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Table of Content

    15 March 1984, Volume 3 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    TENTATIVE IDEAS ON THE DIRECTION AND TASK OF THE INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY, ACADEMIA SINICA
    Zhu Kezhen(Co-Ching Chu)
    1984, 3 (1):  1-7.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010001
    Abstract ( 629 )   PDF (932KB) ( 617 )   Save
    This report reviewed the achievements gained prior to 1965 in the field of geography, defined its future research direction and tasks in the following four respects of regionalization (including agricultural regionalization, physical regionalization and economic-regionalization), regional comprehensive development, thematic research and history of geography, and compilation of atlases, put forward tentative ideas concerning division of labour among various institutes of geography as well as principal measures necessitated the fulfilment of the aboved lited tasks.
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    DR.ZHU KEZHEN (CO-CHING CHU) AND SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS OF TROPICAL CHINA (1) THE DEMARCATION OF TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL BELTS
    Huang Bingwei
    1984, 3 (1):  8-18.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010002
    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (894KB) ( 622 )   Save
    Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, considerable progress has been made in the scientific investigations of the tropical realm of this co-vntry.In this undertaking, Dr.Zhu Kezhen (Co-Ching Chu) is remembered as a pioneer and organizer.His qualities of clarity of mind an calmness of judgement together with the breadth of his knowledge and interests stretching across the boundaries of numerous branches of scieace made him a shining leader directing multidisciplinary studies to the right quarter. His opinions were generally based on a sure grasp of the complexities of the tropical environment. Most of his vi ews still hold good today, inspite of the rapid advances in the knowledge of the tropical world in China and abroad.Two topics,the demarcation of the tropical and sub-tropical belts in China and the prospects of the development of Hainan, will be discussed in the present paper. Tht former is the subject of part (I).In the latter half of the fifties, a working commission of physico-geographic regionalization of China was established under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dr.Zhu was then, vice-president of the academy and chairman of the commission. Shortly after the start of the work, the delimitation of the tropical and subtropical belts of China and coordination and unification of different kinds of physico-geographic regionalization with respect to terms and boundaries to be adopted for identifying the temperature conditions were among the difficulties confronting us.His suggestion to provide an answer to the first problem was that the polar limit of the subtropical belt should lie on the Qinling-Huaihe line, whereas the boundary between the tropical and subtropical belts should cut across the Leizhou peninsula and Taiwan Province.This was quite apart from the schemes advocated at that time by most Soviet scientists, who insisted on shifting both boundaries to much higher latitudes.His proposed solution for the second problem was the proposition that a thermal belt should above all be a climatolo-gical term. The identification of a thermal belt should primarily be the responsibility of climatologists. Since our regional schemes would appear in a range of publications and other documents, and there would be a wide spectrum of readers; it would not be a good idea, if the same designation of temperature regimes would mean quite differently in a series of writings from the same working commission of the Chineee Academy of Sciences. Although discussions and consultations with scientists of other disciplines should be undertaken before the climatologists formulated their systems and criteria, it might happen that there would exist difficulties for regionalization of some other kinds to follow the climatological formulation with regard to thermal conditions. In such cases, thermal belts might be excluded from their nomenclature.This would be desirable where thermal regimes played an unimportant role. There might be a further possibility as exemplified by the soil regions.lt would be helpful, if not also for other reasons, to include warm temperate, subtropical, tropical and other similar predicates in their classification to signify the temperature conditions, under which a set of soils occur, and to which soil utilization and management should be adapted.Both proposals of Dr.Zhu were accepted by the commission. Ensuing to the circulation of draft reports of the commission, pros and cons were scattered in publications, symposia and conversations. One focus of debate was where should be the norhern boundary of the tropical belt. On one extreme, a number of scientists would like to confine the tropical realm to Hainan and other islands of the South China Sea. In their opinion, even Hainan and southern Taiwan were not typically tropical. On the other extreme was the tendency to shift the boundary to encompass middle Guangdong and Guangxi and northern Taiwan, or to the water divide of Nanling and beyond.
