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    20 January 2012, Volume 31 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Climate and Global Change
    Barrier-corridor effect of longitudinal range-gorge terrain on monsoons in Southwest China
    WU Shao-hong, PAN Tao, CAO Jie, HE Da-ming, XIAO Zi-niu
    2012, 31 (1):  1-13.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010001
    Abstract ( 1578 )   PDF (1356KB) ( 2264 )   Save
    Topographic pattern has important impacts on atmospheric circulation and regional climate.The special terrain of Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region(LRGR) in Southwest China has a "corridor-barrier" effect on monsoons circulation,which led to the redistribution of surface hydrothermal pattern and is the main driving force of the formation and evolution of the ecosystems.Previous studies showed that LRGR was influenced by the combined effect of the Indian monsoon and the Pacific monsoon,which meet at the Ailaoshan mountain ranges.The Ailao Mountains are an important geographical dividing line.In this study,based on proofs of the atmospheric circulation,moisture transport,regional climate,runoff,and plant stable oxygen isotopes compostion,we found that LRGR is affected mainly by the Indian monsoon.The Pacific monsoon only affect this area in August,and the influence is not significant.Under the terrain "corridor-barrier" effect,surface water vapor,precipitation and runoff in LRGR showed significant zonal differences and meridional extension;crowd circulation,moisture transport,regional climate and river runoff.The atmospheric precipitable water,precipitation and stream flow present an apparently different pattern between the west and east sides of Ailao Mountains.The environmental differences are the results of the hydrothermal redistribution by the special terrain,which are the "barrier" and "corridor" effects of the LRGR.These differences are not the results of geographical zonality,but the results of non-zonality.The "corridor-barrier" effects of the longitudial range-gorge on monsoons result in the spatial differences of the geographical elements and the associated ecological effects.
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    Impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Central Planins of China:Case study of Shangqiu
    SHI Ben-lin, ZHU Xin-yu, LI Hong-zhong, ZHANG Yi
    2012, 31 (1):  14-22.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010002
    Abstract ( 1764 )   PDF (554KB) ( 1822 )   Save
    Global climate change has significant impacts on agricultural production.Climate variability adversely impacts crop production and imposes a major constraint on farming planning,mostly on how to enhance the yileds of winter wheat,across the world.Owing to the fundamental importance of food to human welfare and of climate to crop and livestock production,various investigations showed that agriculture has been a focus of research on the impacts of climate change on wheat yield.However,considering the recent investigations in the field of the impacts of climate change on wheat yield,many studies were focused on the climate change in large scale regions.Few studies have been done with respect to the impacts of climate change on wheat yields in small scale regions.Therefore,in order to determine the effects of the climate changes on winter wheat yields in the Central Plains,taking Shangqiu,Henan as a study area,the climate data and wheat yields of observation stations from 1991 to 2010 were used in analyses with principal component analysis,correlation analysis,multiple linear regression analysis and Thornthwaite Memoriae model.The prediction results in the future and possible increase extent of the climate productivity of winter wheat were discovered.The results showed that winter wheat yields increased with fluctuations in recent 20 years.The results of principal component analysis illustrated that the main factors affecting winter wheat yields were temperature,precipitation,evaporation and extreme temperature.Excessive evaporation and extreme low temperature had adverse effects on the winter wheat production.The warm-wet climate was beneficial to wheat production,while the cold-dry climate was detrimental to wheat production.In the future decades,the climate variation will present a warm-wet tendency,which could be favorable to the grain yields in the Central Plains,especially in Shangqiu.
