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    15 December 1982, Volume 1 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY OF IT
    Guo Yang
    1982, 1 (4):  1-9.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040001
    Abstract ( 476 )   PDF (651KB) ( 403 )   Save
    This paper deals with the characteristics of the geographical literature and explains the regularity of its distribution.Geography studies the inner relationships and the law of evolution of various natural and human phenomena.It is a synthetic and regional science interrelated and overlapped with many other disciplines. It is only natural that these characteristics give impact to geographical literature.The usage of geographical literature lasts longer than that of other kinds of literature, and its source and distribution are particularly scattered. By analyzing the literature cited from the digests and magazines, this paper shows that in the li-teraure of periodicals used by geographers, only about 25% come from geographical periodicals. The percentage is higher in the synthetic and summary study, and lower in the study of the branches of geography or of techniques. A large part of the reference comes from the periodicals of related disciplines. That is the reason why geographers have to spend more time in collecting data from different books and magazines.Finally, this paper elucidates the significance for those who study the geographical literature to understand the trend of the development of geography, the selection of tasks, the consultation of literature as well as the improvement of its management.
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    WIND POLLUTION INDEX AND WIND POLLUTION FREQUENCY——A CLIMATOLOGICAL PROBIEM IN URBAN PLANNING
    Zhang Jingzhe
    1982, 1 (4):  10-16.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040002
    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (500KB) ( 560 )   Save
    The prevailing wind principle has long been adopted by urban planners, especially in the master plan stage. According to the principle, districts of industrial plants emitting air pollutants are located on the leeward of the city by prevailing wind, so that the urban air will not be polluted. But practi ce has proved that the principle is not alwaystrue. In this paper,the weakness of the prevailing wind principle is exposed and a new approach to the problem is proposed.It is pointed out that for the wind from any direction what determines the frequency of the occurrence of air pollution on the leeward of a given emissionsource is not the frequency of the wind but the frequency of tie occurrence of the weather conducive to air pollution associated with the wind. And the fact that the frequency of the prevailing wind is higher than that of the wind from other direction does not necessarily mean that the frequency of the occurrence of air pollution associated with the prevailing wind is higher than that associated with the wind from other direction.Therefore it is important for urban planners to find out the frequencies of occurrence of weather conducive to air pollution associated with winds from different directions. This can be done by using two. equations proposed in this paper. One is used to calculate the Wind Pollution Indeox by using routinely availabe meteorological data, which describes the level of air pollution with a given amount of air pollutants under the weather associated with the wind observed. The other is used to calculate statistically the Wind Pollution Frequency by using the data of Wind Pollution Idex, which describes the frequency of the weather conducive to air pollution associated with the winds from a given direction.
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    THE FLUVIAL PROCESS OF THE LOWER YELLOW RIVER AND ITS EXTENSION OF RIVER MOUTH DEPOSITS
    Zhu Qimao
    1982, 1 (4):  17-25.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040003
    Abstract ( 500 )   PDF (620KB) ( 899 )   Save
    Leaving the narrow valley near Zheng Zhou,the Yellow River flows over an alluvial fan. As a huge amount of sediment was transported into the sea, the river mouth extended into the sea at a rapid rate, silting up the river bed and causing breaching of the bikes and avulsion of the river, and the estuary often changed its position. As a result of this kind of river development process, the old beds of the Yellow River, like branches of a big tree, can be found almost everywhere on the great North-China plain. The cyclical process of the estuary development-rerouting-extending-rerouting, taking place now, is an epitome of the estuary development in the past but on a rather big area. Now, the extension of river mouth is the direct cause of aggradation of the river bed above the point of estuary pivot. Fundamentally, the aggradation is due to the tremendous sediment load resulting from the soil erosion in the upland area of the Yellow River drainage basin.
