Table of Content

    20 April 2011, Volume 30 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Earth Surface Processes
    A research on influencing factors of carbon emission intensity
    WU Dian-ting, WU Hao, JIANG Ye
    2011, 30 (4):  579-589.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040001
    Abstract ( 1454 )   PDF (900KB) ( 1287 )   Save
    The dual challenge of economic development and environmental destruction has aroused public attention recently. According to the cross-sectional data of 112 independent economic entities and econometric analysis, based on statistical analysis and econometrics, a complex quantitative model was established to elucidate the carbon emissions per capita and carbon emissions per unit GDP affected by the factors of per capita income, urbanization rate, industrialization rate, and proportion of service industry. Finally a four-stage and five-type model was generalized which reflected inner relationship between carbon intensity and socio-economic development. Accompanied by socio-economic development, the increase of carbon intensity has a convergence trend in the long range. The key to reduce carbon intensity lies in decrease of luxury consumption mainly conducted by developed economic entities and their technical aid to the low income economic entities, especially in energy technology and advanced technology aspects. Meanwhile, areas in the quick development of industrialization should pave a new industrial path rather than the following predecessors, to improve energy structure, accelerate technological transformation and abandon outmoded production technology. Moreover, optimizing settlement distribution, constructing compact cities and proceeding modern service industries should also be on their list.
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    The impact of foreign trade on CO2 emissions induced by industrial activities in China
    LIU Hong-guang, LIU Wei-dong, FAN Xiao-mei
    2011, 30 (4):  590-600.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040002
    Abstract ( 1401 )   PDF (1011KB) ( 1268 )   Save
    The global greenhouse effect may be one of the greatest challenges ever to face humankind. Policies in the developed countries aimed at the reduction of nationally produced CO2 emissions may result in the relocation of emission intensive industries into poor countries with less stringent policies. This relocation often not only leads to a simple relocation of emissions, but to an absolutely increase of emissions due to a less advanced technology in the poor countries and the failure of global greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. To overcome this difficulty, based on input-output technology, consumption-based approach to account for all the emissions attributable to the final activities of a country has been widely employed. China has been the 1st place of CO2 emissions in the world. Behind the rapid increase of CO2 emissions in China, there is the fast expansion of foreign trade in China. The study on relationship between trade and CO2 emissions could help the government understand the origin sources of CO2 emissions and make better CO2 emissions reduction policies to respond global climate change. On the basis of non-competitive input-output models, this article sets up a relationship model about CO2 emissions of anthrop industrial activities between two regions in the way of decomposing the economic activities into exporting, importing, consumption and investment. Then the authors calculates the CO2 emissions induced by consumption, investment, export and import of China respectively. The conclusion is that the augment of export and the improper export structure are the main reason of rapid increase of gross CO2 emissions in China. Especially, after China entry into the WTO, the CO2 emissions induced by net export account for a quarter of Chinese gross CO2 emissions. So it is the efficient way as well as the key task to change the export structure, expedite the high energy-using industries international transfer, and promote the industrial technology and add-value of export products.
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    Risk assessment of carbon sequestration for terrestrial ecosystems from climate change in China
    SHI Xiao-li, WU Shao-hong, DAI Er-fu, ZHAO Dong-sheng, PAN Tao
    2011, 30 (4):  601-611.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040003
    Abstract ( 1900 )   PDF (1044KB) ( 1443 )   Save
    Climate change will alter the capacity of carbon sequestration, and the risk assessment of carbon sequestration for terrestrial ecosystem will be helpful to the decision-making of climate change countermeasures and international climate negotiation. Based on the net ecosystem productivity of terrestrial ecosystem simulated by Atmosphere Vegetation Integrated Model, each grid of the risk criterion was set by time-series trend analysis. Then the risks of carbon sequestration of terrestrial ecosystem were investigated. The results show that, under the IPCC SRES-B2 climate scenario, the climate change will bring risk of carbon sequestration, and the high risk level will dominate the terrestrial ecosystems. The risk would expand with the increase of warming degree. Till the long-term of this century, about 60% of the whole country will face the risk, Northwest China, mountainous areas in Northeast China, Middle and Lower Reaches Plain of Yangtze River areas, Southwest China and Southeast China tend to be extremely vulnerable. Risk levels in most regions are likely to grow with the increase of warming degree, and this increase will mainly occur during near-term to mid-term. Northwest China, deciduous coniferous forest, temperate mixed forest and desert grassland tend to be extremely vulnerable.
