Table of Content

    15 September 2015, Volume 34 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Land use transition and land management
    Hualou LONG
    2015, 34 (9):  1607-1618.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509001
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    With the introduction of land use transition to the academic circle of China since the turn of the new millennium, related researches combining with the characteristics of China's socio-economic development have been carried out extensively. Recently, issues related to land use transition in China have attracted interest among a wide variety of researchers as well as the government officials. Land use transition refers to the changes in land use morphology including dominant morphology and recessive morphology of a certain region over a certain period of time driven by socio-economic change and innovation. In general, dominant land use morphology refers to the quantity, structure and spatial pattern of land use, and recessive land use morphology includes land use features in terms of aspects of quality, price, property rights, management mode, input and productive ability, and function. This paper puts forward the theoretical model of regional land use transition as the following: with the socio-economic development, the transformations between different land use types during a certain period of time arise the changes of regional land use morphology pattern from strong conflict to weak conflict, i.e., coordination, which enable a new balance between different land use morphology patterns reflecting the development trend of different economic departments, and then realize the transformation of urban-rural land use system from quantitative change to qualitative change. Then, the mechanism of mutual feedback between land use transition and land management was probed based on a three-fold framework of natural system-economic system-managerial institution system. Generally, land use transition is affected by land management via economic measures, land resources engineering, policy and institution. Land use transition can also contribute to the adjustment of land management measures via socio-ecological feedback. Therefore, policy-makers need to adjust their land management policies taking into account the continuous change of land use morphology and different phases of regional land use transition. Under the background of urban-rural transformation development, the researches of land use transition and land management may focus on how to measure the transitions of land use dominant morphology and recessive morphology and the subsequent transition of the function of land use system, how to measure the socio-economic and environmental effects of land use transitions, how to refine the popular model of regional land use transition, and how to adjust land use transition via socio-economic and engineering measurements. Finally, the author argues that more attentions need to be paid to the recessive morphology of land use, the change of which is the key to policy and institution innovation and improving land management.

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    Land use scenario design and simulation based on Dyna-CLUE model in Dianchi Lake Watershed
    Wentao LU, Chao DAI, Huaicheng GUO
    2015, 34 (9):  1619-1629.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509002
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    Taking Dianchi Lake Watershed as a study area, we use Dyna-CLUE to simulate the land use spatial distribution pattern of the Dianchi Lake Watershed in 2008 in combination with the interpretation data from TM image in 1999 and 2002 and local natural and socio-economic data. According to the trend of land use change in the Dianchi Lake Watershed and the policy of returning farmland to forestland, three scenarios of land use change from 2008 to 2022 were constructed, and land use spatial pattern in 2022 in the study area was stimulated under the above-mentioned scenarios by using the Dyna-CLUE model. The results show that Kappa coefficients of the two simulated results from1999 to 2008 and from 2002 to 2008 were 0.6814 and 0.7124, compared with the interpretation data of 2008. The simulated results were credible and the Dyna-CLUE model has a good applicability in simulating land use change in the Dianchi Lake Watershed. The simulation results of the three scenarios show that the unused land and farmland will be reduced significantly, construction land and woodland will increase rapidly, and water bodies and grassland will change a little. Because of the difference in the policy of returning farmland to forestland, farmland and forestland in Guandu district, Chenggong district, Songming county and Jinning county will be different under the three scenarios. The expansion of construction land in the watershed will increase the load of non-point source pollution in the Dianchi Lake. Unreasonable distribution of land use will result in further deterioration of the water quality and increase the pressure on the water environment in the Dianchi Lake. The research can provide scientific support for rational planning of land use and prevention of non-point source pollution.

