representation of African enclaves. Critical comments upon criminal cases of African immigrants already engender an invisible wall between local residents and African communities. Based on the sprawl of information on the net, such negative attitudes towards African immigrants soared. Therefore, this indicates a transition of Xiaobei from initiative concentration of African traders to negative segregation. The future of such African communities is under question.

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    The spatial change of urban capital density and its mechanism in China: A case study of Lanzhou
    YANG Yong-chun, LI Xin-jue
    2009, 28 (4):  933-946.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040008
    Abstract ( 1662 )   PDF (1105KB) ( 1621 )   Save

    The theoretically spatial distributions of urban capital density of Market Economic Pattern, Command Economic Pattern, and (Chinese) Transforming Economic Pattern from command economy to market economy have been studied and compared. Then, using building cubage rate index, the demonstration of Lanzhou from its districts and different uses of buildings has been done by applying the data based on the high precision satellite image and methods of massive fieldwork lasting more than six months and of GIS technology and maths statistics lasting about 18 months. The conclusions below have been summarized. Firstly, the urban capital density of Market Economic Pattern goes down spatially from their centers to peripheries but one of Command Economic Pattern is balancing or descending slowly or even ascending. However, the trend of urban capital density of (Chinese) Transforming Economic Pattern from command economy to market economy is in the midst of them. Secondly, the urban spatial use of command economy in China presents commerce-residence-industry-agriculture from center to periphery that is greatly different from market economy. Whereas the same pattern still occurs in the period of Chinese Transforming Economic Pattern. Thirdly, the phenomena that high and lower building cubage rates coexist at small space scale widely in Lanzhou are related with difficult changes of land use and lower operation of market economy mechanism and so on. Finally, the trend of spatial distribution pattern of residential and commercial building cubage rates is now close to that of market economy owing to high marketing behavior of both residential building and commercial building where cubage rates are higher than the others.

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    Dynamic simulation of impact factors on mono-centric urbanization by using agent-based modeling
    XUE Ling, WENG Jing, YANG Kai-zhong, LI Guo-ping
    2009, 28 (4):  947-956.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040009
    Abstract ( 2047 )   PDF (1839KB) ( 1657 )   Save

    In this paper, the UrbanSwarm, a computational environment, is developed for a better understanding of urbanization by agent-based modeling. UrbanSwarm contains multiple economic interactions between urban and rural agents that are crucial in urbanization process and mechanism because the basic force driving the urbanization is inherently microscopic. This paper gives a detailed discussion on the influencing factors such as migration policy, domestic demand, and negative effect of agglomeration on urbanization process in mono-centric scenario. (1) The segmentation policy not only limited the urban-rural migration but enlarged urban-rural income disparity as well. It simulates the household registration system (hukou) before 1978, which confined most Chinese citizens to their places of birth. (2) Raising urban-rural propensity to consumer contributes to both urban-rural income level and urbanization level. Meanwhile, it can narrow the urban-rural gap. (3) With the increase of the negative effect of agglomeration on urbanization, urbanization level drops gradually. The urbanization process loses its sustainability if the negative effect of agglomeration on urbanization exceeds some thresholds in mono-centric pattern. (4) The industrialization and urbanization level has a close relationship if the technology and preference are never changed. The process of industrialization is faster than the process of urbanization in simulation. This parallel processing agent-based approach has various advantages over existing economic approaches such as neoclassical model and equilibrium analysis. UrbanSwarm can be used for both simulation and computation purposes. MAS provides an exploratory platform to test hypotheses behind the space-time dynamics as well as to experiment with 'what-if' games within complex urbanization process, i.e. using the computer as an artificial laboratory for the study of urban and regional systems. Besides, it can be used to achieve some computational intensive tasks through the collective work of individual agents such as rural and urban households, local government, firms and so on. Future work should focus on removing the limitations of reactive agents, implementing the use of cognitive or deliberate agents and achieving their full integration into GIS environment.

