Table of Content

    15 June 2006, Volume 25 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Earth Surface Processes
    Study on land surface temperature vegetation cover relationship in urban region:a case in Shenzhen City
    ZHANG Hsiao-fei, WANG Yang-lin, WU Jian-sheng, LI Wei-feng, LI Zheng-guo
    2006, 25 (3):  369-377.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030001
    Abstract ( 1654 )   PDF (555KB) ( 2754 )   Save

    Studies on urban heat islands(UHIs) have traditionally focused on relationship between vegetation fraction(Fv) and land surface temperature(Ts),which are important parameters to describe characters of ecosystem.The objectives of this study are:(1) to derive Ts and analyze their spatial variations using Landsat ETM+ thermal measurements;(2) to apply linear spectral mixture analysis to estimate Fv of urban vegetation abundance;and (3) to investigate the relationship between Ts and Fv derived vegetation abundance(using) conventional statistics and fractal analysis. Based on examination of a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus(ETM+) image of Shenzhen city,acquired on February 23,2004,the landscape classification of Shenzhen is conducted on supervised classification and interactive modification,and the applicability of Fv is investigated as an alternative indicator of vegetation abundance,and Ts is derived from ETM+ thermal infrared(TIR) data.To examine the spatial patterns of Ts and Fv,28 transects(profiles) are drawn across through the center of the city on the image.Since these transects pass over various landscapes with different environmental settings,an inquiry into the fractal characteristics of the profiles using the divider method will help to understand the factors shaping the city's thermal and vegetative landscape and lead to the development of UHIs.The use of fractals for analyzing TIR images will improve our understanding of the thermal behavior of different land cover types. Results demonstrate that Ts possessed a slightly stronger negative correlation with the Fv for all land cover types across the spatial resolution(30 to 960 m).Fractal analysis of image texture shows that the complexity of these images increased initially with pixel aggregation and peaked around 120 m,but decreased with further aggregation.Correlations reached the strongest at a resolution of 120 m,which is believed to be the operational scale of Ts and Fv.The spatial variability of texture in Ts is positively correlated with those in Fv.The interplay between thermal and vegetation dynamics in the context of different land cover types leads to the variations in spectral radiance and texture in Ts.It is suggested that the areal measure of vegetation abundance by unmixed vegetation fraction has a more direct correspondence with the radiative,thermal,and moisture properties of the Earth's surface that determines Ts.

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    Trend of potential evapotranspiration over China during 1956 to 2000
    GAO Ge, CHEN De-liang, REN Guo-yu, CHEN Yu, LIAO Yao-ming
    2006, 25 (3):  378-387.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030002
    Abstract ( 1575 )   PDF (235KB) ( 2251 )   Save
    This study aims at providing a climatological reference of potential evapotranspiration for the second comprehensive assessment of water resources and water resource planning of China.Based on the climatic data from 580 stations throughout the country during 1956 and 2000,potential evapotranspirations are calculated using the Penman-Monteith Method recommended by FAO.The spatial and temporal distributions of the potential evapotranspiration over China and the temporal trends of the regional averages for 10 major river basins and whole country are analyzed.Through a partial correlation analysis,the major climate factors which affect the temporal change of the potential evapotranspiration are also analyzed.Major results are as follows: 1) The seasonal and annual potential evapotranspiration for China as a whole and for most of the basins show declining tendencies during the past 45 years;for the Songhua River Basin there appears a slightly increasing trend.2) Consequently,the annual potential evapotranspirations averaged over 1980-2000 are lower than those for the first water resources assessment period(1956-1979) in most parts of China.Exceptions are found in some areas of Shandong Peninsula,river basins in central and western parts of Southwest China,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as well as source regions of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River,which may have brought about disadvantages to the exploitation and utilization of water resources.(3) Generally),sunshine duration,wind speed and relative humidity have greater impact on the potential evapotranspiration than temperature.Decline tendencies of sunshine duration and/or wind speed at the same period appear to be the major causes for the negative trend of the potential evapotranspiration in most areas.
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    Analysis of the relationship between urban dynamic change pattern of the Yangtze River Delta and the regional eco-environment
    HE Jian-feng, ZHUANG Da-fang
    2006, 25 (3):  388-396.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030003
    Abstract ( 1551 )   PDF (615KB) ( 1969 )   Save