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    ON THE PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL EVOLUTION OF XIZANG (TIBET) IN THE HOIOCENE
    Li Bingyuan, Wang Fubao, Yang Yichou, Zhang Qingsong
    1982, 1 (4):  26-36.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040004
    Abstract ( 505 )   PDF (814KB) ( 758 )   Save
    Xizang (Tibet) is the main body of the "World Roof" -the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Although the continuous uplift of the Plateau and the global climatic changes had no distinct influence on the entire geomorphological framework notable paleogeographical evolution has been witnessed. According to C14 dating, the process can be divided into three stages:1) early Holocene (10000-7500 years B.P.), when the environment became better, for instance, the retreat of glaciers, the increase of plants, the development of peat and marshes, and salt-lake precipitation in the interior of northern Xizang Plateau; 2) middle Holocene (7500-3000 years B.P.), when both Vegetation and peat-marshes were in the most favourable condition, the forest line occurred over the plateau surface in southern Xizang; glacier retreated to the present position; lakes were at a stage of relatively high water level; climate was warm and humid and human activities spread all over the plateau, 3) late Holocene (3000 years B.P.to the present), also known as neo-ice age. Three glacial advances are seen and natural environment deteriorates; vegetation on the plateau surface is becoming steppe and desert steppe while peat and marshes decline; lakes diminish, and most of the exterior lakes turn into interior ones on the Plateau. Furthermore, salt precipitation becomes stronger; ancient human beings migrate towards the lower parts due to the cold and dry climate, and the northern part of the N.Xizang Plateau became a depopulated area.Distinct paleogeographic regional diff erenciation is recognized in Xizang.The greatest environmental change has been witnessed in the high mountain and broad valley-lake basin region of Southern and central Xizang where the transformation of exterior lakes into interior ones, the development of peat-marshes and the advance and retreat of forest line mostly occur.
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    STUDIES ON THE NORTH AGROCLIMATIC BOUNDARIES OF WINTER WHEAT IN LIAONING, BEIJING AND HEBEI
    Wang Hong
    1982, 1 (4):  37-44.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040005
    Abstract ( 439 )   PDF (590KB) ( 731 )   Save
    A mathematical model about dividing the north agroclimatic boundaries of winter wheat in Liaoning, Beijing and Hebei has been set up in this paper.Spatial climatic equations were used to estimate temperature normals of any point in this region.The agroclimatic equation of death percentage of winter wheat was then applied to the point estimates of winter survival.Death percentages of each grid representing a square area (10×10km) on the topographic maps of 1:1,000,000 scale were computed by the mentioned equations. AII these death percentages were then classified into three classes (<20%, 20-40% and>40%)by computer and printed out by LPT.The demarcation between the first class and the second one is called the safe planting boundary of winter wheat and the other demarcation is the potential planting boundary.The results indicated that the safe planting boundary is similar to the natural boundary in the 1950's in the same area.In the potential planting region, winter wheat should take protective measure with great care so as to reduce the freeze damage.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
    Chen Siujung
    1982, 1 (4):  45-52.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040006
    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (640KB) ( 591 )   Save
    1. Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2. Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism and synthesis. The high synthesis of the interaction between man and land on the basis of regions is unique to geography,In this sense, the main characteristic of geography is shown mostly in regional geography.Regional geography synthetically deals with the interrelated geographical elements which give certain commonness and uniqueness to the region. There are a lot of synthetic problems concerning regional geography in practice.Regional geography should play the role it should do. In order to develop geography completely, it is necessary to rejuvenate regional geography.3.The old regional geography can't meet the needs of today's situation, we should reform regional geography on the basis of modern science.(1) Persistng in the Regional and Synthetic View.The important facts and characteristics of geography within a region should be comprehensively explored with an synthetic eye.Every element and part of a region should be understood thoroughly.On this basis the synthesis on a higher level can be made.(2) Taking Man and Land Relationship as the Research CoreThe theory of man and land relationship of today has been further devel-oped than before. How to coordinate the relationship between man and nature has become the important aim of geography. Geography studies the areal systems of man and land relationship.According to certain indexes,the areal systems on the earth surface can be divided into regions with different sizes, and the man and land relationship within these regions is the research core of regional geography.( 3 ) Taking Topical Study as the Main FormOn the basis of a comprehensive study of a region,some prominent aspects within a region which belong to man and land relationship and reflect the characteristic of the region would be selected and studied thoroughly. The geographical background and the associated elements that caused some problems would be focused and stated. How to impel and turn these problems to benefit human society -would be discussed.(4) Applying Quantitative Method, Constructing Various Models and Making System AnalysisWe should make full use of the modern techniques and means and scientific methods in regional geography, thus promoting the modernization of the research work of regional geography.