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    Spatial distribution of external service capabilities of Chinese central cities
    WANG Hai-jiang, MIAO Chang-hong
    2009, 28 (4):  957-967.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040010
    Abstract ( 1926 )   PDF (616KB) ( 1690 )   Save

    In this paper, we use the concept of urban flow to describe the basic economic activity in a city, and use the concept of urban flow intensity to represent the quantitative index of external service capability of a city. We find that there is strong positive correlation between urban flow intensity and centrality index of Chinese central cities and the urban flow intensity can be used to describe the quantity of external service capability of a city effectively. By calculating the urban flow intensities of 286 central cities in Chinese urban system and analyzing their structures, we investigate the spatial distribution of external service capabilities of Chinese central cities and summarize its characteristics. The main findings are as follows: more than 85% of the total external service capability of Chinese central cities centers on the bigger cities with a population of more than 500,000 and more than 65% centers on the mega-cities with a population of more than 1 million; the cities with a population of more than 1 million take the tertiary industry as their main external service sectors, whereas the cities with a population ranging from 500,000 to 1 million have outstanding performance in manufacturing industry; the three great urban agglomerations in the eastern region concentrate on nearly half of the total national urban flow intensity. Shanghai, Beijing-Tianjin and Guangzhou-Shenzhen are the three major external service centers in national scale; the total external service capability of central cities in the eastern region is much higher than the central, western and northeastern regions, so the distribution of external service levels of central cities is greatly uneven among different regions of China.

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    Cultural landscape evolution of cluster agricultural village: The case of Yukou village in Shandong province
    FANG Yan-gang, LIU Ji-sheng
    2009, 28 (4):  968-978.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040011
    Abstract ( 2439 )   PDF (1976KB) ( 2272 )   Save

    In the advancing process of New Countryside Construction, agricultural villages will become the cruces and nodus. Owing to the representative and demonstration of its rural cultural landscape, cluster agricultural villages deserve to be studied. Taking a case study of Yukou Village, Shangdong Province, this paper discovers that the cultural landscape of cluster agricultural village has approximately changed over three stages since the reform and opening-up. Its settlement evolution has gone through three stages-mechanical expansion, sprawling expansion & hollowizing, and refilling & recentralization. The landscape evolution of its folk house has undergone three phases-traditional quadrangle, one-storied flattop and multistoried building. The landscape evolution of its land use has experienced three stages-circled stratification, fragment & intensive cultivation, and concentration together with extensive cultivation. The short-term cultural landscape evolution of cluster agricultural village is primarily influenced by human factors. The macro-scoped factors include urban-rural relation, national economic development and modernization, system of family planning and farmland usufruct, and governmental policies. Concretely, the evolution of rural settlement is affected by demographic characteristics, planning, management, economic and social development, cultural ideas, and agricultural structure. The production ways of agriculture and the natural environment are the basic factors affecting the evolution of folk house. However the influences of household income (especially non-farming income) and demand, socio-cultural idea and mind, and architectural technology increased gradually with the economic and social development. Agricultural land use is restricted by natural factors. The short-term driving factors of its evolution include the distance to village, the construction of production facilities, the land system, and the profit changes of different land-use types. In the future, the recentralization of settlements will become the trend; the folk house will show a harmonious development including modernization, ecological trend, and individualization; scaled, intensive, and sustainable land use are likely to be the trend.

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    Spatial distribution features of archaeological sites on the western shore of the Chaohu Lake, China
    GAO Chao, WANG Xin-yuan, JIN Gao-jie, HU Xiao-yan
    2009, 28 (4):  979-989.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040012
    Abstract ( 1903 )   PDF (952KB) ( 1657 )   Save

    Archaeological sites are the relics of human activities, which belong to the concept of archaeology. The sites were the places where the ancient human lived, worked and took part in ather activities. As one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China, the Chaohu Lake is important for local environment and society. There are about 19 Neolithic Age sites and 120 Shang-Zhou Dynasty sites on the western shore of the Chaohu Lake. Based on sites data, topographic data, drainage maps, administrative maps and ArcGIS9.0 Geographic Information System, this paper tries to introduce spatial analysis methods into archaeology of Chaohu Lake Catchment. The spatial analysis methods include: (1) Sites point density is studied by spatial analysis in ArcGIS9.0 and spatial distribution is estimated by spatial interpolation as IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted). (2) In order to access the relationship between sites, distance analysis is used to reveal organizational structure features. (3) 3D analysis was done by DEM and contours to reveal micro-geomorphologic features of sites. (4) The relationship between the sites and river drainage was discovered by buffer analysis. The paper analyzes the spatial distribution pattern and the impact factors of sites from Neolithic to Shang and Zhou dynasties on the western shore of the Chaohu Lake. The results indicate that archaeological sites spread from the west shore of the gradually to the northwest, later to the south, and then they symmetrically spread. Restricted by productive forces and other factors, the ancient people preferred to settle in those places near water, plain, and fertile land, which led to the sites scattered in the direction of line, aggregation and decentralization etc., and presented the disciplines such as river valley-direction, terrace-direction and soil-direction, etc. This paper indicates that the distribution of the sites was influenced earlier by natural elements such as climate, topography, and vegetation; and was more by human factors such as productive forces, economic activities later. Research of site distribution features in the study area is significant for the integration of GIS and archaeology. And the hypothesis from spatial analysis should be proved by field archaeology.