    After the adoption of the policy of reform and opening-up to the outside world,many changes in politics,society and economy have taken place in the Yangtze River Delta region and have resulted in rapid expansion of urban area.Using multi-temporal remote sensing images,we analysed the spatial and temporal urban dynamic change pattern of the Yangtze River Delta region in the past two decades.The results showed that from the end of the 1980s to the year 2000,the main land use change pattern is the rapid decrease of cultivable land and forest area and the fast expansion of urban area.Urban land use in the Yangtze River Delta presents a concentrated expansion,typically from vegetation landscape to a mixed urban and rural landscape,i.e.,95% from farmland 1.8% from forest land and 1.5% from grassland.Using remote sensing image to categorize land use,monitor land use change,and calculate land use change transfer matrix is a promising method to show distributed spatial pattern of land use and land use dynamic change.There exist different constitutional proportions relating to land use dynamic changes between the first decade and the second decade.The urban sprawl speed is lower in the second decade than the first one.The land use dynamic change affects the eco-environmental change in this region.For example,the urban expansion pattern directly affects the local climate change and the air quality of this region.Analyzing the correlation between the spatial pattern of urbanization and eco-environment in this region,we found that the urban sprawl pattern is one of the direct factors affecting the spatial distribution of regional urban heat islands and spatial pervasion of urban air pollution.By comparing the relationship between the land use change pattern and eco-environment,we can provide sustained decision-making strategy for improving eco-environment,developing local economy,and promoting the social progress.

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    The comparative analysis of land use change between Chuxiong and Shuangbai in Yunnan Province
    TONG Shao-yu, CAI Yun-long, LI Shuang-cheng
    2006, 25 (3):  397-405.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030004
    Abstract ( 1720 )   PDF (446KB) ( 1874 )   Save

    In this paper,we analyzed the land use change in Chuxiong city,a plateau area and Shuangbai county,a mountainous area in Yunnan Province,based on their TM images in 1980 and 2000.Four kinds of indexes for land use/land cover,two kinds of indexes for the spatial patterns of regional landscape,the land use type transition matrix and information entropy of land use structure were calculated to examine spatial patterns and dynamics of land use change in Chuxiong and Shuangbai.The results show that,due to human activity,the land use change in Chuxiong was greater than that in Shuangbai during the past 20 years.The built-up area and timberland have increased,but cropland,grassland and water area have decreased in both Chuxiong and Shuangbai.The change of water area and grassland in Shuangbai was faster than that in Chuxiong,the change of built-up area and cropland in Chuxiong was faster than that in Shuangbai.Index for landscape diversity in Shuangbai was lower than in Chuxiong,showing a decreasing tendency in Chuxiong,but an increasing tendency in Shuangbai.Landscape fragmentation indexes were high,the landscape fragmentation indexes in Chuxiong were greater than in Shuangbai,both showing a decreasing tendency.The land use system tended to be unstable in Chuxiong,but oppositely in Shuangbai.The main driving forces of regional land use change in Chuxiong and Shuangbai were natural conditions,economic development,structure of production,level of urbanization and governmental decision makings.Effect of population increase on land use in Shuangbai was notable,but it was not marked in Chuxiong.

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    Research on the evaluation and analysis of land use sustainability dynamics in mountain areas of northwest of Yunnan Province,China:a case study of Yongsheng County
    PENG Jian, WANG Yang-lin, ZHANG Yuan, JIANG Yi-yi, YE Min-ting
    2006, 25 (3):  406-414.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030005
    Abstract ( 1249 )   PDF (389KB) ( 1572 )   Save

    As an important content of the research on global environmental change,the(focus) of the study on land use/land cover change(LUCC) has been transferred from the spatial pattern analysis to the effects evaluation of LUCC on the environment.As the evaluation for land use sustainability belongs to the research on the functional assessment of land use pattern change,the evaluation for land use sustainability is thus an important way in the transformation of LUCC research from spatial pattern analysis to ecological function evaluation. The sustainability of land use is not only the sustainability of land use mode in temporal scale,but also includes the spatial optimization in spatial scale.Taking spatial heterogeneity and ecological holism as its theoretical foundation,landscape ecology has great power in the evaluation for spatial pattern.Therefore,the application of the theories of landscape ecology into the evaluation for sustainable land use is of a great help to the evaluation for sustainable land use in temporal and spatial scales.It is a new field of the research on the evaluation for sustainable land use. Taking Yongsheng county of Yunnan province as a case,we constructed a synthetic(evaluating) index system for land use sustainability,by applying principles of landscape ecology,to make a quantitative evaluation for the dynamics of land use sustainability of the county in 1996,1999 and 2001.We also made two indexes,that is,contributing amount of indexes and obstacle amount of indexes, to make certain the comparative intensity of all the evaluation indexes.The results showed that,in the past 5 years,land use sustainability of all the 18 towns of Yongsheng county are relatively low,with a stable and great spatial difference.And there was a great change in regional land use system in 1999,which made a departure from the aim of sustainable land use.The results also showed that,in all the 18 towns,on one hand,the most important indexes contributing to land use sustainability are the indexes of population density,land use degree,landscape diversity,and multiple cropping.On the other hand,the most important indexes counteracting land use sustainability are the indexes of per unit area total output value of industry and agriculture,per unit area yield of cereal crops,and landscape fragmentation,per unit area yield of economic crops,and per unit area agricultural fertilizer.