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    Spatial and temporal distributions of floods and droughts in Liangshan in Ming and Qing dynasties
    ZHU Sheng-zhong
    2012, 31 (1):  23-33.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010003
    Abstract ( 1425 )   PDF (575KB) ( 1814 )   Save
    Based on the historical data of floods and droughts collected from local records in Liangshan area of Sichuan Province,archival materials,investigation materials,collections of floods and droughts,atlas and books written by current authors,the article made a statistical analysis of the spatial and temporal distributions of floods and droughts in Liangshan in the Ming and Qing dynasties.Results are shown as follows.(1) Floods and droughts happened frequently and there were more floods than droughts in this area in Ming and Qing dynasties.(2) Most of the floods and droughts were observed in spring and summer.(3) Most of floods and droughts did not happen in the same year.(4) Most of the flood and drought disasters were at normal and severe degrees,and there were relatively few extremely severe disasters.Most of floods and droughts happened in the lower Jinsha River basin and Anning River basin.The studies on the historical floods and droughts in Liangshan might be helpful to prevent and alleviate the damages induced from these disasters in the area at present.More attention should be paid to the following aspects.Flood disasters should be concerned more than drought disasters in this area.All the construction works prepared for the flood and drought disasters should be done before spring.The lower Jinsha River basin and Anning River basin should get priority in funds and personnel arrangement.Some topics related to this article,such as what causes the spatial and temporal distribution of floods and droughts,and what people can do to deal with flood and drought disasters in Liangshan,need to be further studied in the future.
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    Assessment and validation of short-term flood hazards in China
    MA Guo-bin, JIANG Wei-guo, LI Jing, ZHANG Jing, MA Lan-yan, LI Jia-lin
    2012, 31 (1):  34-44.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010004
    Abstract ( 1719 )   PDF (945KB) ( 2142 )   Save
    This paper has conducted a short-term national-scale assessment of flood hazards in China based on the theory of natural disaster risks and by means of the powerful spatial analytic tool of GIS,as well as the normalization and analytic hierarchy process.The precipitation of the current day and last three days,topographic elevation,topographic standard deviation,network of rivers and lakes respectively were extracted as assessment factors,the methods of flood hazard factors’computation and the models of flood hazard indexes were advanced,as well as hazard assessment model was built for the national-scale flood hazard.Combined with disasters records,analysis of the minimum and maximum of hazard indexes by statistical method,the flood hazards are divided into four levels:high,medium,low and zero by dividing points of 0.3,0.45 and 0.6,respectively.Then the model of short-term flood hazard assessment was built and used for a flood hazard assessment on September 14,2009.It was applied for real-time flood events from June 18 to September 16,2009 on daily basis.Finally,this paper puts forward the result validation method of flood hazard assessment based on the official report of disaster data.It collects the data from official report of disasters to build the disaster spatial database for the same period of the flood season in 2009,and validates the flood hazard assessment results in the point of view of quantity and area from both county-based and district-based validation unit.And the result shows that the rate of correct assessment(i.e.both the hazards and disasters occurrence) is above 65% for counties as the assessment unit and above 84% for districts as the assessment unit in the point of view of quantity.The validation result reveals that short-term national flood hazard assessment conforms basically to the actual disaster data.This model has been successfully applied to the forecast of flood hazards by the Disaster Alleviation Center under the Ministry of Civil Affairs since August,2009.
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    Flood and waterlogging monitoring and analyses based on SSM/I data in Huaihe River Basin
    ZHENG Wei, HAN Xiu-zhen, WANG Xin, HUANG Da-peng, LI Jia-lin
    2012, 31 (1):  45-52.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010005
    Abstract ( 1575 )   PDF (696KB) ( 1877 )   Save
    The estimation of soil wetness variations is of importance to improve the reliability of flood warning.In this paper,the coarse spatial passive microwave data was used to monitor large area flooding and soil moisture because of the ability of the microwave signal to penetrate through cloud and provide all-day data and because of its sensitivity to surface moisture and wate.It can effetively reveal large-scale soil wetness and flood patterns under cloudy and rainy conditions.Polarization Ratio Variation Index(PRVI) was presented on the basis of polarization ratio index(PRI) calculated by the horizontal and vertical polarization brightness temperature data and Robust AVHRR Techniques(RAT).Nearly 18-year(1988-2005) PRVI serials were calculated from Special Sensor Microwave/Image(SSM / I) data in the Huaihe River Basin.PRVI datasets were obtained in the ten-day periods from June 21 to July 31 in the flood season.Several important flooding events in the Huaihe River Basin from 1988 to 2005 were described,and the flooding events of 1991 and 2003 were especially analyzed.We found that the serious flood and waterlogging disasters could be reflected by the formation of a higher PRVI value zone in the buffer along the Huaihe River mainstream extending 100 km north and basin boundary south.The higher PRVI value zone was consistent with the historical records.Furthermore,the reason for the formation of higher PRVI value zones was analyzed.The zone included many flood detention areas,lakes and bayous and low-lying lands.The higher PRVI value zone may be used as an indicator for flood forecast.Preliminary results confirmed the reliability of the proposed method.It is of great significance to the prevention and mitigation of flood and waterlogging disasters.