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    Land use spatial conflicts and complexity: A case study of the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay, China
    De ZHOU, Jianchun XU, Li WANG
    2015, 34 (9):  1630-1642.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509003
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    Land use conflicts are important and a concern for urban managers, especially in a rapid urbanization areas. Managers need to understand land use conflicts better so that they could make optimal decisions on land use allocations and conflict management. However, land use conflicts are complicated. With the rapid urbanization process, the land spatial configuration of contradictory uses may cause spatial conflicts. The urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay (UAHB), China, is a typical rapid urbanization area, and also experienced a significant expansion of urban land and dramatic changes to the urban land use spatial configuration through urban growth and their geographic determinants. In this paper, a case study of spatial-temporal variance and complexity of land use conflict was conducted in the UAHB, as to provide theoretical basis and practical support for managing land use conflict. Based on four dimensions (space - time - scale - gradient) and the analysis of land use system complexity as well as vulnerability and dynamics, the comprehensive index of land use spatial conflicts has been conducted by constructing the comprehensive calculation model and using geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing images (RS) of four years (1990, 2000, 1990 and 2013), and spatial statistics and landscape metrics. The results show that: (1) land use conflicts grade presented an order of general conflicts > moderate conflict > slight conflict > high conflict; (2) the spatial pattern of land use conflicts, characterized by clumps, block and banded space aggregation, showed obvious gradient evolution; (3) with the elapse of time, the spatial autocorrelation of land use conflicts have been waning gradually, and have obvious edge effect; (4) the random factors and structural factors are affecting land use conflicts. The paper concludes that (1) land use conflicts showed an evolvement rule, i.e., equilibrium→break the original balance→the spatial autocorrelation→trend in space→self-organizing (fractal); (2) the development of land use conflicts evolved from the multi-core to the single core model, which means the balanced development of the high degree of integration of urban and rural areas and urban agglomerations.

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    Eco-geographical regionalization in Loess Plateau based on the dynamic consistency of vegetation
    Tian ZHANG, Jian PENG, Yanxu LIU, Mingyue ZHAO
    2015, 34 (9):  1643-1661.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509004
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    As a new branch of natural regionalization, eco-geographical regionalization is a core study subject of geography and ecology in recent years, and it has been widely concerned by scholars at home and abroad, which plays a very important role in understanding the geographical differentiation, social production and regional planning activities. However, the traditional researches on eco-geographical regionalization were mostly based on the three-level deduction method from top to bottom. Moreover, the existing researches of eco-geographical regionalization did not focus much on the optimization method on multi- regionalization. Meanwhile, the Loess Plateau in China was widely known as the typical ecological fragile zone, where the growth and restoration of vegetation are closely related with the mitigation of local ecological dilemma, therefore, it would be helpful to have a deeper recognition on the eco-environment of the Loess Plateau and its spatial distribution if we consider the condition of vegetation restoration as an important index to evaluate the rationality of regionalization. This paper selected the annual average temperature of January and July, the number of days with the temperature >10oC, annual precipitation, annual average solar radiation, the drought index, NDVI, DEM and vegetation coverage as the ecological indicators, and used a method based on self-organizing mapping neural network (SOFM) to evaluate the bioclimatic regionalization in the Loess Plateau. Then we discussed the spatial distribution of the chosen indicators based on the GIS spatial analysis and mapping function. In this paper, we compared the 12 types of regionalization in the Loess Plateau and chose the best one to reflect the vegetation restoration during 29 years in the study area based on the dynamic consistency of vegetation and the two-type screening method. Eventually, we found it more reasonable to divide the Loess Plateau into six parts, and each part could fundamentally fit the actual ecological condition and the spatial characteristics of the study area. At the same time, vegetation shows a similar growth trend in each part and the coefficient of the final regionalization scheme of variation index of the annual average NPP is the lowest, which means the aggregation degree of elements is the strongest inside the region. The regionalization scheme of this study has a good consistency with the existing regionalization scheme, and it is clearer than the existing ones because of the different regionalization scales. Therefore, this paper explored the multi-program optimization method in the eco-geographical regionalization, and enhanced the objectivity of the bottom-up eco-geographical regionalization.