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    Test of the susceptibility and grain-size age models of the Chinese loess(self-test)
    CHEN Yi-meng, CHEN Xing-sheng, GONG Hui-li, LI Xiao-juan, WEI Ming-jian
    2006, 25 (3):  415-420.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030006
    Abstract ( 1210 )   PDF (329KB) ( 1795 )   Save

    With the record of high-resolution of the Chinese loess section at Yuanbao in Linxia,boundary age constituted three age models based on the climatic events,namely the boundary age of MIS1/2 at 2.3m is 11.5kaBP and the boundary age of MIS3/4 at 21.4m is 59.8kaBP.The boundary ages were determined in accordance with the latest research results,i.e.the dating of stalagmite in the Nanjing Hulu Cave.Model 1(0kaBP59.8kaBP),model 2(0kaBP11.5kaBPand 11.5kaBP59.8kaBP) and model 3(11.5kaBP59.8kaBP) were used as the nodal-controlled age.With three models being the nodal-controlled ages,the susceptibility age model and grain-size age model were used to calculate the deposition times of the various horizons of the studied section respectively.A comparative analysis was made on the deposition time of the same horizon calculated by different models with the calculated ages.As viewed from the lithologic characters and the climatic stages,the susceptibility and grain-size age models have some shortcomings,but the stratigraphic deposition time calculated by the susceptibility and grain-size models with model 2 as the nodal-controlled age at the glacial period and the interglacial period is more consistent with the real deposition times of the strata.If some more suitable nodal-controlled ages were interpolated into the major climatic stages to determine the stratigraphic deposition time,the age calculated by the model would be more approximated to the actual stratigraphic deposition age.The usage of susceptibility and grain-size age models at Quaternary period was not suitable.

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    Spatial analysis on soil erosion of Lancang River Watershed in Yunnan Province under the support of GIS
    YAO Hua-rong, YANG Zhi-feng, CUI Bao-shan
    2006, 25 (3):  421-429.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030007
    Abstract ( 1287 )   PDF (363KB) ( 2227 )   Save

    By map overlapping,statistic analysis and buffer analytical methods,data of soil erosion and terrain slope,land use/land cover situation,soil type and distribution,annual average downfall days, buffer zone of a river and buffer zone of a road in Lancang River drainage area of Yunnan in Southwest China′s longitudinal mountain range were obtained under the support of Arcview 3.2 and Arc/Info 8.1;then the corresponding soil erosion synthesized indexes of each factor were calculated.The results indicated that: a) In the case of different slope gradients,soil erosion at 15°25° is the strongest,at 8°15° and 4°8° is intermediate and >25° is the weakest. b) The order of the descending degrees of soil erosion of different land use types is steep dryland,hilly dryland,middle coverage grassland,mountainous dryland,high cover age grassland,mountainous paddy field,sparse woodland,shrub land,woodland;and in general,erosion on sloping dryland is more serious than that on grassland,and grassland is more serious than woodland.c)Among various soil types,erosion on yellow soil and lime soil is most prominent,besides them are red soil,yellow brown soil,paddy soil,brown soil,dark brown forest soil,laterite soil,brown soil,lateritic red soil and black clay soil.d)Erosion in river buffer and road buffer areas is more serious than that of the entire region,and is a little stronger in river buffer than in road buffer.e) When the number of downfall days is less than 20 annually,soil erosion degree increases along with the increase of downfall days.Whereas when downfall days exceed 20 annually,erosion degree is relatively low because the antecedent rain wash has swept off loose materials on the earth's surface.Overall,the result can provide scientific basis for preventing soil and water loss and of reducing river and reservoir sediment.

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    Study on the eco-environmental problems and its countermeasures in the sustainable development of resources-based cities:a case study of Jining City
    SHEN Yu-ming, YANG Bin-bin, ZHANG Yun
    2006, 25 (3):  430-438.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030008
    Abstract ( 1711 )   PDF (406KB) ( 2138 )   Save

    Resources-based cities are one of the principal types of city in China.Along with the development of market economy of China,these cities now face many difficulties and challenges.Promoting the transfer of their development mode has been an important strategic problem concerning social stability.Related international studies began 50 years ago,but in China it's still on the way and is a hot spot in the academic circle.This paper aims at revealing the eco-environmental problems that coal resources-based cities are facing through a case study of Jining city and providing useful references for the ecological transfer of resources-based cities. As a coal resources-based city,the increased production value of coal and electric utility industry of Jining city was about 49.7% of that of its scalesized industry,and its industrial structure is single.As a result,the main eco-environmental problems are prominent smoke pollution,severe water pollution,ever expanding subsided land of coal mining area,fragile eco-environment and so on.These will directly influence the sustainability of the economic development.This paper analyses the relation between the industrial/economic development of Jining city and its environmental pollution using environmental Kuznets curve quantitatively,and combining the actual situation of the city,forecasts its prospective discharge of waste gas,waste water,solid wastes and the subsided coal mining area.The results show that the economic development of the city is still in the high increase,high consumption and high pollution stage,if it develops at the present way,its discharge of waste gas,waste water and solid wastes will inevitably increase continuously,so will its subsided coal mining area. So Jining city needs to strengthen environment repairing by taking the comprehensive renovation of its subsided land of coal mining area as a breakthrough;demarcates eco-functional districts scientifically and carries out ecological protection and control according to actual conditions of each district;proceeds experimentation and demonstration of a resources-based city and constructs ecological industrial system,so as to make its natural eco-system support economic and social development more effectively.