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    ZHU KEZHEN (CO-CHING CHU) AND CLIMATIC FLUCTUATION STUDIES IN CHINA
    Lü Jiong, Zhang Peiyuan, Gong Caofa
    1984, 3 (1):  19-25.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010003
    Abstract ( 854 )   PDF (550KB) ( 891 )   Save
    No serious student of geography and climatology can have missed the name of Zhu Kezchen.(CoChing Chu).He was the Vice-President of the Academia Sinica the Former Chairman of the Geographical Society and the Former Chairman of the Meteorological Society.He died on February 7, 1974.Zhu's numerous publications deal with climatic fluctuations, phenology, natural region-alization and history of science.This paper will explain the contribution of Zhu's works to the climatic fluctuations in China. Several of his studies such as the treatises on"The Pulsation of World Climate During Historical Times" (Acta Meteorologica Sinica, Vol.31, No.4, pp 272-288.) and"A preliminary Study on the Climatic Fluctuations During the Last 5000 Years in China" (Scientia Sinica, Vol.16, No.2, PP 226-256, 1973.)have become classic.Owing to the immense labor of generations of workers, China possesses a series of records of natural calamities, such as great floods and droughts, deep freezings and such unsual phenomena, and numerous archeological remains. Zhu, bringing these ancient records into full play, had evolved a number of indirect techniques to obtain these data for indications of the climate of the earlier times.In these papers, Zhu eloquently delineated a coherent and consistent picture of the main tendencies of climatical variations in Chinese history. And he tried to give a 'correlation between the tendencies of temperature in China and the variations in the height of snow line in Norway.He also compared the Chinese temperature patterns to W. Dansgaard's interpretation of 1700 years of the Greenland ice sheet.And so he gave the material objects as evidences for global climatic variations.Not being lost in the labyrinth of numerous annals and gazetteers, Zhu devoted his studies to the needs of the society and to helping the nation to respond more efficiently to climate-induced problems.Chinese researchers will long appreciate Zhu's lifetime study of climatic fluctuations, although he modestly said that he was an elementary student approaching a large topic.Now the vast sources of informations on this topic in China have been tapped, and a great deal of scientific efforts have been aroused.Zhu admitted that he might have shed light on a few problems, but more significant to him was the fact that he had found out many new measurements in the study of climatic changes.
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    THE PATHFINDER’S HEART——IN MEMORY OF LATE PROFESSOR ZHU KEZHEN ON THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS DEATH
    Chen Shupeng
    1984, 3 (1):  26-29.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010004
    Abstract ( 598 )   PDF (326KB) ( 522 )   Save
    The late professor Zhu Kezhen, once pioneer of China's modern meteorology and geography, the organizer and educationist in New China's geoscien-ces circle, and vice-president of Chinese Academy of Sciences, departed from us forever in 1974. Being one of the pathfinders in the field of geo-sciences, his magnanimous mind has always evoked in me much homage, and I do dearly cherish the memory of him. From 1916 when his article "Rainfall and Storm in China" appeared to the year-1972 when he published "A Preliminary Study on Climatic Variation in China during the Last 5000 Years", he always stood in the forefront of scientific research, holding high the academic banner, pointing out new directions and opening up new paths. He made a profound study on the history of natural sciences and did a lot of organizing and research work to develop China that she may stand among the forest of nations of the world in science. Based on his erudite knowledge and accomplishment, he formed his comprehensive way of thinking academically in his early days. He fully trusted and supported young scientists. He paid respect to and expedited the independent development of various branch discipline such as phenology, history of natural sciences, cartography and so on.During the ten years after the founding of The People's Republic of China, professor Zhu organized hundreds of thousands of scientists to develop geo-sciences in depth and breadth.He proposed the establishment of a commission for integrated survey of natural resources, organized 10 scientific investigations successively on an unprecendented scale, and even undertook for himself the stationing of scientific bases in Northwest China. He guided us in exploing the border areas and imbibed us with the grand idea of exploiting the vast Northwest. All of these did have far-reaching effects. Young scientists have followed his ideals from generation to generation and opened up new prospects, for example, some disciplines like glaciology, desert location research and other aspects of work in resources exploration are well known to the whole world. Besides, professor Zhu also proposed plans for work on the physical regionalization of China, the physical geography of China and the atlas of China. He encouraged Chinese scientific research workers to unite, cooperate, and fulfill the tasks on self-reliance and expected of them that their work should attain an advanced level.Professor Zhu also paid much attention to the reserve and training of talents. For 12 years he had been the president of Zhejiang University which was acclaimed by Joseph Lee as the "Cambridge of the orient". At that time it had bestowed to the country a reserve some talents who have now become a part of mainstay in the sphere of science and technology after the founding of New China.