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    Environment and Ecology
    Variations of soil organic C components under different degradation conditions in Napahai wetland reserve
    HU Jin-ming, DONG Yun-xia, YUAN Han, LI Jie, MA Bin-bin
    2012, 31 (1):  53-62.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010006
    Abstract ( 1365 )   PDF (762KB) ( 1829 )   Save
    There are four major types of soils in Napahai wetland reserve,northwest Yunnan,i.e.,Abandoned Farmland Mesophytic Meadow Soil(AFMMS),Mesophytic Meadow Soil(MMS),Wet Meadow Soil(WMS),and Marsh Soil(MS),correspondingly their degradation degrees from high to low.Soil organic carbon(SOC),labile organic carbon(LOC) and dissolved organic carbon(DOC) contents and their correlation at three layers(1st layer 0~10 cm,2nd layer 10~20 cm,and 3rd layer 20~30 cm) for the 4 types were investigated.Results showed that except that LOC contents at the 2nd and 3rd layers of AFMMS were slightly higher than those at corresponding layers of MMS,the orders of the contents of SOC,LOC and DOC at the other layers of the 4 soils were AFMMS < MMS < WMS < MS,which clearly reflected the degradation conditions of the 4 soils within the wetland region.From up to down in the soil profiles,soil SOC,LOC and DOC contents of AFMMS,MMS and WMS,as well as the DOC contents of MS,declined from top to down layer;the decrease between the 1st and 2nd layers was significantly larger than that between the 2nd and 3rd layers;while the contents of SOC and LOC of MS increased from the 1st to 2nd layer and then declined to the 3rd layer.LOC/SOC(%) of the 4 soils varied from 8.6 % to 16.8 % and LOC/SOC at 3 layers of the 4 soils was AFMMS > MMS > WMS > MS,which indicated dryer soil had a higher turnover rate of the biological activity of SOC.Except extremely human-disturbed AFMMS,LOC contents are significantly positive to SOC contents for the other 3 types of soils;furthermore,the variations of LOC contents and LOC/SOC(%) have correlations with soil types.Compared with SOC and DOC,LOC is more suitable to detect the changes of wetland SOC pool.The study indicated the variation of wetland hydrology and vegetation controlled by topography has significant influence on the variation of wetland SOC and its labile components;high disturbance(e.g.wetland reclamation and drainage) usually causes obvious loss of wetland SOC and its labile components.For the degraded sub-alpine wetlands like Napahai where significant hydrological changes were observed,hydro-ecological regulation measures should be taken to prevent their further degradation.
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    Transmission and health risks of mercury in soil-paddy system in Chatian mercury mining area,Fenghuang County,Hunan Province
    LI Yong-hua, SUN Hong-fei, YANG Lin-sheng, LI Hai-rong
    2012, 31 (1):  63-70.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010007
    Abstract ( 1725 )   PDF (440KB) ( 2159 )   Save
    Mercury(Hg) in paddy soils and rice as well as its translocation and accumulation in Chatian Hg mining area of Fenghuang County,Hunan Province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis.The results showed that Hg concentrations in the paddy soils and rice were significantly enriched,which were primarily due to the high natural geologic background levels and anthropogenic mining activities.The average concentration of Hg in paddy soils,rice root,rice shoots and rice grain in mercury deposit area were,in average,276.6,8.6,5.8 and 2.3 folds of the corresponding parts in the control area,respectively.The concentration of Hg in paddy soils in organic-sulfide form was significant positively correlated with Hg contents in rice roots,rice shoots and rice grain.However,the transfer coefficients of Hg of paddy soils-rice roots and rice roots-rice grain were quite low.The content of Hg in rice grain in Chatian mercury mining area was 0.09±0.04 μg/g,4.5 times of the limited value(0.02 μg/g) of the National Food Sanitary Standard(GB2762-2005).Average daily intake dose(ADD) of Hg of local population ranged from 0.408 to 1.225 μg/(kg·d),mean 0.75 μg/kg body weight per day,exceeding 0.71 μg/(kg·d) of provisional tolerable daily intake(PTDI) recommended by WHO.The local inhabitants faced huge health risk due to high Hg exposure via rice consumption.In addition,Se and Pb were also found to be co-enriched in the rice grain in Chatian mining area,indicating that co-contamination of Hg and Pb may result in great risks to human health in this area.
