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    15 June 1984, Volume 3 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A PRELIMINARY APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HUMAN GEOGRAPHY IN THE MODERN ERA
    Xiong Ning
    1984, 3 (2):  1-13.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020001
    Abstract ( 672 )   PDF (1050KB) ( 823 )   Save
    The period of semi-colonial and semi-feudal society in the Chinese history (1840-1949) is a stage in which our geographical science developed from ancient traditional geography to the modern geography.This paper gives a brief account of the general development in economic geography, social geography, political and military geography, and historical geography of this period.It also tries to analyse their political and economic background, and their influence upon the development of the geographical thought in China before the liberation.The statement was divied into two stages.In the first stage, from Opium War to the May 4th movement of 1919, the Chinese human geography still remained in the description stage of informations.The introduction of the western geographical thought and knowledge had begun to be widely known.This was the initial stage.In the second stage, from the May 4th movement of 1919, the western human geography gave a great influence on the development of Chinese geographical science.The Chinese geographical workers began to research into the problems of the Chinese geography with the methods of modern geographical science.Modern human geography of China had a notable advance in thought, method and contents.No doubt, it was, of course, a natural result of the special social and economic condition when the production relations of the semi-colonial and semi-feudal society prevented the development of productive forces, thus hindering the further progress of the Chinese modern geography.Many Chinese geographical workers, however, had made important achievements worth-mentioning and should not be forgotten.This paper recommended the works on human geography done by Zhu Kezhen, Zhang Xiangwen, Ding Wenjiang, Weng Wenhao, Hu Huanyong, Zhou Lisan, Wu Chuanjun, Ren Meie, Li Xudan, Wang Chengzu, Zhou Lisan, Wu Chuanjun and others (See the References attached in the Chinese context) in the fields of economic geography, social geography, political geography, historical geography etc.
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    A STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THE WHOLE BLOOD SELENIUM CONTENT OF THE POPULATION AND KASCHIN-BECK DISEASE IN THE LOW SELENIUM REGIONS IN CHINA
    Hou Shaofan, Zhu Zhenyuan
    1984, 3 (2):  14-23.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020002
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (2894KB) ( 832 )   Save
    The whole blood selenium content of the population is 0.009-0.020μ/ml according to 327 cases (5-60 years old) in 12 low selenium sites, and in 246 cases (5-15 years old) the content is 0.017 ± 0.008μg/ml (X ± S.D), which is the lowest selenium content seen in literature.In the normal selenium environment the whole blood selenium content of population is 0.053-0.091μg/ml according to 241 cases (5-50 years old) and 0.076 ± 0.017μg/ml (X±S.D) in 206 cases(5-15 years old).It is coincident with the literature value in low selenium regions in the world.The whole blood selenium content is in normal distribution.The whole blood selenium content of population in low selenium has the same critical value(0.020μg/ml) as Seresponsive disease in animals.The whole blood selenium content of 66,61% population is less than 0.020μg/ml.The whole blood selenium content is low in spring and high in summer in both selenium environments according to the seasonal dynamics.And the population are in poor state in lower selenium fenvironment.The whole blood content of the population who are fed with foreign commercial food is higher than that of the rural population fed with local food.The former does not suffer from kaschin-Beck disease.The selenium nutrition state of population in low selenium environment in China is strongly controlled by the selenium flux in the environment and low selenium nutrition is basic character.The rule of the temporal and spatial changes of population in selenium nutrition is Coincident with the ruel of epidemiology.The incidence is significantly in negative relation to the selenium content in human body.This is the typical Se-respounsive disease in human body.The authors suggested that the diseases related to low whole blood content according to some literature may be caused by some other diseases instead of the low selenium environment.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE LAPSE RATE OF SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURE OVER MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS OF CHINA
    Weng Duming, Sun Zhian
    1984, 3 (2):  24-34.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020003
    Abstract ( 771 )   PDF (753KB) ( 804 )   Save
    A number of meteorological factors influencing surface air temperature lapse rate over mountainous regions are discussed.Calculations are made concerning the lapse rate both over the areas and in the free atmosphere and the comparison of the differences and the relations between them.In addition, the types of annual variations of the lapse rate and their distribution are presented.In China, they can be roughly divided into six types (summer peak, winter peak, double peaks in spring and autumn, spring peak, autumn peak, and, no marked annual variation).Of these six types, the summer peak type, which is related closely basic feature of the monsoon climate, is the most widely distributed, extending over most of the mountainous regions of China except for a few plateau areas.Finaly, the general distributions over China of the rate under study are graphically shown and analysed qualitatively.From these analyses, it is found, the decrease of surface air temperature along the mountain slopes is greater in winter than in summer, over plateau regions than over hills, in lower latitudes than in higher latitudes, over dry regions than over the interior and on the lee side than on the windward side of the mountains.