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    TO COMMEMORATE PROF.ZHU KEZHEN’S (CO-CHING CHU) CONTRIBUTIONS TO DESERT RESEARCH
    Zhu Zhenda
    1984, 3 (1):  30-33.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010005
    Abstract ( 615 )   PDF (345KB) ( 751 )   Save
    Desert Research is a new discipline of science in China and its growth and development cannot be separated from Prof.Zhu Kezhen's guidances and concerns.Prof. Zhu Kezhen's contributions to desert research contain the following four aspects:A.He pointed out clearly. "It is our historical and long-term task to transform desert in China".His thesis has been proved by the experiences on desert research since the last 25 years. The desert research must be closely linked with economic construction of the nation and be combined with the practice for combating desert if this discipline of science is to be developed.B.He indicated emphatically that desert research must be a comprehensive science and be mutually coordinated with various other discipline. He predicted that the desert science would be developed in an all-round way along with the need for controlling desert.As early as in 1959. he wrote, "desert research is a new branch of science formed gradually in recent years". Meanwhile, as for the contents of desert reseah, he held that the formation and sources of the sand of desert, aeolian sand movement, water and plant resources and other topics on desert should be studied. His idea laid a foundation for the development of desert science.C. By analysing the facts of the changes of desert in various regions in history, he mentioned, "human factors may make the areas that should not be covered by dunes or be desertified turn into desert or dunefield". His scientific idea and sufficient exposition established a predictive inference on the environmental changes after the reclamation and cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions.D. By analysing the experiences on desert controlling in various countries and by studying the law of the movement of aeolian sand, he presented some measures for combating desert. "Not only should the attention be paid to the control of the encroachment and invasion of sand and wind, but also to the rational utilization of resources and to the active combat against desertification". Under the guidance of this thought, some desert experimental stations have been established and exemplified as demonstration or pilot projects to control and combat desert.Prof. Zhu Kezhen has passed away, but his teachings and instructions on desert science will be kept in our minds to inspire desert scientists to work very hard on desert controlling and prevention of desertification in China.
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    PROFESSOR ZHU KEZHEN (CO-CHING CHU) AND THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF NATURAL RESOURCES OF CHINA
    Shen Changjiang
    1984, 3 (1):  34-40.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010006
    Abstract ( 526 )   PDF (606KB) ( 952 )   Save
    This paper was written in the tenth anniversary of the pass away of Professor Zhu Ke-Zhen, Late Vice-President of Academia Sinica and Director of the Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, Academia Sinica. The author stated here the contribution of Professor Zhu to the integrated survey of natural resources of China.Professor Zhu was the forerunner and the founder of the scientific field of work in China for half a century, particularly since 1949.He not only pointed out that the direction and programme of the work must be in close contact with the economic construction and that the survey must be developed with the relative fields of science. But also he formulated the basic theory and methodology of the integrated survey of natural resources. He organized a lot of comprehensive investigation teams from North to South and from East to West in China in the 50's and 60's.Professor Zhu had thought much in this field. The author here only discussed a part of his thought stressing on the holism of natural resources and the suitability of their utilisation in different areas. Professor Zhu had given very rich and systematic discussions in his papers and articles early at the time before the International Biological Programme (IBP) was carried out. His academic thought is also useful in the present for the Four Modernisations of the economic construction and the rational utilization of natural resources in our country.
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    TO STUDY AND CARRY ON PROFESSOR ZHU KEZHEN’S (CO-CHING CHD) GEOGRAPHIC IDEA
    Li Yuhai
    1984, 3 (1):  41-46.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010007
    Abstract ( 653 )   PDF (518KB) ( 1147 )   Save
    Professor Zhu Kezhen was a founder of modern geography in China, as he played an epoch-making part in the development of geography of China. He presented his splendid geographical theory and experinces, a wealth of knowledge which he improved in his life to the people. The substances of modern geography and research objects were penetratively explained by Prof. Zhu. He suggested that the research work should be connected with practice and shoud serve the people and the nation's reconstruction, mean-while, basic theory should be studied intensively. According to Prof. Zhu, a comprehensive scientific expedition in geography of China and the training of qualified for personnel for it are extramely important. He pointed out emphatically that geographers should involve into the economic activities of national reconstruction and thus the geographical theory can be developed. He concerned especially with the modernization of geography and rising it up to a heigher level, and emphasized that geography must be armed and developed by using current knowledges of biology, physics, chemistry, mathmatics and so on, and as much as recent achievement of science and technology. Prof. Zhu Kezhen's idea on developing geography as mentioned above,not only played an important part in guiding and promoting the progress of geography in China in the past, but also it is good as a guideline for the present and future.