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    Earth Surface Processes
    Soil desiccation in deep soil layers under different vegetation types in the semi-arid loess hilly region
    YANG Lei, WEI Wei, CHEN Li-ding, CAI Guo-jun, JIA Fu-yan
    2012, 31 (1):  71-81.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010008
    Abstract ( 1688 )   PDF (849KB) ( 1515 )   Save
    Artificial vegetation restoration as an effective way to control serious soil erosion and improve environment conditions has taken several positive environmental effects.However,serious soil desiccation as one of negative effects also appears associated with artificial vegetation restoration lack of scientific guidance,especially in deep soil layers.To recover the fragile ecosystem of the Loess Plateau and maintain sustainable development of this region,proper artificial vegetation types should be selected based on local soil water conditions.However,methods to quantitatively evaluate soil water effect based on local rainfall and soil water conditions is urgently needed to improve,which is one of the top priorities in current research.To quantitatively evaluate the soil desiccation degree in vegetation types,14 vegetation types were selected to analyze the eco-hydrological effect in deep soil layers in the typical semi-arid loess hilly region.Compared Soil Water Deficit Index(CSWDI) and Plot Compared Soil Water Deficit Index(PCSWDI) were induced to quantitatively analyze the soil water deficit in different vegetation types.The research showed that high-density artificial vegetation was the main reason of deep soil desiccation.Soil water contents in all vegetation types increased with soil depth except abandoned land and farmland,and had a significant linear relationship with soil depth.The degree of soil water deficit of different vegetation types was Pinus tabulaeformis forestland>Pinus tabulaeformis and Platycladus orientalis mixed forestland>Armeniaca sibirica forestland>Caragana korshinskii shrubland>Medicago sativa grassland>Platycladus orientalis forestland>Amygdalus davidiana shurbland>Armeniaca sibirica and Platycladus orientalis mixed forestland>Populus simonii forestland>Populus simonii and Platycladus orientalis mixed forestland.Soil desiccation various in soil profile cause for transpiration,root system characteristics and tillage management between different vegetation types.Solanum Tuberosum farmland,Zea mays farmland and abandoned land had no soil water deification compared with natural grassland.Comparisons of soil water contents in mixed forestland and pure broadleaved forestland showed that soil water condition in mixed forestland was better than that in pure broadleaved forestland.Results of this study also indicated that the CSWDI and PCSWDI were capable of reflecting conditions of soil water deficit in different soil layers and plots.They could be used as quantitative indices for soil water deficit analysis under different vegetation covers.
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    Variation of grain sizes on a mountain climbing dune in Mainling wide valley,Yarlung Zangbo River
    ZHOU Na, ZHANG Chun-lai, LIU Yong-gang
    2012, 31 (1):  82-94.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010009
    Abstract ( 1568 )   PDF (1046KB) ( 2094 )   Save
    Mountain climbing dunes are widely distributed in the Mainling wide valley of Yarlung Zangbo River,southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.The climbing dunes studied are located on the right bank of Yarlung Zangbo River at an S-shaped meander,west of Wolong town.Samples are collected according to dune climbing height and sites of super-imposed dunes along prevailing wind(NE).As parts of the aeolian sand dune system in the valley,sediments are also sampled on dunes developing on the alluvial flat and terrace.Grain size analysis shows that sediments of the mountain climbing dune are generally characterized by fine and very fine sands(2.07 to 3.71Φ),moderately well sorting(0.20 to 1.41Φ),fine skewness(-0.33 to 0.61) and multi-mode grain size distribution with kurtosis ranging from 0.66 to 3.09,exhibiting some features of both succession and variation from those of sand dunes on the upwind marginal alluvial flat and river terrace.Grain size parameters vary with height in NE-SW wind direction from the toe to the top of the climbing dune with mean grain size getting finer,sorting better,skewness coarser and kurtosis lower.Also,grains on super-imposed dunes grow coarser and sorting poorer from toe to dune top.There are some correlations between grain size and height,which shows a positive correlation for very fine sands with height and a negative relation for fine sands and height.The variation of grain sizes with height reflects different climbing ability for grains with different sizes.There exist differences in grain size characteristics between ridges and inter-ridge grooves of strip-shaped dunes.