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    THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTER IN RESEARCH OF RIVER BED AND LANDFORMS——COMPUTE THE SILTATION CONTENT AND LANDFORM MAP DRAWING
    Liu Shulou, Hong Xiaotian, Ma Shaojia, Peng Yushui, Sun Li, Chen Baowen
    1982, 1 (4):  53-62.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040007
    Abstract ( 548 )   PDF (586KB) ( 725 )   Save
    Based upon "box model" of river bed, according to the landform parameter of landform characteristics of stochastic distribution of river bed, this paper studied and deduced the calculating method of duplex linear interpolation by weighted average of altitude-divide-joint of river bed net. And also by using calculation method we computed separately the volume of erosion and siltation according to the cuboid, section and column of the river bed, and evaluated the siltation content and the landform parameter according to river bed joint, and established the digital model of river bed landform and finally drew the isohyet landform map automatically. By applying this method, we carried on the calculation of the siltation content and the autodraft of the landform map of the river bed which was formed by five artificial intermittent crustal movements in the laboratory.
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    THE CIRCULATION PATTERNS OF PRECIPITATION AT THE AUTUMN FLOOD PERIOD OVER THE DAN-JIANG-KOU RESERVOIR
    Si Youyuan
    1982, 1 (4):  63-72.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040008
    Abstract ( 500 )   PDF (639KB) ( 594 )   Save
    In this Paper Clustering analysis was used to classify the 500 mb circualtion fields in September at 10°E-165.°w and 10°N-70°N in 1951-1980, for the purpose of understanding the characteristics of atmospheric circulation in different patterns, the variations of the precipitation in the Dan-Jiang-Kou reservoir basin and the mean discharge of the entering flow under the influences of different patterns.This paper provided too the climatic background for the rational dispatch and flood control of the reservoir to make the maximum benefit of it
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    STUDY ON THE POSSIBILITY OF NORTHWARD MIGRATION OF ONCOMEIANIA SNAILS CAUSED BY CHINA’S SOUTH-TO-NORTH WATER DIVERSION PROJECT
    Xiao Rongwei, Sun Chingi, Chen Yunting
    1982, 1 (4):  73-79.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040009
    Abstract ( 501 )   PDF (518KB) ( 615 )   Save
    After two years'field and laboratory observation, the results of this study have practically answered the question of the possibility of northward migration of Oncomelania snails due to China's South-to-North water diversion project. This paper has provided the main scientific reasons why the areas north of 33°15'N in China are not suitable for the living and multiplication of the Oncomelania snails. Also effective measures are suggested to prevent the migration of the snails. Findings of the study may be important for the planning and assessment of the South-to-North water diversion project.
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    THE EXCAVATION OF THE HUI MIN HE RIVER AND THE SENDING OF WATER FROM SOUTH TO NORTH
    Sheng Fuyao, Chen Daiguang
    1982, 1 (4):  80-88.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040010
    Abstract ( 527 )   PDF (674KB) ( 525 )   Save
    The Hui Min He is one of the four canals used for sending grain to Dong Jing (Kei Feng) in the Northern Song Dynasty, It played an important role in navigationThe Hui Min He River consists of three sections. Min He,Cai He and the canal from Da Liu dam of He Liu Chen to chang ping chen which emptied into the Cai He.with the exception of the Cai He, the other two rivers were all excavaed during the period of Northern Song Dynsty.This article basing on the records and field investigation, discusses the following questions.The purpose for the Northern Song Dynasty to excavate the Hui Min He was to solve the problem of water-shortage in the canal and the navigation in the southwest district of Henan province.The project of excavating the Hui Min He contains two parts.One begins near Ying Chang Fu (now named Hsu Chang) which was excavated to lead the wei He and Yi He to Dong Jing (Kei Feng), so that grain could be transported from the south west district to Dong Jing and the water source of the canal be replenished.The other one was excavated from Da Liu dam of He Liu-chen(now named Xiao Yao Chen of Xi Hua) to Chang-ping-chen(now situated in the northeast of xi Hua).Besides,the canal in Fang Cheng corridor was also excavated so as to link up the communication between the Yangtze River basin and the Huang.Huai River basin.This project, however, failed because of the lack of precision in designing and the inferior quality of engineering.The excavation of the Hui Min He by the Northern Song Dynasty realized partially the plan of sending water from south to north among the regions in Henan province and also promoted and facilitated navigation and irrigation.The excavating plan of Hui Min He the selection of its water route and the experience of success or failure are still today of practical significance in estabilishing the middle-route transfer of the Yangtze water northward.
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    1982, 1 (4):  95-96.  doi: 10.11821/yj1982040013
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (162KB) ( 622 )   Save
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