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    Suitability evaluation of crops virtual water flows in China
    SUN Cai-zhi, CHEN Li-xin, LIU Yu-yu
    2011, 30 (4):  612-621.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040004
    Abstract ( 1474 )   PDF (941KB) ( 1484 )   Save
    To build an index system for suitability evaluation of crops virtual water flows in China, 18 indicators were selected respectively from agricultural production security system, support system and water security system. By using AHP and projection pursuit model, we calculated suitability degrees of crops virtual water flows of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China. It is shown that Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Shanghai and Beijing have higher suitability degree, while Ningxia and Xizang have lower suitability degree. According to the agricultural production security index, the 31 provinces are divided into two types, which are crops virtual water inflow regions and outflow regions. Then the two types were further clustered by ordered cluster method according to suitability degree. The result shows that most regions are in the middle suitability degree while a few in the two extremes. As for spatial distribution, the high suitability outflow areas are mainly located in Northeast China, the middle are mainly located in the south of North China and the Middle and Lower Yangtze Valley Plain, and the low include Xinjiang and Ningxia. High suitability inflow areas include large cities such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Northwest China, the middle are mainly the southeastern coastal areas, and the low are mainly located in Southwest China. Some suggestions are put forward as follows. Firstly, it is not feasible to consider suitability degree of crops virtual water flows in China from the perspective of water resources, because the key factor that affects crops virtual water flows in China is food security rather than water security, hence suitability evaluation should be done based on the security situation of agricultural production. Secondly, the domestic virtual water trade direction is difficult to change due to the mismatch between land and water resources in China. At the same time, importing virtual water from abroad is a difficult task due to the "great power effect". Therefore transferring water from the south to the north in China is an effective way to solve the problem water shortage in northern China. Meanwhile allocating water resources for agricultural production will give tremendous supports and make contributions to crops virtual water flows in China. It is certain that the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is a precondition for the implementation of "virtual water strategy", and virtual water strategy can not replace water transfer strategy. The combination of real water transfer and virtual water flow is the fundamental countermeasure to achieve food security and water security in China. In addition, some other suggestions are also discussed in this paper.
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    Water flux estimation in SPAC system of farmland using Hydrus-1d model: A case of Dongcun Farm in Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province
    WANG Peng, SONG Xian-fang, YUAN Rui-qiang, HAN Dong-mei, ZHANG Yin-hua, ZHANG Bing, LI Bao-guo
    2011, 30 (4):  622-634.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040005
    Abstract ( 1697 )   PDF (1172KB) ( 1668 )   Save
    Studies on the water flux in SPAC system of farmland are vital to improve the utilization efficiency of agricultural water, and alleviate water shortage in China. In this paper, the Dongcun Farm in Yuncheng, Shanxi Province is taken as an example to estimate the water flux for three main crops (summer corn, cotton and winter wheat) using Hydrus-1d model. For the growing season of summer corn, cotton and winter wheat, the model is built based on soil water movement, root water uptake model and evapotranspiration model, in combination of the initial and boundary conditions. The estimation results for water flux are listed as follows. The transpiration of summer corn accounts for 84.7% of the total evapotranspiration in the whole growing season, and 9.5%, 75.6%, 92.6%, 96.7% and 75.1% in June, July, August, September and October (1st-7th), respectively; transpiration of cotton accounts for 71.6% of the total evapotranspiration in the whole growing season, and 13.1%, 49.7%, 79.7%, 84.6%, 87.4% and 21.5% in May, June, July, August, September and October (1st-24th), respectively; and transpiration of winter wheat accounts for 79.1% of the total evapotranspiration in the whole studying season, and 53.0%, 89.2% and 79.7% in March (10th-31st), April and May, respectively. The deep percolation takes up a great part of water consumption, which is 112 mm, 148 mm and 136 mm for summer corn, cotton and winter wheat, respectively. The deep percolation mainly occurs after irrigation or storm, and after irrigation is up to 74.2 mm, 70.8 mm and 90.0 mm in simulation period, respectively, which undermines the efficiency of irrigation water and need to be reduced by measures. The recharge from groundwater by capillary for soil water is influenced by the depth to water table and the soil water content, and the water amount is 149 mm, 128 mm and 65 mm for summer corn, cotton and winter wheat in simulation period.