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    Economy and Regional Development
    Spatial characteristics and dynamic changes of provincial innovation output in China:An investigation using the ESDA
    LI Guo-ping, WANG Chun-yang
    2012, 31 (1):  95-106.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010010
    Abstract ( 1649 )   PDF (822KB) ( 2986 )   Save
    Innovation activities in each region not only depend on their own characteristics,but also on those of the regions that form the neighborhood to which it belongs.Regional spillover as a spatial interaction is important in explaining agglomeration,innovation and regional growth.A great deal of literature has deeply dealt with the issue from a spatial perspective since the 1990s,especially in the context of urban and regional studies.Unfortunately,the traditional approaches to regional innovation suppose that each region is independent from others.This paper uses spatial statistical techniques to establish the statistical relations among data according to the geographical locations.It aims to understand the spatial dependence and autocorrelation related to geographical locations.Using the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA) and spatial analysis software,this paper analyzes the spatial distribution of innovation outputs,measured by the number of patient applications,throughout 31 Chinese provinces from 1997 to 2008.The visual patent distribution plot has shown the distribution of innovation outputs at the provincial level and its spatial dynamic changes.A significantly high level of spatial concentration of innovation outputs among Chinese provinces has been captured by the computed spatial Gini coefficient and the Concentration Ratio,and the concentration level has increased steadily over the past 10 years.The analysis using the Moran’s I statistics gives the strong evidence of spatial autocorrelation in innovation activities among provinces,while the concentration pattern of innovation activities among provinces and its changes over time have been revealed by using the local Moran’s I and the Moran scatter plot,which indicate the clustering nature of the spatial distribution of provincial innovation activities.Spatial Gini coefficient and Moran’s I index have indicated that innovation activities of Chinese provinces are not randomly distributed.Our findings suggest that innovation activities are spatially differentiated among Chinese provinces over the 10 years,and innovation activities at the provincial level are highly localized.This study can provide a scientific basis for the intuitive expression of the spatial correlation of innovation outputs among provinces,and puts forward that the spatial statistical analysis could present some references valuable for analyzing spatial structure and patterns and policy-making.
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    Analysis of inter-provincial accessibility and economic linkage spatial pattern based on the railway network
    MENG De-you, LU Yu-qi
    2012, 31 (1):  107-122.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010011
    Abstract ( 1430 )   PDF (1201KB) ( 2286 )   Save
    Based on the railway passenger transportation network,employing the index of shortest time distance matrix between every two provincial capital cities which are Abstracted nodes in the railway network in 2003 and 2008,the paper analyses the level and spatial pattern of accessibility throughout the country.And then,the distance parameter in the gravity model is modified by the shortest travel time indicator,the strength of interprovincial economic linkage are measured and the spatial orientation are examined on the assumption that the provincial capital cities are the economic barycentre of the whole province.Results are shown as follows.(1) The inter-provincial accessibility level has gained a significant upgrade,especially accessibility promotion in the western provinces is higher than that of the others through the 5th and 6th train-speed network upgradings.But,the disparity of inter-provincial accessibility level is still remarkable throughout the country.The circle-type spatial pattern of the accessibility level that reduces gradually from the eastern coastal provinces to the northwestern provinces has emerged,the scope of the accessibility central zone is expanding,and the primary railway lines are becoming stronger and stronger.(2) The disparity of quantity of economic linkage is remarkable,the quantity of economic linkage in east coastal provinces is much higher than that of the central and western provinces.(3) The predominant axes of inter-provincial economic linkage have formed along the main railway lines from Beijing to Shanghai and from Beijing to Guangzhou.The spatial network pattern of regional economic linkage is forming along with the train-speed upgrading and the promotion of regional economy.The research of inter-provincial accessibility and economic linkage can not only give suggestions to regional economic restructuring,and to the primary spatial orientation of regional economic development,but also provide reference for coordinating inter-provincial economic linkage and cooperation in the process of regional economic integration.