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    A survey of zinc concentrations in vegetables and soils in Beijing and their health risk
    HUANG Ze-chun, SONG Bo, CHEN Tong-bin, ZHENG Yuan-ming, YANG Jun
    2006, 25 (3):  439-448.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030009
    Abstract ( 1309 )   PDF (546KB) ( 2528 )   Save

    To assess the human health risk posed by elevated concentrations of zinc in vegetables,and to identify pollution-tolerant vegetable varieties,a large scale survey of zinc levels in soils and vegetables planted or sold in Beijing was conducted.Fifty-two soil samples were collected from gardens and fields used to grow vegetable plants.In addition,97 varieties of 402 fresh vegetable samples were obtained from vegetable stalls,supermarkets and wholesale outlets.Zinc concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zinc concentrations in soils ranged from 24.9 to 307.5 mg kg-1,with arithmetic,median,geometric and Box-Cox means of 79.29,63.81,70.7 and 68.01 mg kg-1,respectively.Compared with the background zinc concentrations of soils from Beijing,there appeared a significant accumulation of zinc in soils collected from fields that produced vegetables.Zinc concentrations in the edible plant portions ranged from 0.005 to 25.6 mg kg-1 fresh weight, with arithmetic,median and Box-Cox means of 3.11,2.24 and 2.55 mg kg-1 fresh weight,respectively.In all of the samples and vegetable varieties,zinc was less than the Tolerance Limit of Zinc in Foods(TLCF) of 100 mg kg-1 fresh weight for pulse and 20 mg kg-1 for other vegetables.The TLCF is the maximum permissible concentration of zinc in vegetables that will be consumed by people.The highest level of zinc detected in a vegetable plant was 25.6 mg kg-1,which was measured in a green soybean sample.Statistical analysis showed that the zinc concentration in leaf vegetables was significant higher than that of gourd and fruit vegetable.And the zinc concentration in vegetables from other places of China was significantly higher than the concentration of local vegetables,but there was no significantly difference between field-grown vegetables and those planted in a greenhouse. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis on the zinc bioconcentration factor(BCF) in vegetables indicated that the plants sampled could be separated into three groups based on BCF.Beans round trellis(Vigna unguiculata),the first group,had the highest BCFs,and the following is the second group,including Chinese cabbage(Brassica pekinensis),Pakchoi(Brassica chinensis) and radish(Raphanus),had higher zinc BCFs while Chinese green onion,chili(Capsicum annuum) cucumber(Cucumis sativus),eggplant(Solanum sp.),tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum) and wax gourd(Beninacasa hispida) had lower zinc BCFs. The average ingestion rate of zinc from vegetables was 4.04 mg/individual/day for people of Beijing,making up 22.4% of the quantity demanded(18 mg/individual/day) and 7.4% of No-Observed-Adverse Effect-Level(NOAEL).Consuming vegetables with elevated zinc concentrations may not pose a health risk to local residents.

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    Leaching of heavy metals in soil column under irrigation reclaimed water:a simulation experiment
    YANG Jun, ZHENG Yuan-ming, CHEN Tong-bin, HUANG Ze-chun, LUO Jin-fa, LIU Hong-lu, WU Wen-yong
    2006, 25 (3):  449-456.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030010
    Abstract ( 1458 )   PDF (181KB) ( 2365 )   Save

    Irrigation using reclaimed water would be the potentially effective approach to meet the large demand of agriculture. However,the environment risks of reclaimed-water irrigation still remain unknown.To obtain the knowledge of the impact on soil,crops and shallow groundwater,an investigation was undertaken in Tongzhou,Beijing.As one part of the research,soil column experiments(10 100 cm) were conducted to understand the heavy metal transport behaviors in soil profile under reclaimed water leaching condition and the concentrations of As,Cd,Cu,and Pb in the leachate.Soil columns were leached with artificial reclaimed water(As,2 mg kg-1;Cd,0.2 mg kg-1;Cu,20 mg kg-1;Pb,20 mg kg-1) and reclaimed water(As,0.83g kg-1;Cd,0.01g kg-1;Cu,1.73g kg-1;Pb,2.01g kg-1) in different water amount(4 L,12 L).The results indicated that the maximum values of total As,Cd,Cu and Pb in the superficial horizons(0-20 cm) in soil columns are either artificial reclaimed water leaching or reclaimed water leaching.The trends of heavy metals downward movement were showed with the increase of leaching water amount and Cd demonstrated more mobile in soil columns than other heavy metals,while the mobility of As,Cu and Pb were weak.According to the leachate concentrations of As,Cd,Cu and Pb,which did not exceed the values of the Groundwater Quality Standards I,it could be concluded that irrigation with reclaimed water would not result in heavy metals(As,Cd,Cu and Pb) pollution on the shallow groundwater under reclaimed water leaching condition in this study,and As,Cu and Pb indicate a lower pollution risk to the shallow groundwater than Cd under long-term reclaimed water irrigation condition.