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    Stage regulation measures of nitrogen and phosphorus in Wuliangsuhai catchments based on the dynamic environmental CGE model
    DENG Xiang-zheng, WU Feng, LIN Ying-zhi, YANG Jun
    2011, 30 (4):  635-644.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040006
    Abstract ( 1494 )   PDF (922KB) ( 1247 )   Save
    Nitrogen and phosphorus as the dominant factors of lake eutrophication are the key to maintaining the aquatic ecosystem health, which mainly come from the human living and production process. It is imperative to reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients to maintain the harmonious relationship among human society, economy and water resources, which would have some influence on economic development. Therefore, it is the prerequisite for solving the contradiction between environment and economy to take measures suitable for the sustainable development of catchments. We analyzed the relationship between the emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus and the population growth and economic development in Wuliangsuhai catchments with the dynamic environment CGE model on the basis of the statistical data and environmental quality monitoring data in 2008, and put forward suggestions of nitrogen and phosphorus according to different stages. The result indicates that the regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in Wuliangsuhai catchments should mainly focus on control of the industrial source as well as reduction of the increasing non-point source pollution from farmland by improving the efficiency of irrigation and utilization of fertilizer and pesticide in the short-term stage (2010-2015). In the medium-term (2015-2020) stage, it is necessary to take effective measures to realize the stage regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus; besides, it is also necessary to thrive to use the experience of one point to lead the whole area to realize the comprehensive regulation and provide the basis for the large-scale development of ecological agriculture and economic structure optimization during this period. In the long-term stage (2020-2030), aiming at the healthy development of aquatic ecosystem, the regulation should emphasize the stable development of industry and agriculture; and it is necessary to construct the sustainable economic pattern by taking the environment optimization economics as the development line to realize the dual goal of economic growth and steady improvement of water environment.
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    Quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of ecological security of urban agriculture in Shanghai
    DENG Chu-xiong, XIE Bing-geng, WU Yong-xing, LI Xiao-qing, ZHU Dong-guo
    2011, 30 (4):  645-654.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040007
    Abstract ( 1539 )   PDF (904KB) ( 1060 )   Save
    Based on related mathematical methods and econometric models, the authors build a set of ecological security evaluation index system of urban agriculture to make a quantitative and comprehensive appraisal of ecological security of urban agriculture in Shanghai. The results are obtained as follows: (1) From 1993 to 1998, the security index of agriculture resources was in a stable state, and the security index of agriculture environment fluctuated, and the agricultural index of social and economic development continued to decline slightly, and the comprehensive index of agricultural ecological security increased or decreased in turn. (2) From 1999 to 2008, the security index of agricultural resources grew at an annual rate of 10.43% after a small decrease (from 1999 to 2004), and the security index of agricultural environment, the agricultural index of social and economic development and the comprehensive index of agricultural ecological security increased at an annual rate of 6.97%, 24.65% and 6.88%, respectively. (3) The indexes of cultivated land per capita in suburban district, fertilizer using intensity per sown area of farm crops, ratio of comparative advantage of agriculture, grain per capita in rural areas and fall frequency of acid rain became major limiting factors to the ecological security of urban agriculture, whose obstacle degree was below 10.00% in 2008. Threats were mainly from the subsystem of agricultural resources and environment, and the subsystem of agricultural social and economic development has less negative influence on ecological security of urban agriculture year after year.
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    Urban construction land suitability evaluation in resource-based cities: Taking the Grand Canal Ecologic and Economic Area as an example
    HE Dan, JIN Feng-jun, ZHOU Jing
    2011, 30 (4):  655-666.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040008
    Abstract ( 2151 )   PDF (1269KB) ( 1447 )   Save
    With the speeding up of China's urbanization in recent years, some problems have emerged due to urban construction such as the conflicts between land and people, safety for human settlement, eco-environmental issues, and so on. Urban construction land suitability evaluation has aroused more attention. The rise of resource-based cities is associated with resource development. The conflict between coal mining and urban development is the long-term contradiction of coal resources cities. In view of this, the Grand Canal Ecologic and Economic Area in Jining city is taken as an example in this paper, and the index system and evaluation mode and GIS methods about the coal resources cities of land suitability evaluation are discussed. Firstly, the suitable evaluation index system contains eight factors in three aspects of natural factors, socio-economic factors and ecological safety factors. And then, using AHP to determine weights, by multivariate analysis and GIS spatial overlay analysis, four future scenarios of coal collapse are designed, and a single factor score map and the integrated evaluation map under the four scenarios are made for the study area of urban construction land suitability evaluation. Finally, evaluation results are analyzed. In addition, some countermeasures of urban development are put forward.