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    A research on commercial suburbanization in Beijing under the background of urban function dissemination
    YU Wei, YANG Shuai, GUO Min, SONG Jin-ping
    2012, 31 (1):  123-134.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010012
    Abstract ( 1592 )   PDF (798KB) ( 2011 )   Save
    Compared with the population suburbanization,scholars pay less attention to commercial suburbanization in China.Based on the data of retail sales of social consumer goods,the distribution of supermarkets,and leased commercial land lots,the paper describes the characteristics and driving mechanism of commercial suburbanization in Beijing.It states that commercial suburbanization developed rapidly in the inner suburb districts from 1991 to 2000,and since 2001,there has been a tendency of outer suburbs spread.The paper further illustrates that stores and leased commercial land lots mainly diffuse along the ring roads and radial roads from the urban center of Beijing.Besides the traditional commercial center,sub-centers and shopping malls have risen in the suburbs in recent years.As each quadrant has local conditions,there are significant differences of commercial suburbanization in different quadrants.In the northwest of the city,leased commercial land lots diffuse the fastest and expand the farthest.It is on the contrary in the southeast.The annual expansion rate of the lots fluctuates dramatically in the northeast and southwest.In the northeast,commercial development is more complex,due to the fact that besides the trends of suburbanization,there are centralized development patterns,mainly including urban renovation projects in the old town.Finally,the paper discusses four driving factors of commercial suburbanization,including the attraction of population and housing suburbanization,the promotion of rapid development of road transportation and private cars,the extrusion force from the urban center,and the guidance of government plans and policies.
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    Urban and Rural Studies
    Assessment on spatial differences of human settlement environment in communities based on DPSIRM model:The case study of Dalian
    YANG Jun, LI Xue-ming, LI Yong-hua, SUN Cai-zhi, WANG Fang-xiong
    2012, 31 (1):  135-143.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010013
    Abstract ( 1691 )   PDF (817KB) ( 2265 )   Save
    The urban human settlement environment system is a fragile unstable ecosystem.Compared with the natural one,the urban human settlement environment system has many unique characteristics,such as a high consumption of energy and material,serious environmental pollution and a low reserve of natural resources.It is the preferred strategy for many countries,especially for the developing countries,to give energetic support to improve the level of urbanization,while there are still some other things making people anxious,such as the potential eco-environmental problems caused by rapid urbanization.The rapid urbanization process has resulted in urban human settlement environment even worsening.The spatial differences in urban human settlement environment security are getting increasingly conspicuous.This paper analyzes the pros and cons of some causal chain structure models,such as PSR,DSR and DPSIR,and builds a new urban human settlement environment security assessment model—DPSIRM(Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response-Management) model,a causal network model combined with GIS spatial analysis method,which reflects the health state of the urban human settlement environment system in Dalian City.We can draw following conclusions.The network model is proposed by way of studying the characteristics of chain models in the past,in terms of the complexity of urban human settlement environment system.A assessment indicators system of the "Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response-Management" model was built,which presents that human beings play an essential role in urban human settlement environment security.DPSIRM model reveals the intrinsic relations among all indicators and intrinsic relations between the problem of urban human settlement environment security and the indicators.A fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) is applied to indicate weights by a comprehensive and comparative method for results.It is shown that the state of ecological health and spatial differences of urban human settlement environment security with GIS spatial analysis method,as well as the urban management play the essential role in the urban human settlement environment security.