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    THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE LOWER CHANNEL OF THE YELLOW RIVER AND THE RESPONSE TO THE VARIATION OF THE BASE LEVEL DURING THE TIME-SPAN OF CLEAR-WATER SCOURING
    Lu Zhongchen
    1984, 3 (2):  35-44.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020004
    Abstract ( 803 )   PDF (663KB) ( 754 )   Save
    In this paper, the adjustment of the lower channel of the yellow River and the response to the variation of the base level resulted from clear-water scouring have primarily been studied during the operation of Sanmenxia Reservoir from Septmber 1960 to October 1964.In the variable condition of the discharge and the sediment fed into the channel, the adjustment of the longitudinal profile has been explained mainly in two ways.First, the variation of the gradient in the whole lower channel and each reaches have been analyzed.The gradients from Tiexie to Lijing, Tiexie to Gaocun and Gaocun to Lijing in I960 and 1964 are 1.52‰ and 1.5‰ 2.14‰, and 2.12‰ and 1.13‰ and 1.13‰, respectively.Secondly, the scoured depths have separately been calculated in the upper and lower reaches above and below Gaocun.It turns out that the accumulated average scoured depth is 1.51M in the whole lower channel from 1960 to 1964, and 1.52 M and 1.49M from Tiexie to Gaocun and from Caocun to Lijing respectively.It shows that the scoured depth along the channel is nearly a constant, that is, the lower Yellow River adjusted its longitudinal prifile in the approximately parallel deepening processes of the stage of clearwater scouring.The stabilities of the channel of the upper and lower reaches above and below Gaocun are slightly diffrent.This diffrence can be illustrated by Lokhtin's number of the upper and lower reaches.The Lokhtin's number of the upper reaches is small, which means that it has a big gradient.The result is that the bed material size doesn't fit the gradient of the channel.The greater gradient in the reaches is primarily relative to the deposition in the past geological process, This is why the braided channel has a greater gradient.The lower reaches below Gaocun have a greater Lokhtin number first because of the sinuosity of the channel.Secondly, the gradient becomes smaller and the bed material size is finer under the influence of the downstream extension of the river mouth.The adjustment of the cross section of the channel, particularly in the upper reaches at railroad-bridge makes the channel deeper and narrower.The change of channel patterns depends mostly upon the geomorphic threshold and the content of silt-clay in the channel material.It is rather possible that the braided channel pattern from Tiexie to Gaocun will develop into a single braided pattern because scouring causes the slope of the channel close to or less than the geomorphic threshold and also causes the roughering of the channel bed material.The principal reason of nonequilibriun of the lower channel of the Yellow River in the Long time-span is the influence of the geological and geomor-phological process and the base level.Even if some area could be under control in the future by providing with rough sediments and good consevervation of water and soil, natural erosion will be continued and is tremendously difficult to be controled because of the geological proccess in the long-time duration.Thus, the sediment fed into the Bohai sea can't be greatly reduced and the river mouth will be continuously extended toward the sea.In fact, the distributary mouth of shenxiangou was extended toward the sea by 6.25 km.during 1961-1964, about 2.08km per year, the velocity of extension was faster than that before the construction of Sanmenxia Reservoir.This proves that the effects of the base level on the upper channel still exist.From long term view, basically the aggradation behaviour of the lower channel would not change.
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    ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND BASED ON DIGITAL PROCESSING OF LANDSAT IMAGERY AT JING-BO REGION, CHINA
    Gong Jialong
    1984, 3 (2):  45-53.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020005
    Abstract ( 587 )   PDF (1075KB) ( 796 )   Save
    The main objective of the investigation is an evaluation of the method and effect of regional environmental synthetic analysis based on LANDSAT CCT data digital processing technique.Some distinct data handling methods for corresponding special natural environmental characteristics were undertaken in order to obtain expectant interpreting effects on environmental background.Here three types of data enhancement techniques, linear density slicing,, uniform distribution and local stretch were adopted.Colour composites generated from these enhancement processings provided clearer resolution, better definition of boundaries and more information.Besides, automated classifications using computer imagery processing program from STC/IIS 101 system were tested, and finally computer land cover classifying picture participated with visual interpretation was drawn.The three types of enhancement colour composites mentioned above, which was output respectively on the colour screen of monitor, displayed different effects on the interpretation.However, colour composites of uniform distribution and local stretch have special value in explaining environmental background.For example, the objectivees on the land surface, such as arid cultivated land, irrigated land, residential area of village or city, drainage system including pond, reservoir and river etc., and the sand spit in the mouth of the HAI RIVER, diffusion of industrial smoke and so on can be clearly recognized on the colour composite imagery of uniform distribution stretch.And the fine structure of the water surface is particularly clear on the colour composite imagery of the local enhancement.More information on the ocean surface along the coast of BO-HAI BAY, water surface of BEI-DA-GANG reservoir and circumstances of salt pool at the eastern coast of TANG-KU city are visible too.Therefore they are useful stretch techniques, which improves the brightness contrast of the original imagery and obtains more valuable information than the original imegery for the interpreter.Afterword, three types of cluster, minimum distance and maximum likelihood algorithm classifications were undertaken at this region.The best result that was verified by comparing with visual interpreting of the main types of land cover on streching imagery belongs to unsupervised cluster classifying technique.There are only eight classes displayed by different colours on the colour imagery of cluster classification.Finally, the result of land cover interpreting map was produced by combining visual explanation with the computer colour output of cluster classification.Land cover interpreting picture containing about sixteen types of three classes was drawn on colour imagery of computer automatic cluster classification.