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    Land Resource and Use
    Human dimensions of land use change in Dalian
    GUAN Wei, WANG Xue
    2009, 28 (4):  990-1000.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040013
    Abstract ( 2037 )   PDF (537KB) ( 1943 )   Save

    With the deepening of global change researches, scientists have gradually realized that land use change caused by human dimensions is one of the essential factors and important components of global environmental change. Land use is in turn affected by human dimensions. So it necessary to reveal the relationship between land change and human dimensions. The Chinese Government energetically responds to the relevant research agenda jointly formulated by IGBP and human field research programme of global environmental change and tries to get in line with it as well as focuses on the Chinese characteristics. After a brief review of the studies on the human dimensions of the land use changes at home and abroad, this paper makes a thorough and careful study on the human dimensions that affect the land use changes in Dalian from the angles of qualitative and quantitative analysis by applying the SPSS statistic analysis techniques (such as the factor analysis and the regression analysis) together upon the data collected from the government materials, the statistical data and the on-the-spot investigation records. The findings indicate the tremendous impact of human behavior. First, using factor analysis, we identified five main factors affecting land use change in Dalian: economic development and urbanization, industrial structure, agricultural structure, investment factor and population. Then, using linear regression, we put the ratio of land use change and the intensity of land use change into functional relations. The result reveals that some factors have the same impact on land use change in Dalian. For example, the factors including industrial structure, economic development and urbanization have more impact on urban land use than the others.

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    Evaluation on regional land-use and eco-environment based on matter element model:Taking Harbin City as a case
    WANG Lan-xia, LI Wei,
    2009, 28 (4):  1001-1010.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040014
    Abstract ( 1779 )   PDF (569KB) ( 1518 )   Save

    Based on regional land-use and eco-environment system, an index system and complex matter element model were established. The evaluation model was applied to Harbin City, at the scope of which the assessment of spatial differences of the land-use and eco-environment situation among the county-level regions were conducted. The results indicated that: Firstly it is applicable for the matter element analysis to deal with the evaluation of regional land-use and eco-environment. The result revealed that there were obvious spatial differences among the county-level regions in terms of the land-use and eco-environment coordination situations. Secondly, the single index information based on the matter element model helps to find out the key elements affecting the land-use and eco-environment coordination situations, for example, most county-level regions are confronted with relatively low intensive land-use level and eco-environmental risks such as soil pollution, soil erosion and fragile ecological functions of wetland. The research result coincides with the actual situation. Thirdly, regional sustainable land-use, improvement of eco-environment quality and sustainable regional development of Harbin City depend on formulating different regional measures for land eco-environment control and active guidance to prevention and control of land degradation, and etc.

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    Influence of landforms of on the land use dynamics in Shenzhen City
    BU Xin-guo, WANG Yang-lin, SHEN Chun-zhu, ZHANG Xiao-fei
    2009, 28 (4):  1011-1021.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040015
    Abstract ( 2080 )   PDF (784KB) ( 2135 )   Save

    Studies on land use change play one of the most important parts in LUCC, which focus on the change of land use structure, pattern and its rate, ecological effect and so on. This paper takes Shenzhen City as a case based on RS and the GIS. Several remote sense images, land use data of status quo, and landform data during 1978~2001 are used to analyze the time-space differentiation of land use change, so as to study the influence of city landform on the land use. The landform is an important influencing factor of land use change in cities. Because various land use types are all placed in certain vertical space, the change of land use will cause the variation of vertical barycenter. The data analysis shows that, the arable land was the most unstable, 609.76 km2 of which changed into other types during the 23 years, while its vertical barycenter declined. However, the areas of construction land increased by 579.20 km2, and its vertical barycenter increased by 6.49 meters during this period. The increasing trend of woodland's barycenter was more stable than that of construction land, and the transferred area ratio was the lowest among all types of land use. The restriction of landform to the land use dynamics is obvious in Shenzhen for the land use dynamics degree decreases with the increase of the elevation and slope, the dynamics index on the same elevation belt and slope belt gradient presented an increasing trend during the urbanization process. According to the curve of the land use dynamics state, during the natural landscape period, the agriculture-developed period and the post-urbanization period, the land use dynamics indexes on elevation belts and slope belts are stable and low. Even in the low plane region, the dynamics curves are close to zero. Between these three periods are the agriculture-developing period and rapid-urbanization period, whose land use dynamics indexes are higher. In a word, the index shows a spiral rise, but the dynamics of these five periods show a common trend that it is getting lower with the increase of elevation and slope.