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    Characteristics of CH4,N2O exchange between wetland and atmosphere in the Sanjiang Plain
    WANG Yi-yong, ZHENG Xun-hua, SONG Chang-chun, ZHAO Zhi-chun
    2006, 25 (3):  457-467.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030011
    Abstract ( 1365 )   PDF (201KB) ( 1630 )   Save

    Methane and nitrous oxide are the very important greenhouse gases.Although CH4 and N2O concentrations are considerably lower than that of CO2 in the atmosphere,however they are more effective on a molar basis than CO2 in resulting in radiative heating.Increasing CH4 and N2O concentrations in the atmosphere have stimulated studies on CH4 and N2O emissions from terrestrial and aquatic environments.Wetlands are regarded as one of the major sources of CH4,about 21% of global methane emission come from natural wetlands. The Sanjiang plain,the largest and most concentrated marsh-wetland region in China,is located in the northeast of Heilongjiang province.Its total marsh-wetland area is about 83.5×104 hm2with rich carbon resources. There are many rivers and lakes in this region and wide flood plain were formed along the river.The study was carried out at the Ecological Experimental Station of Mire-Wetland in the Sanjiang Plain,Chinese Academy of Sciences(47°35′ N,133°31′ E;56 m above sea level),center of the Sanjiang plain.The mean annual precipitation is 550-600 mm and the mean annual temperature 1.9 ℃.The vegetation types are marshes and wet meadows.The main soil types are marsh soil,meadow soil and lessive soil.Three typical types of wetlands of perennial waterlogged Carex lasiocarpa marsh,seasonal waterlogged Deyeuxia angustifolia wet meadow and perennial non waterlogged brushy wetland are selected as samples of study.The methane and nitrous oxide fluxes were measured by sealed stainless steel chamber and gas chromatography(Agilentilent 4890) system. The experiment lasted from June 2002 to August 2004,measurement was done twice a week in growth season,once a month in winter,and daily change observation was performed several times at the clear day during growth season and three repeats were practised at each sample site.Meanwhile,the inside and outside chamber air temperature,surface and 5 cm deep soil temperature were measured at the same time. The two year's experiments resulted in the following conclusion: There are obvious interannual and seasonal variations in methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the three typical wetlands in the Sanjiang plain,the greenhouse gases fluxes were mostly controlled by water regimes and temperature conditions.There are two methane fluxes peaks in the seasonal drought year,one is in June and the other is in August during growth season(from May to October),but there is only one peak in the waterlogging year.We found there are still methane emissions from Carex lasiocarpa marsh and Deyeuxia angustifolia wet meadow during frozen season(from November to April),and the brushy,wetland is a weak sink in winter.The three typical wetlands are all the source of atmospheric nitrous oxide and there are two nitrous oxide fluxes peaks during the plant growth season,the first peak appears in May and the second in July or August.The three typical wetlands are weak sink in snow covered time.The methane and nitrous oxide emissions are notably negative correlated.

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    Urban forest remote sensing investigation based on neural network model technology in the main city of Nanjing
    ZHAO Qing, ZHENG Guo-qiang, HUANG Qiao-hua
    2006, 25 (3):  468-476.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030012
    Abstract ( 1054 )   Save

    Urban forest generally refers to the trees and related vegetations in the urban area and its surroundings.Academically established concept of urban forest marks the great change of man's opinion on forest.The urban forest concept was introduced into China in the late(1980s.) Theoretical research on and case study of urban forest becomes more and more popular. Urban forest is a rising research area.Cultivation of urban forest has been an important part in urban planning and sustainable development.Continuous development of remote sensing and GIS facilitates more rapidly and accurately urban forest investigation.Information sources and methods for remote sensing classification are two crucial factors in terms of the quality of urban forest remote sensing investigation. Researches reveal that urban forest is highly fragmentized with a number of patches of different sizes and complex boundaries,hence remote sensing images of relatively high resolution of 810 m are needed.It is difficult to make urban forest remote sensing classification by traditional visual interpretation.Remote sensing classification based on neural network model can well solve such problems as uncertainty of complex boundaries and mixed pixel resolution,much suitable to urban forest remote sensing investigation. Taking the recent high-resolution remote sensing images of Nanjing city as an information source,we have made remote sensing survey of forest landscape in the main part of Nanjing city by use of dARTMAP classification method.Image interpretation is made under Matlab environment and supervised classification is made by use of dARTMAP neural network model.The accuracy analysis function of ERDAS software is employed to make accuracy evaluation of classified data.According to the accurate test confusion matrix,the total classification accuracy reaches 89.0% and kappa coefficient is up to 0.7271.And the forest landscape distribution map of the main city of Nanjing is made and the spatial attribute data of the patches deduced under Arcmap environment.