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    Analysis of spatial pattern of rural settlements in northern Jiangsu
    LI Quan-lin, MA Xiao-dong, SHEN Yi
    2012, 31 (1):  144-154.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010014
    Abstract ( 1523 )   PDF (870KB) ( 2321 )   Save
    Based on the satellite image of northern Jiangsu in 2008,by using spatial metric models such as spatial interpolation,spatial correlation index,and semivarigram,the paper analyzed the spatial pattern characteristics of rural settlements in the northern Jiangsu region.Some conclusions are drawn as follows.(1) The number of rural settlements distributed in the southern part is larger than that of the northern part in the northern Jiangsu region in terms of spatial distribution,espacially they are distributed most densely in central and southern parts of the region,then exhibits a stepwise decrease.(2) Scale distribution of rural settlements shows a strong spatial autocorrelation,and similar areas are respectively characterized by aggregation distributions in space.The high-value clusters of rural settlement scale are distributed mainly in Xuzhou,Lianyungang,and Suqian.The scale of rural settlement distributed in the north is much larger than that of the south in northern Jiangsu in spatial distribution.(3) The shape distribution of rural settlements shows good continuity and stability,the random of the spatial differential pattern is much lower than the mechanism of the structural differentiation caused by natural correlation in space.Spatial difference of rural settlement distribution is much larger,but it shows some concentration.In terms of different orientations,spatial difference of rural settlement distribution is much larger in the southeast-northwest,rural settlement distribution enveloped from ribbon,long rectangle,and rectangle to sugariness or irregular conglomeration.Above all,the formation and development of rural settlements in northern Jiangsu always has strong correlation with natural conditions such as terrain and river,which is less sensitive to social economy,so the distribution of rural settlements in northern Jiangsu shows obvious spatial dependence.
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    Culture and Tourism
    A study on domestic tourism consumption modes of urban residents in China
    LONG Jiang-zhi, LI Heng-yun
    2012, 31 (1):  155-168.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010015
    Abstract ( 1766 )   PDF (800KB) ( 2275 )   Save
    This study was based on 2500 questionnaires gathered from urban residents from 15 cities during January to March in 2010.First,the three core variables,including tourism motivations,tourism involvement,and destination choice factors,are used for exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis.Second,based on these variables,we extract the domestic tourism consumption modes of urban residents in China by cluster analysis.Finally,this paper summarizes the tourism consumption and demographic characteristics of different typical modes by using variance and interaction analysis.The results are shown as follows.(1) Domestic tourism consumption behavior of urban residents in China has three typical modes.Active-type—Characterized by strong tourism motivations,deep involvement,and more emphasis on the destination choice factors.Intermediate-type—Affected by the factors including tourism motivations,involvement,and the destination choice,which show an average score.Negative-type-Featured by weak tourism motivations,low tourism involvement,and less focus on the destination choice factors.(2) There are significant differences among the three consumption modes in tourism behaviors.Compared with intermediate-type and negative-type,active-type shows more positive tourism attitude,stronger landscape preferences,higher frequency of travel,longer average length of stay,higher per capita consumption,more inclined to free travel way,etc.(3) Different tourism consumption patterns have significant differences in the demographic characteristics.In active-type,the majority of the residents are female aged below 25 or 45-54 years old.Generally speaking,they are well-educated,high income level,and most of them are in good health,and they are scientific researchers and teachers,students,and civil servants.In intermediate-type,the majority of the residents are aged 25-44 with medium education and income levels.As for negative-type,the residents are generally male-dominated,poorly educated and low-income,aged over 55 years,as well as retired or self-employed,and most of them are in poor health.
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    Pattern of integrated development of cultural tourism resources in International Tourism and Culture Demonstration Zone of Southern Anhui Province
    CHENG Xiao-li, HU Wen-hai
    2012, 31 (1):  169-177.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010016
    Abstract ( 1783 )   PDF (420KB) ( 2750 )   Save
    Cultural tourism is the mainstream of modern tourism development.Since the interrelationship between tourism and culture is increasingly close,how to improve cultural meaning of tourism product is of vital importance to the long-term development of tourism industry all over the world.International Tourism and Culture Demonstration Zone of Southern Anhui Province consists of six cities of Huangshan,Chizhou,Xuancheng,Wuhu,Ma’anshan and Tongling,as well as Qianshan county of Anqing city,and covers an area of 38220 square kilometers with a population of 106.96 million.It is listed as the one of the most potential tourism areas in Anhui for its abundance and high-quality in cultural tourism resources.However,many problems have emerged in the zone,to name but just a few,development at a lower level,weak industry chain,unclear tourism images and lack of typical cultural products.By analyzing the present situation and problems in the development of cultural tourism resources in this demonstration zone,the authors put forward patterns for the integration of cultural tourism resources,which involve regional integration pattern centered on space,product integration pattern based on market,image integration pattern on the basis of marketing,and interaction and development pattern between culture and tourism on the basis of industry.
