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Table of Content

    15 December 1999, Volume 18 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Analysis on the coordinated economic development in Macao and Zhujiang Delta
    SUN Xian-guo, CHEN Yan
    1999, 18 (4):  337-341.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (185KB) ( )   Save
    Macao and Zhujiang Delta have established a close economic relationship since reform and opening-up. In case we create favorable conditions to conduct a full coordinated development of industry, finance, trading, tourism and infrastructure in Macao and Zhujiang Delta, Macao would return smoothly in 1999, and the economy of Zhujiang Delta area would grow healthily.
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    Earth Surface Processes
    The discovery of Yalu Zangbo Great Canyon and the researches on its characteristics and the cause of its formation
    YANG Yi-chou
    1999, 18 (4):  342-348.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (251KB) ( )   Save
    In the first time passing through of the Great Canyon in the world and the investigating on its whole course by chinese scientists, some important results were obtained. Four great groups of waterfalls were discovered. The historical records of the Great Canyon were reviewed. Three basic characteristics of the newly discovered four groups of waterfalls were gencralized. The analysis on the cause of the formation of the Great Canyon indicates that they have different river bed geomorphology caused by the selection and creation of great waterpower act and they are one of the marvellous natural phenomena in the world.
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    Estimating soil carbon reservior of terrestrial ecosystem in China
    WANG Shao-qiang, ZHOU Cheng-hu
    1999, 18 (4):  349-356.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (319KB) ( )   Save
    Soil is a core of terrestrial ecosystem, and soil organic carbon is the main part of terrestrial carbon reservior. At present, terrestrial carbon cycle is one of the important components in the research of global change, so it is important to study soil carbon cycle. One precondition of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle research is to understand soil carbon dynamics in China. The composition and dynamic change of soil organic carbon is more significant in soil carbon cycle research in China. However, soil organic carbon is not accurately defined in China, so people did not fully recognize its importance to global climate change. This paper adopted the soil distribution area, sampling data and soil organic content from the first soil general survey and applied the technique of GIS to estimate soil carbon reservior in China. Through calculating, the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 1001.8×108t and carbon density is about 10.83 kgC/m2 in China. This paper provided basic data and analysis method for global change research and scientific support for policy determination of CO2 emission in China.
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    Regional innovative milieu and local embeddedness
    WANG Ji-ci, WANG Ke
    1999, 18 (4):  357-362.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (219KB) ( )   Save
    This paper aims to push on the transforming viewpoint, giving priority to the creation of regional innovative milieu from both above and below, especilly from below. The paper emphasizes local embeddedness with reference to the Zhong'guancun case in Beijing. It illustrates that the weaknesses in local embedding exposes local economies to volatile world competition. The paper pinpoints the necessity for China to rest its development of High- and New- tech Industrial Development Zones on self-sustained innovativeness, and highlights the difficulties encountered in such a process.
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    A study on the slope-gully erosion relationship on small basins in the loess areas at the middle reaches of the Yellow River
    CHEN Hao, WANG Kai-zhang
    1999, 18 (4):  363-372.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (608KB) ( )   Save
    The erosion characteristics of the upper slope runoff and the slope-gully erosion relationship are discussed based on the data of runoff and sediment yield from gauging stations in the loess areas at the middle reaches of the Yellow River. Sources of sediments in typical small catchment are determined based on the concept of net increment of sediment yield by using analytical method of sediment formation at different positions in a catchment. The result shows that sediments in a small catchment at the middle reaches of the Yellow River mainly come from slopes. This paper indicated that the sediment sources from slopes are roughly 55, and 85 percent of the total sediment yield of the small catchments in Yangdaogou, and Nanxiaohegou, respectively, due to impacts of varying degrees from upper slope runoff. Under a critical condition, erosion characteristics of slope would change. In yangdaogou and wangmaogou, the critical value are about 319 kg/m3 and 362 kg/m3 under multi years(or multi times)rainfall condition, respectively.
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    The index system of regional water transfer scale and its PRED synthetic analysis
    CHEN Jian-yao, YU Jing-jie
    1999, 18 (4):  373-381.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    This paper put forward an index system based on the harmonious development among population, resources, environment and development to analyze the regional water transfer scale. A case study on water resources exploitation and use of Beijing was carried out. The present and future water demand of Beijing city was analyzed by conventional supply-demand method and human-dominant PRED synthetic analysis method, and a relatively reliable result was got by mutually verifying the two method. The result shows that the water resources of Beijing city can support the status quo development.