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    ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC STRATIFICATION STABILITY OF THE BOUNDATY LAYER IN WARMER SEASON ON THE QINGHAI-XIZANG PLATEAU
    Ma Yutang
    1984, 3 (2):  54-63.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020006
    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (597KB) ( 711 )   Save
    Based on the data obtained from the observation of the wind speed gradient and temperature gradient during the period of the plateau's meteorological experiment from May to August in 1979, and by using Kichardson number R1, the atmospheric stratification stability condition of the plateau's boundaty layer has been analysed in this paper, It shows, the R; number of the plateau is smaller than that of the plain on daytime but at night the former is larger and their difference is very obvous.The vate of R; number between the plateau and the plain.May reach 5-10 times, so the relative effect of the thermal factor on the rule of turbulent motion of the plateau's boundary layer is larger than that of the plain's.The paper also shows, the relative increase of thermal action is resulted from the decrease of dynamical factor (the wind gradient) and it isn't resulted from the increase of the temperature gradient.Based on some data of references, the mean relation between R; number and aT(aT=KT/K), there KT and K are thermal turbulent exchange coefficentand moment turbulent coefficent respectively) has been got too.It approaches to 1.in the plain, but on the plateau it doesn't.This fact shows, the Model of KT≈K calculating the surface sensible heat flux which is often used in plain can't be used on the plateau.This is an important problem in the study of the plateau surface heat balance.
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    THE FLORISTIC STRUCTURE OF EAST XIZANG REGION
    Li Hen, Wu Sukung
    1984, 3 (2):  64-70.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020007
    Abstract ( 798 )   PDF (533KB) ( 690 )   Save
    East Xizang region belongs to Sino-Himalayan forest sukingdom of Horaltic Kindom.(Fig.1).The species of wild spermatophytes in this region amount to 2318 (Tab, 1),constituting 44.79% of the total number in Xizang.32.66% of them, e.g.757 species are the endemics to China, among which 49% (371 species) are distributed only in South Hengduan Mountains, such as Abies ern-estil, A.forrestii, Larix potaninii,Picea brachytula var.complanata, P.liki-angesis var.hirtella, Pinus densata, They are dominats of subalpine coniferous forest in East Xizang.There are 425 endemic species to Xizang, e.g.18.33% of the total number.Among them 340 species represent the region's endemics, including 50 species of Compositae, 21 of Rosaceae, 20 of Gramineae, 16 of Papaveraceae and so on.Altogether 1182 species are attained including the endemics of Xizang and of the 0 her parts of China, that is, 50.99% of the total number of species.From this percentage we may see that flora in East Xizang is a young and quite flourishing species-endemism.The elements of East Asian distribution pattern occupy an important place in the flora of East Xizang and consist of 753 species, constituting 31.7% of the total number.Among them 311 species belong to East Himalayas and 195 to the whole Himalayas.There are a lot of common alpine Plants Himalayas, such as Cassippe selaginoides.Diplarche multiflora, Saxifraga (22 species), Rholdod-endron (20), Primula (24), Gentiana (10), Pedicularis (16).It appears that the flora of East Xizang region, asapart of Sino-Himalayan forest flora of Horaltic Kingdom, is closely related to East Asiatic flora.The so-called relationship between East Xizang flora and Mediterranean-Central Asian flora is really next' to nothing.East Xizang region is subdivided into 2 subregions:A.Hengduan Mountains subregion with 64 endemic species of 37 genera of 21 families, including monotypic genus Salweenia of the primitive tribe Soph-oreae in Leguminosae.It was very probably a member of Gondwanaland flora which hed survived after finding a refuge in the midstream valleys of Nujiang River (Salween) and Lancang River (Mekong)B.Bomi-Gyaca subregion with 276 endemic species of 90 genera of 30 families includes Quercus tungmainsis, Brassiopsis Karmalaica, Agapetes praeclara, Aconitum (12 species), Corydalis (14), Pedicularis (14) and so on.The monotypic genus Parapteropyrum tibeticum is found in this sudregion and appears to be the definite Tethysian element during the drawing back of Tethys sea.