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    A framework for Process Geographical Information System
    SU Fen-zhen, ZHOU Cheng-hu
    2006, 25 (3):  477-484.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030013
    Abstract ( 1251 )   PDF (312KB) ( 1884 )   Save

    With the powerful technologies to acquire geographical data or its time-series,geographical research focuses on geographical process or dynamic phenomena instead of static geographical structure.At the same time,as a general powerful method to store,manage,distribute,analyze,display and apply the data with location information or as a powerful tool to analyze the spatial data,Geographical Information System(GIS) has attracted more and more attention of researchers in other fields,such as oceanography or meteorology,in which the dynamic phenomenon is the core research object.Some study applications on the dynamic phenomena were based on GIS platforms in market.However these presenting GIS platforms are all developed from terrestrial applications which lay stress on the status of space.Once GIS into the dynamic fields,it is necessary to develop a new type of theory or technology of GIS according to the process characteristics.That means the GIS theory or technology will develop based on the dynamic process instead of the static space.In order to overcome some disadvantages of traditional GIS,the presentation promotes the concept of Process Geographical Information System(PGIS) and describes its basic theoretical framework.This paper analyzes the definition of the space-time,and spatiotemporal process in the PGIS.Based on these definitions,the space base frame,the logic structure and the process warehouse in PGIS are constructed.Furthermore,it defines the spatiotemporal functions of PGIS,such as process management,process visualization,spatiotemporal navigation with the interpolation and aggregation in the space-time,process characterization,process objectization,process logic reasoning,and process symbolization.With the theory above,a new type of GIS based on marine process has been set up as MaXplorer.

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    Landscape communities of traditional settlement in southern China and their values of conservation and utilization
    SHEN Xiu-ying, LIU Pei-lin, DENG Yun-yuan, WANG Liang-jian
    2006, 25 (3):  485-494.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030014
    Abstract ( 1263 )   PDF (651KB) ( 2351 )   Save

    The cultural landscape of settlement is the most effective approach to the cultural landscape studies.Owing to the factors of its geographical location,local culture and architectural materials and methods,the traditional settlement landscape in southern China has presented many rich characteristics of cultural diversity in regions,and a variety of communities in the settlement landscape has taken shape.These communities of settlement landscape are significant when taking the conservation and the utilization values into consideration. This article presents the following viewpoints: (1)Being settlement landscape resulting from an integration of human activity and the natural landscape,human settlements and architectural styles appear to be most sustainable,symbolic and representative.Therefore,taking the settlement landscape as a point of contact for cultural landscape studies still remains as an important approach and content of study of cultural geagraphy. (2) Starting from a social-psychological concept of "Image",the authors are trying to explore the structure and the features of the traditional settlement landscapes in southern China.A new form of cultural landscape analysis and exhibition will be represented,which provides a fresh perspective for the studies of traditional cultural landscape. (3) The leading factor of Landscape Identity is architectural feature when dividing settlement landscape communities,i.e.zones of settlement landscape.The second is the local cultural factor,and local building materials and methods follow.The architecture features reflect a combination of these factors. (4) This article proposes to divide the traditional settlement landscape in southern China into eight basic communities(i.e.landscape zones),regarding the internal similarity of landscape "Image" as a precondition,and the relative consistency characteristics as the primary distinction.The architectural landscape demonstrates strong features such as "visibility "and "imageability". (5) Multiple values of conservation and utilization lie in the communities of traditional settlement landscape in southern China.The main values include heritage value,scientific value,aesthetical value and "destination" value,which have received greater and greater social attention.

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    On the formation of the regional culture complex in Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao
    XU Gui-ling, SITU Shang-ji
    2006, 25 (3):  495-506.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030015
    Abstract ( 1338 )   PDF (449KB) ( 3016 )   Save

    As a space form of cultural existence, regional culture complex is made up of cultural landscape structure,cultural regional structure and cultural centre.Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao,being originally an integrated one,have been divided into three political regions due to historical reasons.Western cultural policy hasn't been carried out completely by Portuguese and British governments in Hong Kong and Macao.Therefore,there remain common cultural features in Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao,which are interrelated by innumerable ways.On this basis of analyzing the relationship of their terrain,history and clan and the function of their cultural blending,the paper,using the concept in cultural grade and the theory and methods of cultural space evolution,expounds the historical evolvement process and their respective features of Guangfu cultural core region of the Pearl River Delta,Hong Kong regional culture and Macao regional culture.Through their long period of mutual historical cultural function caused by differences of cultural potential energy,that is,cultural grade force in Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao,including the intercommunion,collision and innovation of the following cultural factors as urban buildings,styles,language,literature arts,ideology,religion and value,etc.,forms a feature of co-existence,intergrowth,mutual supplement and mutual transformation of Chinese culture and Western culture,a blend of western and Chinese culture,and the space of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao forms an organic integration in about more than one hundred years.The three cultural centers of Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao construct a regional culture complex which occupies an important place in the regional cultural system of Lingnan. It is also a favorable form of space organization in promoting regional culture development.More attention is supposed to be paid to the space form of cultural existence to promote the theoretical construction of cultural geography and the development of regional culture.The relationship of this complex has become closer in the trend of their economics and the space become an integral whole in Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao.But due to historical causes and the enforcement of the policy of "One Country,Two Systems",further researches are needed on the differences and integration of inner layer cultural structure of the three regions with outward features in common.