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    Variations of main phenophases of natural calendar and analysis of responses to climate change in Harbin in 1985-2012
    Yunjia XU, Junhu DAI, Huanjiong WANG, Yachen LIU
    2015, 34 (9):  1662-1674.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509005
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    According to the phenological data from Chinese Phenology Observation Network of Chinese Academy of Sciences, we compiled the natural calendar for 1985-2012 with 21 plant species and 99 phenophases in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province. Comparing the calendar with the original one for 1963-1984, the research revealed the variation characteristics of 99 phenophases. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to examine the relationships between changes of phenophases and climatic drivers. Since 1985, timing of phenological spring (represented by the timing of bud expansion of Ulmus pumila), summer (represented by the timing of 50% of full flowering of Syringa reticulate) and autumn (represented by the timing of fruit maturity of Lonicera maackii) have been advanced by 7 days, 6 days and 19 days respectively, while timing of phenological winter (represented by the timing of end of leaf fall of Juglans mandshurica) has been delayed by 2 days. Meanwhile, compared with the original calendar, the average dates of phenophases have been advanced by 3 to 11 days in spring, summer and autumn, but delayed by 3 days in winter. The earliest date of phenology showed advances mainly in all seasons, while the latest dates of phenology were delayed in summer and winter. The order of some phenophases in phenological seasons changed with different degrees. Temperature changes before the majority of phenophases is probably the main reason for the changes of phenological season in the last 30 years. Different sensibility of different species and phenophases may result in the change of phenophases order in seasons. The result that the phenological events in spring have been advanced in accordance with many other studies at home and abroad, showing the responses of ecosystems to a warming atmosphere.

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    Analysis of spatial stationary characteristics of air temperature data in different time scales, seasons and its influence on interpolation performance
    Chunxia GUO, Yunqiang ZHU, Wei SUN
    2015, 34 (9):  1675-1684.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509006
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    Spatial stationary is a hypothesis for most geo-statistical processes. In order to explore the influence of spatial non-stationary on air temperature interpolation performance, a set of air temperature data in different time scales (including daily average air temperature, monthly average air temperature of January and July and annual average air temperature in 2010) are used. First of all, stepwise regression analysis is adopted to select the most important regression parameters for each data set of temperature. Then trend line analysis is used to estimate whether the air temperature data meets the assumption of spatial stationary. Finally, ten-cross validation is carried out by using the interpolation methods of ordinary linear regression, ordinary kriging, and regression kriging respectively. According to the results, the conclusion can be summarized as follows: 1) Daily average, monthly average air temperature of January, and annual average air temperature data present spatial non-stationary characteristic and an obvious change trend in the north-south direction; while daily average and monthly average air temperature of July are spatial stationary. Interpolation accuracy of daily average air temperature in July, which is spatial stationary, is significantly higher than that in January, which is spatial non-stationary. 2) In general, all the three interpolation methods obtain the best prediction results on annual dataset, then monthly datasets, worst on daily datasets, because the spatial structure of the daily air temperature dataset is more non-stationary than that of the monthly and annual temperature datasets. In terms of time series, the interpolation error reduces with the decrease of the degree of reduction. 3) Regression kriging achieves higher interpolation accuracy on each dataset in general than ordinary kriging, furthermore the improvement of interpolation accuracy achieved by regression kriging is more obvious on non-stationary datasets than on stationary datasets. 4) Distribution of air temperature interpolated by various techniques presents significantly difference in daily time scale, but in monthly and annual scales, there is no significant difference. Values in long time series, which are the means of values in short time series, weaken the occurrence probability of extreme values. Thus the distribution ranges of air temperature in January and July decrease, compared with daily average air temperature in corresponding seasons.

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    A study of the functional features of China's urban service industries
    Chunshui ZENG, Yuming SHEN
    2015, 34 (9):  1685-1696.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509007
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    A study of the functional features of China's urban service industries can provide scientific support for the development of the urban service sector to an appropriate scale, industrial make-up and spatial structure, and for exploring different routes for development from city to city. Based on a survey of 287 cities at prefecture level and above in China, this paper uses Nelson methods, flow measurement models, B/N ratio and spatial autocorrelation to conduct quantitative research on the functional scale, specialized units and functional strength of urban service industries in various cities in China. It presents an analysis of the level of labor division, development trends and spatial patterns of different service industries. The research demonstrates that China's exported services are highly concentrated in high-end service centers, and that the functional structures of service centers at various levels differ sharply. Geographically, both the import and export of urban services progressively diminish in scale from eastern to central and western China. Sources of exported urban services show no tendency to concentrate in a certain area, but the import of urban services displays a slight concentration in space, where cities are clustered in the same way as major urban agglomerations of China. In different service industries, the levels of labor divisions vary, but are deepening overall. Finally, it was found that imported service industries are of relatively low concentration, and because all cities demand the development of service industries, it is asserted that tailored development strategies should be taken in individual cities.