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    Environment and Ecology
    Spatial identification and representation of the core ecosystem services in Poyang Lake area
    ZHAN Jin-yan, SHI Na-na, DENG Xiang-zheng
    2009, 28 (4):  1022-1030.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040016
    Abstract ( 1690 )   PDF (1861KB) ( 1439 )   Save

    Based on the assessment framework of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), considering the shaping forming mechanism of ecosystem services in Poyang Lake area, we constructed the evaluation index system for ecosystem services in Poyang Lake area. By using the 1km grid percentage data model, we carried out the principal component analysis to extract the principal factors characterizing the core ecosystem services of the Poyang Lake area. On this basis, the spatial clustering analysis was done to identify and delimitate the zoning boundary of ecosystem services in the Poyang Lake area and the ecosystem services of each district was spatially identified. The research results show that the core ecosystem services in the Poyang Lake area include supporting function, provisioning function, regulating function and cultural function in 1km by 1 km grid pixels. And then ten functional zones of ecosystem services are generated, and the spatial heterogeneity of the core ecosystem services on different administrative divisions in the Poyang Lake area was identified and presented. The application of the spatial zoning scheme of the core ecosystem and its spatial identification can provide both spatially and temporally valuable information for ecosystem management in the Poyang Lake area.

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    Spatial-temporal change of landscape pattern in the distribution region of endemic species Tetraena mongolica Maxim. on Ordos Plateau
    ZHEN Jiang-hong, SU Gen-cheng, ZHANG Jing, ZHOU Rui-ping
    2009, 28 (4):  1031-1039.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040017
    Abstract ( 1884 )   PDF (2497KB) ( 1772 )   Save

    Using the technology of remote sensing,geographical information system and the analysis software of landscape pattern, the paper analyzed four sensing images of Tetraena mongolica distribution region in different periods (1977, 1990, 2000, 2005) to study the dynamic changes of temporal and spatial landscape patterns based on the images interpretation and landscape classification and cartography and the calculation of landscape index, The results show: (1) On landscape scale, patch number, landshape index, Shannon's diversity index and Shannon's evenness index were increased, while mean patch size and dominance index were decreased year after year. It is indicated that the landscape pattern tended to be fragmented, landscape components tended to be complicated in the distribution region of T. mongolica. (2) In the different habitats of Tetraena mongolica the landscape patterns in Shizuishan, Taositu, Qianlishan and Wuda populations were fragmented. The landscape structure tended to be diversified and complicated. While the landscape patterns in Wujiamiao, Qipanjing and Hainan populations were relatively integrated because of less severe human driving force. And there were preponderant patches connected each other in the landscape. (3) Of all of the landscape types, T. mongolica was the maximal landscape component and basic landscape type in the research region, but its dominant status was reduced in the 28-year period of and its distribution tended to be dispersed and fragmented. Besides the land for industrial, urban construction and farming purposes as well as desertified land and other vegetations were largely increased and tended to be connected. Their functions in the landscape were increasing gradually. (4) It is indicated that the industrial development and rapid urbanization and land desertification caused by irrational land use were direct reasons for the T.mongolica population area reduction and landscape pattern change of the research region.

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    Effects of grazing on soil respiration in typical Leymus chinensis steppe in Inner Mongolia
    MA Tao, DONG Yun-she, QI Yu-chun, XU Fu-li, PENG Qin, JIN Zhao
    2009, 28 (4):  1040-1046.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040018
    Abstract ( 1609 )   PDF (1913KB) ( 1748 )   Save

    Using the static opaque enclosed chamber, the seasonal dynamics and annual total amount of soil respiration in fence-enclosed and grazed Leymus chinensis steppes of Xilin River basin in Inner Mongolia, China, were compared in 2007, and its environmental driving factors were analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant difference between fenced and grazed plots in seasonal dynamics of soil respiration, but the grazed decreased the annual variation range of soil respiration. In growing season, the soil respiration rates were much lower in the grazed plot than in fence-enclosed plot, and annual soil respiration decreased by 33.95% due to the grazing, but in the non-growing season, there was little difference in soil respiration between the two sites. In a year round, soil respiration was positively correlated with the temperature, the Q10 values in fence-enclosed and grazing plots were 3.89 and 2.59, respectively, and grazing decreased the sensitivity of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, while in the growing season, soil respiration was significantly related to soil moisture. In the fence-enclosed plot, soil respiration was affected by the soil water content at a depth of 0-10 cm, and the change of 0-10 cm soil water content accounted for 87.4% of variation of soil respiration. In the plot with grazing, soil water contents at depths of 10-20 and 20-30 cm were the main factors affecting the change of soil respiration, and the two factors could explain 74.9% of the total variation of soil respiration.