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    The establishment of the classification and evaluation system of ecotourism resource
    WANG Jian-jun, LI Zhao-yang, TIAN Ming-zhong
    2006, 25 (3):  507-516.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030016
    Abstract ( 1480 )   PDF (214KB) ( 2991 )   Save

    Ecotourism,which differs from popular tourism,is a kind of sustainable development mode to protect environment.As a new concept ecotourism resource was originated from fresh recognition of tourism resource.Owing to the inseparability of ecotourism landscape from environment,ecological environment is not treated as the background of tourism resource any longer,and the quality of ecotourism environment has to be advanced to the core of ecotourism resource,even the absolute attractive factor.So we think the classified and appraised methods of ecotourism should be characteristic with itself,instead of the ordinary class-appraisal methods to the ecotourism research.We give a proper analysis and definition on the two important parts of ecotourism: the resource of ecotourism landscape and ecotourism environment,and try putting forward a class-appraisal approach that lays equal stress on the landscape and the environment resource,elementarily establishing a new ecotourism scheme of landscape & environment and based on AHP methods,exploringly creating a theoretical frame of qualitative and quantitative class & appraisal methods on ecotourism resource,in which the ecotourism-landscape resource and ecotourism-environment resource are correlative with each other.Hopefully,the remarks can stimulate discussion and fill up the blank of the research,moreover make the basic theory of ecotourism resource research more perfect.A scientific class-appraisal system of ecotourism resource has a guiding significance to identify feature of ecotourism resource type,to analyze its structure exactly,to explicit its present and future status when it will be exploited,to evaluate its value and influence and to draw up a plan of ecotourism resource exploitation and protection.

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    Cultural relic-scape sensitivity evaluation and its sustainable use:a case study of Taxkorgan Stone Town in Xinjiang
    WANG Yun-cai, CHEN Tian, SHI Yi-shao
    2006, 25 (3):  517-525.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030017
    Abstract ( 1352 )   PDF (432KB) ( 1773 )   Save

    Cultural relic-scape is an important type of cultural landscape heritage and also an important type of landscape resource.But cultural landscapes were conserved totally in a simply way in the past and were not open to visitors.With the development of tourism,cultural relic-scape is becoming an important cultural tourism resources and attracting more and more visitors all over the world.Because of being neglected for a long time some cultural relic-scapes have been naturally damaged or disturbed by tourism,so it is necessary and meaningful to do more researches on relic-scape effective conservation and sustainable development.Cultural relic-scape sensitivity is the key factor influencing relic-scape conservation and sustainable developing models.The sensitivity evaluation is the basic research to sustainable development of cultural relic-scapes.The characteristics of landscape sensitivity are determined by landscape ecological sensitivity(LE),visional sensitivity(LV) and landscape architecture sensitivity(LA).Based on the evaluation of LA,LV and LA,the indexes of landscape sensitivity are calculated through the formula LS=3LE·LV·LA and divided into five levels which are dissensitive(1.0-2.0),low sensitivity(2.1-4.0),mid-sensitivity(4.1-6.0),higher sensitivity(6.1-8.0) and highest sensitivity(8.0-9.0).This paper,taking the Taxkorgan Stone Town in Xinjiang as case study and the sensitivity evaluation as start-point,based on landscape ecological sensitivity evaluation,landscape visional sensitivity evaluation and landscape architecture and its surroundings sensitivity evaluation,evaluate landscape sensitivity systematically.The main conclusions are:(1)The snow mountains are the main distant environment landscape and the river valley is the visional corridor to this region and with remarkable and sensitive characteristics.(2) The stone town relic-scape and the sandbanks are highly ecological sensitive,the relicscape and waterscape are highly visional sensitive and the relic town is made up by stones,mud and grasses and farmer's houses are most sensitive to landscape.According to the conclusions of sensitivity evaluations,the countermeasures of relic-scape sustainable development are discussed,which are effective conservation and sustainable development,dividing into key region,buildings controlling region,landscape coordinating region and original landscape conservation area,rational landscape capacity and tourist behavior standards,ways for entering and controlling of infrastructures and the ways of re-imaging historical culture landscape and sustainable development.