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    Geo-information Science
    How large is the total land area of China?
    CHEN Yan-guang
    2012, 31 (1):  178-186.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010017
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (505KB) ( 2252 )   Save
    What on earth is the size of China’s land area in total? No person can answer this question.Indeed,this paper tries to discuss the scale dependency of geographical area measurement rather than the total area of Chinese land.In theory,a country bordering on oceans can be divided into two parts.The main land can be modeled with Koch’s island,and the islands and islets in the marginal seas can be described with the Pareto distribution.The Koch island model suggests that the boundary line of the land area is a fractal line,while Pareto’s law suggests that the size distribution of islands and islets in an ocean is of scaling invariance.A coastline,consisting of bays and headlands,has irregularity at a certain degree,which was discussed by B.B.Mandelbrot in his fractal works.On the other hand,an archipelago is made up of many islands and islets.Zoom in on a smaller portion and it,in turn,will be composed of smaller islands and islets.The distribution of islands and islets does not change with distance.In technical terms,the archipelago is said to be of self-similarity at different scales,that is,it is a fractal set of random phenomena.
    A fractal is based on a form of symmetry with scale invariance under contraction or dilation.The scale invariance is known as dilation symmetry or scaling symmetry.Symmetry implies some kind of immeasurable quantity.Because of scaling symmetry,the length of coastline,the area of a country’s land,and so on,cannot be well and truly measured.Measuring the area of a country from space will give a lower total than measuring it from 100 meters away,because of the extra detail at a larger scale.As the scale gets finer,more details(smaller islands or islets) can be picked up.The inevitable conclusion is that the total area of the country appears to increase indefinitely.This is just the scale-dependency of geographical measurements.The essence of land area is similar to that of the coastline length.The result(area or length) depends on the scale at which you make the measurement.Therefore,the land area data of different sources is not always comparable due to different sizes of yard measure,different scales of digital maps and different resolutions of geographical images.
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    Aeronautical geographic data modeling based on GML
    LIU Yan, GU Chun-yan
    2012, 31 (1):  187-194.  doi: 10.11821/yj2012010018
    Abstract ( 1465 )   PDF (529KB) ( 2292 )   Save
    Aeronautical information is an important type of geospatial data to ensure the safety and efficiency for air traffic.Currently,aeronautical information service(AIS) provide these data to users by the medium of aeronautical chart,aeronautical information public(AIP),notice to airman(NOTA M),and so on.We are in the age of the Internet,satellite navigation and computer networks,yet our approach to aeronautical geospatial data distribution is still based on paper charts,paper documentation and telex-based text messages.Systems exist in isolation.Many of the data is entered more than twice in different computers using a keyboard rather than via file transfer or database transactions. To satisfy new requirements for the Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept,aeronautical information services should be transferred to support a digital,real-time,accredited and secure aeronautical information environment.As an open geospatial data standard,GML gives aeronautical information feature coding method and interchanging format.Much has been done in air traffic community,and the technology has become more mature and is widely used.EUROCONTROL and FAA have developed AIXM(Aeronautical Information Exchange Model) based on GML.In Europe,the European AIS Database(EAD) provide unique reference database of aeronautical information on behalf of AIXM. In Chinese air traffic community,unique aeronautical geospatial data model has been considered as the key to ensure quality,integrity and interoperation of the aeronautical information.But there is little material progress on the data modeling.Based on studies on the characteristic of aeronautical information,the paper analyzed the mapping aeronautical data between and GML.Taking the basic aeronautical information database in Airline Management System as an example,an aeronautical geographic data model has been brought forward in this paper.Studies have shown that obstacle data,as special geographic points,can be described by GML model.Terrain data and basic geographic data can be converted in Open GML format.Based on GML,the aeronautical geospatial data model can not only be applied to aeronautic information,but also to obstacle data and terrain data. Based on the data model,aeronautic geospatial data can be progressed regularly,maintained centrally,and used in network.This work explores the approach of information technology on developing the future central aeronautical information database.
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