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    Identification of Holocene coastal dune rocks and beach rocks on South China coasts with artificial neural networks
    WANG Wei, WU Zheng
    1999, 18 (4):  382-390.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (367KB) ( )   Save
    Artificial neural networks(ANN)are a recently developed information processing technique, which is most likely to be superior to other methods in processing data of nonlinearity and ill-definition and corrupted by significant noise. ANN is wildly and successfully applied in the fields of biology, electronics, computer science, mathematics and physics. Nevertheless, few examples of application of ANN in geo science are found. Holocene beach rocks and coastal dune rocks distributing on Chinese tropical and subtropical coasts are rocks being cemented by calcium carbonate and have similar sedimentary structure and texture so that it is very difficult to distinguish them from each other. However, beach rocks are the cemented beach sand in the inter-tidal zone of beaches, while coastal dune rocks originate from coastal dunes cemented by calcium carbonate. The beach rocks and the beach sand have the same dynamical agent deferring from that of the coastal dunes and the dune rocks. This fact makes it possible to identify the dun rocks from the beach rocks according to the difference of the grain size parameters between the coastal dune sand and the beach sand. Unfortunately, scatter charts, which are quite commonly used for sediment pattern recognition in sedimentology, fail to do it due to the ill-defined boundaries between these sediments. Back propagation(BP)network, which is one of the most powerful ANN models applied in pattern recognition, provides an excellent solution to this problem. Several BP networks with two, three and four inputs were constructed, and each has one intermediary layer and one output. The inputs of the networks were the grain size parameters of the sediments, such as the mean, the sorting, the skewness and the kurtosis. The grain size parameters of modern coastal dune sand and beach sand collected from South China coasts were used to train the BP networks which were sequentially tested by those of the beach rocks and coastal dune rocks also taken from South China coasts. The fully trained BP networks could recognized most of the coastal dune rocks and beach rocks. The result of the identification of the beach rocks and the coastal dune rocks with ANN indicated the real existence of the difference of grain size characteristics between the beach rocks and the coastal dune rocks. All the so called "high level beach rocks" were classified into the category of coastal dune sand, denoting that the "high level beach rocks" are coastal dune rocks located at high level. ANN was proven in this paper to be a powerful data processing method in sediment discrimination.
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    A preliminary approach on the 3D presentation and quantitative analysis of planation surface
    LIU Yong, WANG Yi-xiang, PAN Bao-tain
    1999, 18 (4):  391-399.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (442KB) ( )   Save
    Planation Surface is one of the very important issues in the field of current geomorphology, and plays a major role for reconstructing the evolutional history of land from in a region. By using remote sensing and geographical information systems, this article discussed the creation of the Digital Elevation Model(DEM) of the Meiwu Plateau, at the south of Lanzhou and the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, and the integration of both DEM and Landsat TM images. Then the characteristics of 3D Geomorphological Imagery of the Meiwu Plateau were discussed, and the topographic profiles at several parts of the DEM were got. On the basis of analyzing the system of geomorphological parameters on the planation surface, the exact extent of the planation surface on the Meiwu Plateau was got by using the supervised classification technique in the field of image processing. The great potential of this technique was discovered on the analysis of planation.
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    The characteristics and dynamics of the urban poor population and its counter-measures in Beijing
    MA Qing-yu, Chen, Tian, Niu, Ya-fei, Qian, Zhi-hong
    1999, 18 (4):  400-406.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (297KB) ( )   Save
    During the transition of economy and society in China, the total number of the urban poor has increased markedly, and the urban poor groups are becoming diverse. That is to say, besides the original urban poor composed of the senile, the weak, the patients and the disable,there have emerged the new urban poor which are comprised of a large number of laid-off workers. There are many causes contributiong to the urban poverty. On the one hand, the urban poverty is brought about by the national economic structural adjustment and system reforms. On the other hand, it is also caused by the health conditions, education and ideas of the urban poor. Therefore, many measures and policies, such as to implement a re employment project, to establish a perfect social security system and to strengthen the job skill training, should be taken to deal with urban poverty.
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    The vertical distribution of agrotopoclimate and agricultural development strategy in the warm gorge sectors
    LUO Hong, YANG Zhi-feng
    1999, 18 (4):  407-412.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (225KB) ( )   Save
    The vertical division of agrotopoclimate is carried out by the way of principal component analysis in the warm gorge sectors in the southwest of Hubei Province. According to the calculation, three layers are divided in the warm gorge sectors: hot layer(<300 m), warm layer(300~600 m)and mild layer(600~800 m). Such division provides a theoretical basis for setting up the rational allocation of three-dimensional agriculture. On the basis of the vertical division, decision on agricultural development strategy is carried out by means of analytical hierarchy process in the warm gorge sectors. It is necessary even in the same layer to select agricultural and forest crops that are suitable to the agroclimatic characteristics of microclimate environments, so that we can bring the agroclimatic superiority and potentiality into full play, develop agriculture and diversified economy, and protect the ecological balance. The conclusion will be good for the further use of agroclimatic resources and give an essential help for working out strategic objectives of agricultural development in the area.