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    TALKS GIVEN BY PROFESSOR ZHU KEZHEN (CO-CHING CHU) ON CLIMATOLOGICAL STUDIES
    Qiu Baojian, Gong Gaofa, Zhang Fuchun
    1984, 3 (1):  47-50.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010008
    Abstract ( 611 )   PDF (336KB) ( 620 )   Save
    In memory of Professor Zhu Kezhen (Co-ching Chu), who died 10 years ago, the authors remembered having, been invited by Professor Zhu two times during 1968-1970 to have some valuable talks on the studies about geography, climatology and phenology. He demonstrated that phenology should be studied in combination with climatology and its base should be put on the works of physiology and biochemistry. He pointed out that the main climatological studies should contributed to the development of agriculture, and that climate resources and climatic changes should be studied with more vigour. He suggested that the great plain in North China should be an interesting area for the Institute of Geography to perform typical experiments in agricultnre. Researches on heat and water balance and meteorological satellite were appreciated by him too.
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    A STUDY OF THE SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENT IN MODAOMEN ESTUARY,THE MAIN RIVER-MOUTH OF XIJIANG (WEST RIVER)
    Cheng Minghao
    1984, 3 (1):  51-65.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010009
    Abstract ( 686 )   PDF (3376KB) ( 1236 )   Save
    Xijiang (West River) is the largest river in the south of China, and Modaomen, the main river-mouth of Xijiang is the largest one of the eight distributary mouths in the delta of Zhujiang (Pearl River), It is an estuary.The estuary sediment is mainly terrigenous detritus carried down from xi-jiang. The spatial distribution of the sediment is controlled by the separation of flow of the run-off and the tidal current, and influenced by the cross-section gradient of the water surface.So the coarser sediment is at the eastern part and the finer one at the western part, together with intersection of the coarser and the finer sediments.Due to affection of the landform of the river-mouth bar, the fundamental characteristic of sediment distribution and grain-size probability curves along the bed of the subaqueous river channel exhibits an inverted-order from up-stream to down-stream.The genesis of transverse formation of the river-mouth bar is wave action, especially that in the south-west direction. In the mid 19th century, the deep bed of the subaqueous channel outlet deflects eastward at the southern side of Shilanzhou Island and the ebb-tide current, the residual current and the south-west nearshore current are all reversed in direction, and thus the embryonic form of the transvers river mouth bar is formed.In the mid 20th century the subaqueous channel outlet in the bar-crest is closed, and became a bow-shaped snoal. At present, the river-mouth bar continuously grows higher and greater.The shape of the grain-size probability distribution of the river-mouth bar sand at the bar-crest is concave downward very similar to the probability curve of the river-mouth bar sands of the modern Changjiang (Yangtze river) and the ancient river (early Tertiary period) of northern Jiangsu and western Liaohe. It is called transitional mixed texture. It's the sediment of the effective wave and flow in depositional process of sediment transports along the flowing direction. And it differs from the grain-size probability curve of river mouth bar sand with double saltation population concave upward, The latter is a reflection of the depositional process of bidirectional transport by swash and backwash.
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    SOME PROBLEMS ON THE DIVISION OF THE SUB-TROPICAL BELT IN CHINA
    Qiu Baojian
    1984, 3 (1):  66-76.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010011
    Abstract ( 701 )   PDF (871KB) ( 660 )   Save
    The sub-tropical belt in China covers a vast area with abundant produ cts, dense population and various climates. HOW to divide this belt climato-logically is an important problem and has long been debated. The author's opinions are as follows.1) The sub-tropical belt in China is divided into 3 sub-belts. the north, the middle and the south sub-tropical.2) Whether or not there is "dead-winter" is the main difference between the sub-tropical and the temperate belts, and the boundary coincides approximately with the 0℃ isotherm of the coldest month. Thermophilous crops that cannot be cultivated in winter is the distinction of sub-tropical belt from tropical belt, and the line of demarcation lies along the 15℃ isotherm of the coldest month.3) In the north sub-tropical belt the planting system is rice-wheat, two crops per year. The accumulation of daily temperature>10℃ is 4500-5300℃. In the middle sub-tropical belt, one can harvest five times every two years. The crops are double cropping rice, wheat or green manure, with an accumulated temp'erature (>10℃) of 5300-6500℃. The south sub-tropical belt crops three times per year, cool-like crops is adopted after the harvest of double-cropping rice, and thermophilous crops are sometimes planted too, the accumulated temperature (>10℃) is 6500-8000℃.4) In consideration of the regionalization of climates in the Plateau,the indices will be different from those used in the plain. It is suggested that the accumulation of daily temperature>10℃, which has been employed as indices in the above demarcation, should be minus 300-500℃ in the Plateau.