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    A forest nutrient cycling spatial model and its application
    LI Qian, YANG Sheng-tian, BAI Xiao-hui, LU Tao, LIU Rui-lu, DU Di
    2009, 28 (4):  1047-1058.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040019
    Abstract ( 1869 )   PDF (1074KB) ( 1554 )   Save

    Forest nutrient cycling is a crucial parameter in the analysis of forest eco-system. The paper established a forest nutrient cycling spatial model which coupled nutrient cycling process model and remote sensing model of vegetation NPP. Compared with nutrient cycling process model, the forest nutrient cycling spatial model improved the spatial analysis function and made the parameters acquirement easier. The forest nutrient cycling spatial model also complemented the nutrient limitation expression in the vegetation NPP model, which combined the vegetation growth, nutrient cycling and soil chemical property together. The model was developed using module integration technique and coupled in Ecohydrology Assessment Tools. Applying the forest nutrient cycling spatial model, the research simulates and analyzes the NPP and the patterns of nutrient bio-cycling in the typical plant community in Guizhou province. Compared with the observed data, the simulated spatial results are credible and the forest nutrient cycling model can simulate the spatio-temporal patterns of nutrient bio-cycling processes.

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    Temporal-spatial distribution of epidemics in Ming and in China
    CHENG Yang, LI Hai-rong, YANG Lin-sheng
    2009, 28 (4):  1059-1068.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040020
    Abstract ( 2048 )   PDF (881KB) ( 1983 )   Save

    Human health is affected by global environmental change(GEC). The distribution and transmission of epidemics in history could be rebuilt to reved the relationship between health and GEC from the past. This study used the collected data of epidemics in the Ming and Qing periods, when China was seriously influenced by epidemics, to set up some indicators to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial distribution of epidemics by GIS and geo-statistics methods. The results are as follows: (1) The indicators of "Number of Incident Years of Epidemics in 10 Years" and "Accumulated Number of Incident Counties of Epidemics in 10 Years" were set up to analyze the temporal distribution of epidemics in China. The results show that the epidemics were more and more frequent from the early Ming to late Qing Dynasty. After 1840 A.D., they happened nearly every year. 1580~1589A.D., 1639~1648 A.D., 1813~1822 A.D. and 1857~1866 A.D. were the four peaks of frequency and scale of epidemics. (2) The indicators of "Percentage of Incident Years of Epidemics to Total Years" and "Percentage of Counties of Epidemics to the Total Counties" were set up to analyze the spatial distribution of epidemics. The results show that many areas were affected by epidemics in the whole Ming and Qing dynasties. But the incidental frequency verified largely in different areas. The high frequency and the high incident areas descended from the east coastal area to the inland area. The middle and lower reaches of Yellow River and Yangtze River were the regions with the highest frequency. The epidemics occurred in all the eastern and central provinces. Over 80% of the counties in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Hainan, Fujian, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong and Zhejiang were affected by epidemics. (3) The indicator of "Proportion of Accumulated Incident Counties of Epidemics to the Total Counties & Years" was set up to quantitatively analyze both the occurrence frequency and the affected regional scales. The results show that Shanghai, Zhejiang and Shandong were the highest with "Proportion of Accumulated Incident Counties of Epidemics to the Total Counties & Years", indicating that occurrences in these provinces were both high frequency and large scales. Further studies should be done on their relations with droughts and floods, socioeconomic development and the distribution of population.