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    Expansion modes of urban land-use in Mianyang City in the last 30 years
    DONG Ting-xu, QIN Qi-ming, WANG Jian-hua
    2011, 30 (4):  667-675.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040009
    Abstract ( 1570 )   PDF (1100KB) ( 1159 )   Save
    As one of the important research fields in the land use or in the LUCC, the expansion of the urban land use is one of the significant indexes to evaluate the urbanization level of a city. Based on the related multi-temporal and multi-source spatial data, this paper conducts a research on the expansion modes and spatial-temporal variations of the urban land use in Mianyang City, one of the science cities in Southwest China. It analyzes the expansion speed coefficient, the expansion intensity index, the compactness, the fractal dimension, the barycenter index, the extending orientation and direction index with the methods of the RS thematic information extraction and GIS spatial overlay analysis. The result shows that the land use in Mianyang City in the last 30 years has increased to 110.11 km2, or 3.8 km2 per year. The average expansion intensity is 0.65. The extending direction of space differentiation is obvious, which can be described as Y mode with a center and three axes. And the expansion mode indicates a transformation from extensive expansion to intensive expansion.
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    A rapid monitoring method on floating population in China based on its regional differentiation types
    LIU Sheng-he, HU Zhang, DENG Yu
    2011, 30 (4):  676-686.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040010
    Abstract ( 1511 )   PDF (874KB) ( 1013 )   Save
    Since the start of opening and reform up in 1978, China's floating population has been increasing dramatically and has had strong influences on its urbanization and regional development. However, China is lack of an effective rapid monitoring method on its rapid increasing floating population, in particular the regional differentiation of floating population has never been considered by the current monitoring methods, which has in fact become major constrains to scientific decision-making and just-in-time action of governments at all levels. By applying the scientific research and knowledge to the regional differentiation types of floating population in China to improve its monitoring methods, this paper proposes a new rapid monitoring method on floating population based on its spatial differentiation and regional types. This method consists of 5 steps or components as follows: (1) to identify regional differentiation types of floating population, (2) to design an effective spatial network of monitoring sample regions, (3) to construct various monitoring indictors for different regional types according to their specific characteristics of floating population, (4) to estimate the total number and characteristics of floating population in the whole country or a certain region, and (5) to check up with new census data and to readjust the identification of regional differentiation types. Because this method can distinguish the active regions from the inactive regions of floating population, it can identify hot spots, reduce the number of monitoring region samples and thus enhance the efficiency.
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    The impact of livelihood capital on the life satisfaction of peasants and herdsmen: A case of Gannan Plateau
    ZHAO Xue-yan
    2011, 30 (4):  687-698.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040011
    Abstract ( 1587 )   PDF (1146KB) ( 1218 )   Save
    The Gannan Plateau, located in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is a typical ecologically-sensitive region. The peasants and herdsmen are the main economic activities body and the essential decisive unit in this region. Their livelihood pattern affects the environmental security. Therefore, increasing and optimizing the peasants' and herdsmen's livelihood capital is the fundamental and key point of reducing poverty, protecting environment and using resources sustainably. At first, we set up the livelihood capital evaluation index, calculate the farmers' livelihood capital and analyze the farmers' livelihood pressure and the urgent assistance that they need by the field survey data. Then, we analyze the impact of the livelihood capital on the life satisfaction by logistic regression model. Finally, based on the analyses, we put forward the measures of increasing the farmers' livelihood capital. By evaluating the livelihood capital, the results show that the livelihood capital has spatial heterogeneity, namely, the first is the farmers in the pasture area, and the livelihood capital value reaches 1.4769; the second is the farmers in the farming area, being 1.2920; the last is the farmers in the farming-pastoral area, 1.2841. There are some differences of the capital scarcity in this region. The farmers in the farming area are lack of material and nature capital. Meanwhile shortage of material capital exists in the farming-pastoral area and financial capital is needed in the pasture area. Moreover, the farmers' life satisfaction is lower. Some 44.40% of the interviewees are not satisfied with their living conditions, and they are facing a series of life stresses, such as income, education, medical care and employment. But the farmers respond to the life risks in a passive way, willing to depend on the local government. By analyzing the impact of the farmer' livelihood capital on life satisfaction, the results show that the most important capital is the material capital at present, and its Wald statistics is 14.635, followed by the financial and social capital, with their Wald statistical values being 12.204 and 10.837, respectively. However, the livelihood capital that makes great contribution to the improvement of life satisfaction is the human and social capital, and their odds ratios are 10.283 and 7.632, respectively.