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    Mechanism and laws of zonal development of urbanization in the Wenzhou coastal region
    LIU Yan-sui
    1999, 18 (4):  413-419.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (303KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analyzing of the mechanism and laws of town development, it is put forward that the zonal development of urbanization is a special case in Wenzhou coastal region. Firstly, the study area has only a narrow maritime plain, and the main traffic lines run through the middle of it. Regional production layout and town construction tend to agglomerate along the traffic lines. Secondly, the actual strength of regional economy are enhanced constantly because of the coastal advantageous location and flexible policy environment. Thus group distribution of industry and population agglomeration are promoted. Thirdly, the essential motive power of rapid development of urbanization is that domestic enterprises grow up and professional markets spring up vigorously under the "Wenzhou Model". The synthetical degree of urbanization(SDU)is an important index to study quantitatively town development trends. Especially, it is suitable for studying the growing stages of county town. Furthermore, the relationship between the zonal development of urbanization and the actual strength of economy, and the scales of town population may be expressed quantitatively by using the expansion width model of urbanization(EMU)in Yueqin city.
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    A study on the wetland resources in Shanxi and their sustainable utilization
    ZHANG Feng, SHANGGUAN Tie-liang
    1999, 18 (4):  420-427.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (375KB) ( )   Save
    The wetlands in Shanxi are mainly distributed in valleys of rivers, lakes and reservoirs and areas around lakes and reservoirs, which can be partitioned into(1)wetlands in inland estuary,(2)river wetlands,(3)lake wetlands,(4)reservoir wetlands and(5)swamp wetlands and meadow wetlands. The total area of wetland of is 2 146 km 2 in Shanxi. There are various resources on the wetlands in Shanxi. According to their economical usage and utilizing ways, they can be divided into 4 groups as follows:(1)Biological resources are consisted of 3 groups. There are 1 209 species of plants, 7 kinds of resource plants. There are 70 types of vegetation resources in which herb communities are dominant. Moreover, there are 455 species of animals, and 17 of which are belonged to the first and second grade protections in China respectively and 70 of which are fishes.(2)Land resources are mainly distributed on the floodplain in valleys of rivers. The floodplain of Huanghe River is the larges among them and has an area of about 438 km2.(3)Tourism resources are composed of Hukou Waterfall, being well known around the world, in Jixian, fresh water springs and reservoirs.(4)Resources of hydraulic power are richer, contained in Fenhe River, Qinhe River and Zhuozhang River in Shanxi, and totally amount to 5.561×106kW. Finally, the scientific strategies for protection and sustainable utilization of the wetland resources in Shanxi are discussed in this paper.
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    Comparison of copper accumulation in fish and dialysis membrane
    LIANG Tao, TAO Shu, LIU chang-fa, XU shang-ping, SHEN Wei-ran, YIN hong, WANG Ying
    1999, 18 (4):  428-433.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (223KB) ( )   Save
    A comparison of copper accumulation in Paracheriodon innesi and dialysis membrane in the contaminated fish pond water was conducted both in lab and in situ. The results showed that the amount of copper absorbed by the dialysis membrane was closely correlated to the amount of copper accumulated in fish(gills). It is a feasible way to monitor the accumulation in aquatic creatures in a long term.
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    Review on the development of tourist geography in China
    LIU Feng
    1999, 18 (4):  434-443.  doi: 10.11821/yj1999040015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (346KB) ( )   Save
    Tourist geography, a study which meets the need of the development of tourism, is the product of geography change and the result of geography's interrelating with the studies of tourism, gardening, architecture, etc. The course and progresses of Chinese tourist geography can be divided into three stages: formation, rapid development and intensive development stage. The main ideas and technology innovations of each stage were also summarized respectively in the paper. In the primary stage, tourist geography mostly focuses on the tourism resources, marketing evaluation and development planning. In the rapid development stage, there are great progresses in tourism physical planning. In the intensive development stage, the methods and models of other science fields were quoted to the practice of tourist geography. In recent years, the approaches of tourist geography have been studied in-depth. The theories and methods of main fields of tourist geography including tourism resources, tourism destination, tourist behavior and tourist market, tourism planning, tourism carrying capacity, ecotourism and technology innovation, have been summarized by numbers too. The paper also elaborates the development of education of tourist geography in China. Although tourist geography started late in China, the speed of development has been fast. Chinese tourist geographers have performed much in the field of tourism practice, and devoted much to the development of tourism industry. But there are still some problems and a lack of systematic research on its theory. The paper, finally, concludes three experience of developing tourist geography in China.
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