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    Preliminary research on pattern of tourism landscape ecosystem: Method
    JIANG Yi-yi, WANG Yang-lin, CHENG Sheng-kui
    2009, 28 (4):  1069-1077.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040021
    Abstract ( 1890 )   PDF (2002KB) ( 1838 )   Save

    Tourism landscape ecosystem is a territorial complex which is formed by the interactions between tourists, residents and their circumjacent environments. And the pattern of ecosystem can also be seen as spatial variation of interactions between such elements. As a result of element interactions, the tourist flow structure is taken as the key point on pattern study. Traditional methods to analyze the landscape pattern cannot reflect the characteristics of tourism landscape ecosystem and the reciprocity of elements. Therefore, this study proposes a methods about the pattern of tourism landscape ecosystem, which is built on the basis of landscape ecology and tourism spatial theories and methods. This methodology includes five parts: the area of patch, the shape of patch, the pattern of patch, the structure connectivity and function connectivity of corridor. A case study in Lijiang County, located in northwest of Yunnan province, is described. The patches and corridors of Lijiang County were evaluated by employing such methods. This study showed that: (1) The method combines structure and progress study, and has been put forward for the landscape pattern study. (2) This method provides a scientific and spatial basis for management and environment protection of tourism area. (3) This method reflects more efficaciously the spatial relationship between elements of tourism landscape ecosystem, and should be applied for the sustainability assessment of tourism area.

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    Climate and Global Change
    An analysis of annual variation of tourist flows and climate change in Hainan Province
    WU Pu, GE Quan-sheng
    2009, 28 (4):  1078-1084.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040022
    Abstract ( 2144 )   PDF (1589KB) ( 2018 )   Save

    Climate resource is one of the most important natural tourism resources in tourism development. The plentiful climate resources not only have the special landscape function, but also have impact on tourism demand. Climate comfort degree effectively responses the comfort of climate in tourism destination for tourist, it is the key factor to tourism development. It directly affects the length of tourism season and annual variation of tourist flows. The climate data of 30 years from nine meteorological stations and tourism data of 5 years from tourism administration of Hainan province were used in this paper. By adopting Comfort Index of W. H. Terjung, correlation and regression analysis, this article analyzed the relationship between climate and annual variation of tourist flows in Hainan province. The results suggested that the advantage of tourism in Hainan was winter and the most comfortable period of tourism began from current November to next March. According to the correlation analysis, climate influences tourist flows remarkably, and comfortable degree of climate is the main factor that influences annual variation of tourist flows and tourism decision to Hainan. Furthermore, air temperature correlates negatively to tourist flows. Compared to Haikou, tourism of Sanya is more sensitive to climate. In view of the importance of climate to tourism in Hainan, it will improve the attractiveness of tourism product when climate factor is integrated into tourism product for better advertisement. At the same time, for the negative correlation between tourist flows and climate, it is easier to forecast tourist flows so that we can make preparation ahead of schedule. Therefore, this study provides important references for tourism planning and investment.

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    Thermal environment effect dynamic of landscape changes in different urbanization phases: A case study of western Shenzhen
    XIE Miao-miao, WANG Yang-lin, LI Gui-cai, CHANG Qing, WU Jiansheng, ZENG Xiang-kun
    2009, 28 (4):  1085-1094.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040023
    Abstract ( 2026 )   PDF (731KB) ( 1276 )   Save

    Urban thermal environment effect is one of the hotspots of the research on the eco-environmental effects of landscape changes. Research on urban thermal environment effect dynamics can help to get a better understanding the influence of landscape changes in a specific phase. The objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze spatial and dynamics characteristics of urban thermal environment effect based on thermal environment effect index and change index; (2) to assess the influences of landscape change on thermal environment effect by distribution index. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired on January 6, 1987, December 30, 1995, and November 23, 2005, the landscape classifications of Shenzhen were conducted on supervised classification. The surface temperature was derived from TM thermal infrared data by mono-window algorithm. Urban thermal environment effect index was defined to describe the spatial characteristics of thermal environment effect. Dynamics of thermal environment effect was characterized by change index based on urban thermal environment effect index. To assess the influences of landscape changes on thermal environment effect, this paper used distribution index. Urban thermal environment effect index demonstrates that thermal spatial characteristic is changed from congregating distribution to fragment. The dynamics of thermal environment effect in different urbanization phases display different spatial characteristics, and are influenced by different landscape change impact factors. In the rapid urbanization phase (1987-1995), landscape changes are intense. In this phase, thermal centers expanded to the edge of the city. Thermal environment effect of natural landscape increases in this phase. It indicates that natural landscape has changed in its composition and quality in rapid urbanization phase. Then, the city comes to a relatively steady urbanization phase (1995-2005). The rate of landscape changes slows down. In this phase, the importance of thermal spatial expansion is weaker than in the first phase. The increasing thermal environment effect in urban landscape is prominent.