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    Role of the informal employment, a way of human capital accumulation for female labors: A case study of tea ceremony sector in Fangcun Tea Market in Guangzhou
    HUANG Geng-zhi, XUE De-sheng, XIE Yan-han
    2011, 30 (4):  699-708.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040012
    Abstract ( 1703 )   PDF (970KB) ( 1163 )   Save
    The impacts of informal employment on female labors have attained much attention in the literature of informal employment studies, among which a widely accepted viewpoint is that female labors engaging in informal employment are hard to or could not realize up-mobility development or formalize their work, with the consequence of ever being placed in a low-level marginal position. Such totally general notion should be negotiated on account of the diversity of informal employment. It is argued that the negative aspect of impacts of the informal employment on female is over emphasized with the lack of consideration of their positiveness. This paper aims to examine the positive role of informal employment in the accumulation of female human capital, and using the case study of a typical female sector, the Tea Ceremony (chayibiaoyan) in Fangcun Tea Market in Guangzhou, with methods of observation, interview and questionnaire survey. It is found that Tea Market concentrates lots of micro-enterprises, in which most of workers are female labors employed informally. Rather than locked in the weak, marginalized labor market, female tea-ceremony workers are found to be capable of accumulating their human capital and finally move into the high-level labor market or develop into employers of micro-enterprises through the way of utilizing informal training, formal training and professional qualification institution during their informal working process. Therefore, the informal employment functions are not simply well known "social valve" in promoting female workers to participate in the labor market, but as a way for them to move up from a low-level, informal labor market into a high-level formal one. In this process, informal training formed spontaneously in the market and formal training formed by the government are the two important promotion factors in the development of informal female labors. The implication of related policies is that the government should establish and improve the institutions related to formal training and professional qualification in different informal employment sectors with real consideration of their diverse characteristics.
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    Study on spatial image of community based on comparison of 250 sketch maps drawn by residents in Nanjing
    SONG Wei-xuan, LU Chen, XU Di
    2011, 30 (4):  709-722.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040013
    Abstract ( 1500 )   PDF (1474KB) ( 948 )   Save
    The paper briefly introduces research progress on urban mental maps, and aims to promote studies on city image in the field of residential community. It chooses eight communities in Nanjing and divides them into 4 comparative groups, each of which is constituted by a gated community and an open one neighboring with each other; conducts questionnaire surveys on the residents about their social attributes, living habits, community spatial cognition, and does data extraction and statistics from 250 sketch maps. On this basis, it analyses the main types and elements of mental maps of residential communities in Nanjing and summarizes differences between mental maps at the micro-level community and the macro-level city in the aspects of spatial structure and expression ways. The paper divides mental maps of communities into three types: topological structure, spatial structure and mixed structure between them; identifies the elements of mental maps into four types: path, domain, edge and landmark. Research shows that residents' social attribute is the decisive element for spatial image of community and the difference of gender, age, income and residential duration results in the difference of residents' spatial cognition and mental maps; the difference of mental maps between residents from a gated community and those from an open one in the same area is mainly caused by the difference of their age structure, social economic status and daily spatial activity areas.Furthermore, different modes of residential structure also have influences on residents' spatial cognition. Residents from a gated community have a strong cognition for walls and gates of their community, and those from an open one are more familiar with the surrounding environment of it. Finally, this paper suggests that the managing mode of a gated community hinders the association of residents from different communities and their social integration, though it helps to enhance residents' sense of safety and space field.
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    Development and spatial effect of resource-based industries in Urumqi
    DONG Wen, DENG Feng, YANG Yu
    2011, 30 (4):  723-734.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040014
    Abstract ( 1374 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 43866 )   Save
    Industries that consume fossil fuels tend to drive industrial development and have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the cities. Especially, industries that consume fossil fuels have obvious impetus of the development of the city which is at its peak period. So a study of relationships between industries that consume fossil fuels and urban development is conducted in this paper. Urumqi's productivity growth in the secondary sector and its high GDP per capita reflects the predominance of the energy sector as a key driver of the industrial output in Xinjiang. Different mathematic methods were applied for data analyses, namely method of industrial structure evolution, shift-share method and location entropy. This paper investigates the spatial effects of industrial development, using fossil fuel consumptive industries as a single factor, and used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to conduct in-depth analysis of industrial development of its resource-based characteristics. The results showed that: resource-based industrial development in Urumqi contributed to the expansion and spatial evolution of the city. The scale, speed, and spatial layout of industrial development coincided with the general urban expansion of Urumqi. Resource-based industrial development emerged in patch throughout the city while general urban expansion did axially, along major roads, and concentrically in the city center. The resource-based industrial patches grew outward from the city center and formed both finger and jagged shaped areas. While resource-based industrial development in Urumqi became more diffuse, similar development in neighboring cities remained concentrated. Resource-based industrial development in Urumqi has resulted in both the spatial evolution and expansion of the urbanized area. For the cities and counties faraway, the agglomeration function was more effective, thus cities and towns had a weak radiation.