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    Social areas of the central urban area in Shanghai
    XUAN Guo-fu, XU Jian-gang, ZHAO Jing
    2006, 25 (3):  526-538.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030018
    Abstract ( 1652 )   PDF (1151KB) ( 2422 )   Save

    Urban socio-spatial structure is an important research results on urban geography.The research results on urban social areas in urban China are rather limited. Based on the fifth national census data in 2000 at subdistrict level of Shanghai's Central Urban Area,the social area analysis was carried out by using the method of factorial ecological analysis.The result reveals that there are mainly five factors which underlay the social spatial structure of Shanghai in the transitional period:(1) old and temporary population,exhibiting approximately concentric zonal distribution;(2) socio-economic status,exhibiting an obvious sectoral distribution;(3) residential condition,presenting concentric circle distribution;(4)commercial and agricultural population,displaying approximately multi-nuclei distribution;and(5) public housing,exhibiting zonal distribution along the inner-ring road of Shanghai.The social areas in Shanghai can be divided into six types by cluster analysis: the inner city concentrated with old population,located in the urban core area;higher socio-economic residential areas,located in the southwest and north sectors;work-unit public housing residential zone,located along the inner-ring road;newly built house area with large immigrated population,located between the inner-ring and outer-ring roads;temporary population aggregated areas,located in the urban fringe;and agricultural population scattered residential area,located in the periphery area.The concept model of the urban social mosaic exhibits generally a zonal pattern with the synthesis of sectoral and multi-nuclei pattern.We hold that the history of urban development,urban planning,reform of land-use institution and urban renewal,the release of Hukou management,the welfare of housing distribution system and its market-oriented reform constituted the main formation mechanism.The dual influence of planning and market is embodied.

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    Spatial structuring of the 'new economies' in Xi'an and its mechanisms
    WANG Hui, TIAN Ping-ping, LIU Hong
    2006, 25 (3):  539-550.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030019
    Abstract ( 835 )   PDF (451KB) ( 1876 )   Save

    Based on the latest digital data of "the 2nd National Census of Basic Economic Units in China" and other sources,taking the city of Xi'an as a case,the spatial dynamics and structure of the new economies',which consists of 'hi-tech-intensive manufacturing','hi-tech-intensive public services',and producer business services',in a typical Chinese city and the relevant mechanisms are analyzed in this paper.The results indecate that:(1) With the increase in the business units,the vast majority of the 'new economies' in the case city has been experiencing a spatial spreading since the 1990s,whereas the hi-tech-intensive manufactories and the finance/insurance/real estate businesses have tended to spatially cluster since 1994;(2) The spatial pattern of the growth of the new 'economies' in the city is shaped by both the processes of 'path-dependence' and 'creation of new favorable locations';the two state-level new special development zones(i.e. Xi'an Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone and Xi'an Economic & Technological Development Zone),the old city commercial center,and the most concentrated area of the universities and research institutes(termed 'university/research belt' in the paper) are the major places with the largest amount and highest growth of the 'new economy' units;(3) The new Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone has been playing a significant role of the web-hub and growth-pole in the city's 'new economy' system because of its more favorable conditions and milieu for new economy' businesses,which are created by the synthetic effects of the three subsystems of the HTDZ development & proliferation subsystem,accommodating & supporting subsystem,and catalyzing & promoting subsystem;(4) The above facts imply that 'geographical proximity',i.e.choosing or moving towards the locations of more favorable conditions,is still one of the main location strategies taken by the new economy units;spatial 'distance' still matters to the new economies.

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    Research on Jiuquan-Jiayuguan-Yumen region's dynamic evolvement of urbanization
    LI Ming, FANG Chuang-lin
    2006, 25 (3):  551-559.  doi: 10.11821/yj2006030020
    Abstract ( 618 )   PDF (368KB) ( 1598 )   Save

    Based on the self-organizing modeling principle in the dissipative structure theory and regarding the inter-region migration coupling as the influencing factors brought in regional urbanization level simulation and prediction model,it is more practical to simulate the spatial-temporal and dynamic evolvement characteristics of regional urbanization level.According to the historical data about the population and urbanization level of Jiuquan,Jiayuguan and Yumen cities,the past 50 years' dynamic evolvement trend is simulated and the future 50 years' dynamic evolvement trend is predicted with the urbanization dynamic evolvement model which is based on the self-organizing model.The factors which affect the regional urbanization such as economic growth,resources exploitation,ecosystem construction,traffic location,national policies,and population migration,are analyzed and then the reasons for the dynamic evolvement differences in the urbanization level of the three cities are identified. By applying self-organizing model of Jiuquan-Jiayuguan-Yumen region,this paper describes the track of urbanization which is distinguished by the differences in the extent of urbanization and population flow.It also defines the dynamic self-organizing curve which practically anticipates the urbanization extent in the future and analyses the factor of evolvement of urbanization,which benefits the form of Jiuquan-Jiayuguan-Yumen urban cluster and the whole west Longhai-Lanxin economic belt. The study suggests,the self-organizing model is fit to the simulation of Jiuquan-Jiayuguan-Yumen regional urbanization level in the past 50 years and the departure between the stimulant and the actual data is under 5%,so it can be used to predict the future urbanization level of the three cities.The predicted results show that the regional population will reach 1.074 million and the regional urbanization level will be 72.56%.

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