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    Assessing the temperature risk to longan planting in South China
    DUAN Hai-lai, QIAN Huai-sui
    2009, 28 (4):  1095-1104.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040024
    Abstract ( 2254 )   PDF (2112KB) ( 1672 )   Save

    Being an important subtropical fruit, the longan is very sensitive to climate change, especially temperature. Based on previous researches, selecting observed temperature data from 60 counties of South China from 1960 to 2005, the article established the longan temperature suitability model and the temperature risk dynamic assessment model to calculate the temperature suitability and risk of longan, to evaluate the temporal and spatial differences and also to predict the temperature suitability and risk of longan. Firstly, the article analyzes the temperature suitability of longan at different growth stages, and the result shows that temperature change has a great impact on the temperature suitability of dormancy stage, physiologic differentiation of flower bud stage and morphologic differentiation of flower bud stage. All these have low suitability and high variability, while the other three stages have high suitability and low variability. In addition, the inter-annual change of temperature suitability at different growth stages is analyzed, and the result shows all the growth stages except for fruit growth and maturity stage and treetop growth stage have a decreasing trend in the future. This is caused by the temperature differences between the different growth stages. Further study indicates that it is hot damage in winter and spring rather than cold damage that plays an important role in longan production in South China. Secondly, based on probability distributions of the longan temperature suitability degrees of different reduction rates of yield, the article divided South China into three regions: the low risk region, the medium risk region and the high risk region. At the same time, a comparative analysis was done on the longan temperature risk among different periods in South China. The result shows that there is difference in the changing trend of the longan temperature risk: in the aspect of spatial distribution, the temperature risk degree decreases with increasing latitude in South China; in the aspect of temporal distribution, the temperature risk of longan has a gradual increasing trend with the elapse of time. Finally, the responses of longan growth stages to climate warming in South China were analyzed.

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    Hydrology and Water Resources
    Analysis of water ecology capacity in Huangshan Resort
    WANG Qun, ZHANG Jin-he, YANG Xing-zhu
    2009, 28 (4):  1105-1114.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040025
    Abstract ( 2054 )   PDF (858KB) ( 1774 )   Save

    In the 21st century, controls on contamination emission have transformed from the simple concentration control to the combination with concentration and total amount control. But tourism research on water ecological carrying capacity remains concentrated on the concentration control. Water is one of the most important environmental factors in Huangshan resort. Adding water supply can meet the need of an increasing number of visitors. However, concomitant wastewater put tremendous pressure on water ecological carrying capacity. Taking BOD5 as an influencing factor of water quality, the paper calculates daily average and annual capacities in Xiaoyaoxi, Chengxiangyuan, Lianhuagou and Danxiaxi water bodies during high-flow period, normal water period and low-flow period. The conclusions are: (1) In general, under the premise of sewage discharge up to standard in the Huangshan resort, four major pollutant-holding water bodies can carry sewage discharge from now to 2010. However, after 2010, these four water bodies cannot satisfy sewage discharge the need of and the carrying capacity is saturated. (2) The spatial distribution is uneven in the water ecological carrying capacity. Xiaoyaoxi and Chengxiangyuan have relatively high waste load allocations than Lianhuagou and Danxiaxi. But the sites around Xiaoyaoxi and Danxiaxi have greater water demand, which lead to supersaturation of water ecological carrying capacity in the middle-long term. (3)The uneven temporal distribution is presented. Except individual stream, most of the water bodies can carry anticipative sewage discharge during high-flow and normal water periods in the long term. But during low-flow period, the water bodies except Lianhuagou are seriously overloading. Hereby, the paper builds the threshold model of "water quantity-water quality-water ecology system", and puts forward concrete measures to relieve the pressure on water ecological carrying capacity such as reducing water demand standard, advancing produced-water index, reusing wastewater, adopting efficient water-saving techniques and so on.

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    The river hierarchical classification based on ecological function: A case of Zhejiang Province
    YU Jiong, SUN Mao-ming, CAO Ying, LIN Bing-yao, YAN Qi-bin
    2009, 28 (4):  1115-1127.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040026
    Abstract ( 2173 )   PDF (1258KB) ( 1823 )   Save

    The river hierarchical classification is the basic work for the research of river rules, which is meaningful to the river regulation and management. The existing river hierarchical classification cannot reflect the space-time characteristics of rivers. Some is is greatly affected by mankind, some do not have the geomorphic feature, some has only physical property, and some is only convenient for administrative management. Based on river continuum concept, the definition of the river hierarchical classification based on ecological function from North America is referenced in this paper, with both the physical property and biologic character being integrated. The meaning of river hierarchical classification on ecological function in Zhejiang Province is discussed in this paper. Not only the framework of river hierarchical classification with water basin scale for rivers in Zhejiang Province is completed, but also the commonness and difference between the physical property and ecological character in each hierarchical framework are analyzed in this paper. The goal and suggestion of ecological protection for each hierarchical framework in river are put forward. Then the Qiantang River as an example is constructed with the river hierarchical framework in details. Furthermore, the discussion is shown about the effect and foreground of the river hierarchical classification based on ecological function for ecological water demand of rivers. The area and content of management of the water resource administrative department in Zhejiang Province is confined for each hierarchical framework due to human activity.