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    THE SPECTRUM STRUCTURE AND THE TEMPORAL SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF STAPLE CROPS IN NORTH-CHINA
    Zhang Renhau
    1984, 3 (2):  71-81.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020008
    Abstract ( 636 )   PDF (741KB) ( 830 )   Save
    This paper discussed the spectrum structure and time profiles of greenness for wheat, corn, soybean and cotton in North-China according to spectral data observed in Yucheng, Shandong provinces in 1981 and 1982.It was proved that primary informations for interpreting the four crops containing in modes of greenness made up of reflectivity of visible region (0.4-0.7μm) and near-infrared region (0.8-1.1μm).The combination of any band in the visible region does not produce more informations for interpreting the four crops, nor does the combination of any band in infrared region.Graphic transformations and time profiles of the greenness which have unique features for four crops were depicted, and their roles in interpretation were shown.We presented three new models of greenness.G6, G7 and G3, with which we can approach cholorophyl contents for wheat, corn and soybean respectively.More informations for interpreting crops can be obtained when the models have been ingeniously combined and rationally used.Different time profiles of greenness will be got when division of band is different.The above mentined charati-cristics' should be considered in choosing optimum band for resource satellite of China.
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    A BRIEF COMMENT OF THE RESEARCH IN THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA
    Zhu Shiguang
    1984, 3 (2):  82-91.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020009
    Abstract ( 651 )   PDF (833KB) ( 1142 )   Save
    The research in the Loess Plateau of China, has had a very long history.The changes of the natural environment are very obvious and the effects on-the neighbouring North China Plain have been great.Since the founding of the people's Republic of China, alor with the vigorous development of our national economy, science and culturt, the historical-geographical scholars of China have studied the loess Plateau from many aspects and have gained great success.Progress in research work, on the whole, may be divided into two stages: 1.from the 1950's to the early 1960's, 2.from the late 1970's until now.In the first stage the experts have written several theses of high quality.In the second stage more historical-geographical scholars have taken part in the research activities, the atmosphere has been more lively, and its effect has been more widespread.After liberation, the historical-geographical scholars of China have made gceat achievements in scientific research.These include research on climatic changes, the developments and the changes in the distribution of agriculture and livestock farming, the relationship between the form of land utilization and the flood of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, vegetation changes, the formation of loess and the causes of its erosion, changes in the morphological characteristics of rivers and lakes, the desert's changes in the historical period of the Loess Plateau of China, The research work has produced good results in the harnessing of the Yellow River and the Loess Plateau of China, in agricultural regionalization and in the development of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry.Professors Zhu kezhen, Tan Qixiang, Hou Renzhi, Shi Nianhai, Xin Shuzhi and others have made great contributions, A large number of the middle-aged and young people have also made further advances.In order to carry on thoroughly historical-geographical research on the Loess Plateau of China, the experts should cooperate with those who specialize in all the subjects concerned.We must concentrate our attention to the study of important subjects such as: forestry changes, the influence of man's activities on soil erosion and desertification, and try to make breakthroughs.We should attach special importance to historical documents and simultaneously strengthen field investigation and adopt new techniques.We should widen the application of basic theory and spread the main research achievements of historical geography among the people.
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    SOME PROBLEMS REGARDING WATER DIVERSION FROM THE CHANGJIANG TO THE HAI-RIVER-PLAIN
    Zuo Dakang, Liu Changming, Xu Yuxian, Du wei
    1984, 3 (2):  92-98.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984020010
    Abstract ( 603 )   PDF (549KB) ( 1092 )   Save
    This paper mainly deals with the eastern route water transfer from the Changjiang to the Hai-River-Plain north of the Huang-He.The first-stage project of the east route water transfer was approved by the Chinese state Council in Mar.,1983.After the completion of this project, about 50m3/s of water discharge would be diverted to the Dongping Lake on the south bank of the Huang-He.In consideration of the second-stage project of the eastern route water transfer, the following problems are discussed in this paper.1.Water shortage in the Hai-River-Plain north of the Huang-He;2.Conjunctive use of local water in the Hai-River-Plain and imported water from the Changjiang River.3.Impacts of water transfer upon the environment in the plain north of the Huang-He;4.Rational utilization of the Huang-He's water resources.To sum up, the authors of the present paper would like to point out that the no-rthward water transfer from the Changjiang to the plain north of the Huang-He is Ikiely to be advisable.
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