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    Tourists' perception value and behavior intention in mega-events based on structural equation model (SEM): A case study of 2010 Shanghai World Expo
    WANG Chao-hui, LU Lin, XIA Qiao-yun
    2011, 30 (4):  735-746.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040015
    Abstract ( 1807 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 970 )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the survey data of domestic tourists in Shanghai World Expo, the paper constructs a structural equation model for measurement dimensions of tourist perception value, behavior intention and revisit intention in the World Expo, and it further tests and verifies the relationship among them. The study concludes that, firstly, tourists' perception value in World Expo includes six measurement dimensions: service value, aesthetic value, utility value, joviality value, perception of price and convenience value. Secondly, tourists' behavior intention has a positive correlation with utility value, service value, and joviality value in measurement dimensions of perception value, but the effects of aesthetic value, perception of price and convenience value on behavior intention are not apparent. Thirdly, tourists' revisit intention of permanent Expo has a positive correlation with utility value, service value, joviality value and convenience value in measurement dimensions of perception value, but the effects of aesthetic value and perception of price on revisit intention are not apparent. Fourthly, in the dimension of tourists' perception value, the utility value is the key element which dominates tourists' intention and revisit intention of permanent Expo. Constructing a structural equation model of tourists' perception value and behavior intention and making a deep study on it will be of great theoretical and practical significance to the sustainable development of international mega-event tourism in China.
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    Temporal-spatial distribution of mining heritages in China: The perspective of officially protected site/entity
    DAI Xiang-yi, QUE Wei-min
    2011, 30 (4):  747-757.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040016
    Abstract ( 1384 )   PDF (1059KB) ( 950 )   Save
    The officially protected site/entity system has proved to be the most influential protection mechanism concerning the cultural heritage in modern China. This paper established a database for mining heritage of China by searching and extracting mining heritage items from lists of officially protected sites/entities announced by governments at all levels. Results indicate that: (1) most of the mining heritages, while remaining in congregated distribution patterns with the same type of minerals, are located in the coastal provinces of eastern China and the central provinces; (2) mining heritages have been selected from a long time span and heritages formed between Zhou Dynasty and Qing Dynasty have been given more attention. This study also indicates that the distribution of mining heritage in the officially protected site/entity system was influenced by the factors of heritage resource,including mineral resource, social economic development level and the accessibility of transportation, as well as by the systematic factors in the protection of cultural relics such as related regulations and ideologies.
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    The regional externality in the research on a region: The perspective of geographical science
    WANG Yu, DING Si-bao, WANG Rong-cheng, LU Yan-li
    2011, 30 (4):  758-769.  doi: 10.11821/yj2011040017
    Abstract ( 1116 )   PDF (1009KB) ( 937 )   Save
    There are two traditions in geography, "Human-Natural relationship (HNR)" and the research on regions. In these geographical traditions, the relation between regions is a significant manifestation of HNR and has great influences on the harmony of HNR. There are two main kinds of regional systems under the HNR perspective, the natural system and the socio-economic system. These two kinds of regional systems pyramid in the earth's surface and lead to "spatial conflict" at the same time. One consequence of the spatial conflict is the external effect of administrative-economic regions. Due to the specific regional institution in China, there is the existence of virtual regional property and regional profit, so we can treat a region as a whole body in profit in the process of its development. In the geographic process of external effect by regions, we can find the same problems as the externality emerged in economics, so we define it as regional externality. The regional externality is important to coordinate the regional development, so this paper aims to explore its basic theory. We defined regional property and regional profit initially and analyzed the role of region in external effect through these two concepts. The conflict between two kinds of regional system lead to the regional externality, and then, we illustrate that regional externality is the essential problem for the coordinated development among regions in China. The theoretical framework of regional externality is a combination of "externality paradigm" in economics and regional perspective in geography. It is an economic description about the external effect of a region. We believe that the regional externality is a meaningful scientific issue in the research on regions for geography, and its theoretical and practical significance is very clear.
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