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    Geo-information Science
    Research on mass ingredient model based on remote sensing technology in non-vegetation area of Heishan Gorge basin
    WANG Shu-dong, YANG Sheng-tian, WEN Zhi-qun, ZENG Hong-juan, WANG Yu-juan
    2009, 28 (4):  1128-1135.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040027
    Abstract ( 1923 )   PDF (1906KB) ( 1522 )   Save

    It is very important to extract various kinds of underlying surfaces for soil erosion model because of various contributions of soil, vegetation, desert and rock under the same natural condition. Currently, traditional classification and information extraction methods based on remote sensing data have been widely applied in eco-hydrologic process field. But due to similarity and complexity of spectrums of soil, rock and desert, it was hard to distinguish soil, desert and rock in the same area. Rock land mountain, desert and soil mountain are widely distributed in the middle and upper reaches of Yellow River basin. In this paper, real spectrums of rock, soil and desert measured in lab using ASD (Analysis Spectrum Device) are analyzed, the result indicates that they could be well distinguished. On account of complex topographic changes and underlying surface roughness, spectrums from Landsat TM 5 become more complex and uncertain, but characteristics of surface texture of the rock land mountain are obvious and could be well differentiated from that of soil mountain and desert. For problem-solving of spectral complexity, normalized spectral index (NSI) is presented: NSI=(R4+R3+R2-3×R1)/(R5-R1)(R1,R2,R3,R4 and R5 individually refer to reflectance of the Langsat TM bands from 1 to 5). Then, the rock land mountain index (RMI) is presented according to the characteristics of normalized spectral index and texture: RMI=(R4+R3+R2-3×R1)/(R5-R1)+Rt(Rt refers to homogeneity index of texture), and the result indicates that information extraction precision of rock land mountain is 82.7% through set of threshold. Finally, we analyze spectral normalized spectral information of desert and soil and establish desert-exposed soil difference model (DS-Def): =DS-Def=(R4-R1)/(R5-R1)+R1+R2, and the result indicates that desert information extraction precision is 73.1%, and that of exposed soil is 72.8%. The above results indicate that the information extraction precision is higher than that by methods of traditional classification.

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    Study on the multi-feature remote sensing data classification based on ACO rule mining algorithm
    DAI Qin, LIU Jian-bo
    2009, 28 (4):  1136-1145.  doi: 10.11821/yj2009040028
    Abstract ( 1822 )   PDF (2452KB) ( 1733 )   Save

    Remote sensing data classification is an important source of land cover map, and remote sensing research focusing on image classification has long attracted the attention of the remote sensing community. For several decades the remote sensing data classification technology has gained a great achievement, but with the more multi-source and multi-dimensional data, the conventional remote sensing data classification methods based on statistical theory have some weaknesses. For instance, when the remote sensing data does not obey the pre-assumption of normal distribution, the classification result using Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) will deviate from the actual situation, and the classification accuracy will not be satisfied. So in recent years, many artificial intelligence techniques were applied to remote sensing data classification, aiming to reduce the undesired limitations of the conventional classification methods. Ant colony algorithm as a novel intelligent optimization algorithm has been used successfully in many fields, but its application in remote sensing data processing is a new research topic. Due to the ant colony rule mining algorithm based on classification rule mining, it can process multi-feature data. This paper introduces the theory and flow of application of ant colony rule mining algorithm in multi-feature remote sensing data classification. This paper selected Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR located in Beijing area as experiment data for land cover classification based on ant colony rule mining algorithm, and the classification results are compared with MLC and C4.5. The experimental results indicate that the advantages of ACO used in multi-feature remote sensing data classification can be summarized as follows: (1) It does not assume an implicit assumption for processing dataset; (2) Contextual information can be taken into account; (3) It has strong robustness; (4) It can construct simple classification rules; (5) It can take advantage of multi-source dataset for land cover classification. So the ant colony rule mining algorithm has provided a new approach for multi-feature remote sensing data classification.

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