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    RECENT CHANGES IN THE LAKES OF XINJIANG
    Fan Zili, Li Jiang
    1984, 3 (1):  77-86.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010012
    Abstract ( 728 )   PDF (744KB) ( 823 )   Save
    The lakes of Xinjiang have had greatly changes since liberation. All the lakes there can be divided into 5 types according to their change in area: 1. dried up, 2. almost dried up, 3. shrinking, 4. changed mot much and, 5. expanding.The lakes in desert area tend to dry up, (for examples, the Nop Nor, the Manasi lake etc.) the lakes in the plain tend to shrink, (the Bositeng lake, the Wulungu lake etc.) and the lakes in mountain area remain their niginal out-look, (the sailimu lake, the Kanasi lake etc.)Recent changes in the lakes mainly include salinization of water quality and shrinkage in area and deepth. In the year 1958 the mineralization of the Bositeng lake was less than 0.4g/l, while in 1975 it rose to 1.5g/l, and in 1980 to 1.8g/l.The average annual increase was 0.06g/l which is quite amazing, in the year 1959 the Wulungu lake was 482.8 M. above-sea-level, while in 1969 it went down to 480.0 M. and in 1980 to 478.8M. 4 M. It has a total drop of about the last two decades.These changes make a profound impact on the ecosystem of the lakes. The area of desertifaication increased rapidly from 12% to 52% during the year from 1958 to 1978 around the Nop Nor region where a big lake had disappeared Biological resourses were degenarated in most of the lakes. Fishery output of the Wulungu lake decreased from 4000 tons to less an one thousand ton per years.Reed resourses of the Bositeng lake decreased from 0.4 million tons to 0.25 million tons per year during the same period.The cause of the changes is basically due to the influence of human activities. Large-scale reclamation reeds a huge amount of irrigation water from the rivers and it has to drain off salt water into the lakes. On the other hand, recent cyclical decrease of runoff is another important reason of the changes.The methods to prevent the lakes from becoming arid land and the way to utilize the lakes for multiple purposes are also discussed.
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    STUDIES ON THE BACKGROUND VALUE OF SOME ELEMENTS IN THE XIANGJIANG RIVER
    Zhang Licheng, Zhang Shen, Dong Wenjiang, Rao Lili, Zhao Guijiu, Pan Youmin, Li Jian, Huang Zhang
    1984, 3 (1):  87-95.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010013
    Abstract ( 576 )   PDF (570KB) ( 916 )   Save
    In this paper, the background value of Cd, Zn, Cu,Pb,Hg, As, Cr, Mn, Be, Fe, Ca in the Xiangjiang river water and that of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, Ca, Zr, B, Be etc in the sediment altogether of twenty elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotmeter and other chemical methods.The factor which influences the natural concentration and difference of distrubtion of the elements in the river water and in the sediment was analysed. It is clear the elements in the river water were controlled by regional climate, rock and hydrologic chemistry, and those in the sediment were effected by regional geology and hysterogenetic geochemistry.
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    GEOGRAPHY AND FUZZY MATHEMATICS
    Li Juzhang
    1984, 3 (1):  96-101.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010014
    Abstract ( 546 )   PDF (446KB) ( 959 )   Save
    Geography is a branch of comprehensive basic science. In geoscience the problems are so complex and multivariable that we need wide knowledge and a wealth of data to study them from many sides and various angles. So it is necessary to have an aid of a computer in the research. But at the same time it also makes a lot of problems uncertain and difficult to be solved by traditional mathematics.Fuzzy mathematics is a new branch of mathematics, which is a useful means to resolve the uncertain issues, like a bridge leading from qualitative to quantitative way.Obviously, since geography has a great number of fuzzy concepts and fuzzy logics, so fuzzy mathematics will be useful in the near future at least in concept-definition, synthetical evaluation, classification and regionalization, genetic analysis,paleo-environmental analysis, remote sensing,informational interpretation as well as in macroscopic analysis.
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    THE HISTORICAL AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHANGES OF THE VEGETATION IN THE AREA OF CHENGDE AND WEICHANG
    Niu Zhongxun, Pu Hanxin
    1984, 3 (1):  102-108.  doi: 10.11821/yj1984010015
    Abstract ( 715 )   PDF (561KB) ( 850 )   Save
    Chengde was an imperial summer resort situated in the northern part of Hopei province and Weichang, located at the north of chengde,was an enclosure for hunting feild during the Qing Dynasty (1702A.D-1906A.D).As this area was preserved for the emperors to hunt, explortation was prohibited until the middle stage of the Qing Dynasty. Intensive agriculture has been undertaken only for 300 years.But the misuse of the surrounding mountain area has brought great changes to the vegetation and ecolgecal environment there, such as deforestation for farmland and fuel, desertization in the grassland and serious soil erosion.This paper tells breifly the natural history of the vegetation in the area and discusses the relationship between the agricultural development and the changes of the environment.
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