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    The evolutionary paths of new emerging industry in cities: A case study of the Internet of things industry in the Yangtze River Delta region
    Mingfeng WANG, Houxue XI
    2015, 34 (9):  1697-1707.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509008
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    The geography of innovation and the regional development have attracted considerable scholarly attention, especially the spatial evolution processes of new technologies, enterprises, and industries. The development of a particular industry varies across locations, and more work is needed to study an emerging industry from a geographical perspective. The evolutionary economic geography provides effective theoretical tools for the analysis of the spatial evolution of industries and contributes to a better cognition of the mechanism for the evolution of economic landscapes. A significant agglomeration has been found in the Internet of things (IoT) industry in the following locations: Yangtze River Delta region, Pearl River Delta region, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Bohai Rim) region, and some developed cities in the central and western regions of China. As the origin of the IoT industry, the Yangtze River Delta region has a full-fledged industry chain. Based on the path dependence theory, this paper explores the local differences of the emergence and evolution of the IoT industry in four cities of the Yangtze River Delta region: Wuxi, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou. In Wuxi, occasional opportunity and local government are the significant determinants, while the development of IoT industry in Shanghai is driven by the industrial base and innovative institutional environment. For Nanjing and Hangzhou, the interactions between the fundamental conditions of industry and the state policies are the major impetuses. In conclusion, technological base, government policy, and occasional opportunity are the main drivers in the initial stage of emerging industry in China.

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    The spatial pattern of Shanghai urban industry based on point data
    Yuhong CAO, Yanqing SONG, Shengqing ZHU, Xianfu CHENG
    2015, 34 (9):  1708-1720.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509000
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    The urban industry is embedded in the city area which has its unique location characteristics and spatial pattern. Based on the micro-data of Shanghai urban industry enterprises in 2008, with the methods of location quotient, hot spot analysis and proximity index analysis, the paper explores the spatial distribution and the agglomeration characteristics of urban industries, as well as the spatial proximity relations among various industries during the process of industrial suburbanization. Results show that: First of all, the location choice of urban industry enterprises in Shanghai has a dual directivity to both central city and suburban areas, the range of 10~20 kilometers from city center is the densest area of urban industries, and the overall spatial distribution of urban industries has obvious heterogeneous characteristics. Food processing, packaging and printing, manufacture of tourism crafts and manufacture of small-scale electronic information constitute comparative advantage industries of central city, manufacture of interior adornment composes the comparative advantage industry of suburbs, and clothing accessories industry and manufacture of makeup and washing supplies constitute comparative advantage industries of suburban regions. Secondly, all kinds of industrial parks including commercial buildings, urban industrial zones and industrial estates in the city have become the major carrier of spatial agglomeration, which present "crater" gathering morphology. There are also some differences among the inter-industry according to the pattern of spatial agglomeration. Thirdly, when it comes to the spatial proximity relations, aside from being affected by some factors including the local government development policies, economic history basis and traffic location, the layout between all urban industries shows the following characteristics: the proximity layout is based on the same factor inputs, productive correlation, common market and policy orientation while the weak proximity layout is based on the heterogeneous exclusivity and environmental requirements.

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    An empirical analysis of foreign firm presence on privatization in China: The role of regional endowment
    Yi LIU
    2015, 34 (9):  1721-1732.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509010
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    This paper investigates the role of various regional endowments in influencing the privatization decision for domestic establishments in China through foreign firm presence. The regional endowment has been divided into three categories: geographical endowment, natural endowment, and social endowment. The dependent variable is firm-level state ownership, a percentage variable from zero to hundred percent. The key explanatory variable is firm-level foreign enterprise presence, measured by net fixed asset of a local firm relative to that of an average level of that of foreign firms within the same sector. Because of endogeneity, the instrument variable for foreign firm presence are natural and social regional endowments, represented by regional mineral reserves, including petroleum and coal, regional total sown area, and regional total number of full-time faculty in local institutions and universities. The important control variable is geographical endowment, represented by following two variables, a dummy variable indicating whether the city where a local firm is located is a coastal city, Changjiang riverside city, or special economic zone, and a quantitative variable calculating the regional freight gross of roads, waterways and railways where the local firm is located. By implementing IV-Tobit estimation and using enterprise surveys by the World Bank of more than twelve thousand Chinese firms located over approximately a hundred Chinese cities, we find the following empirical results based on the support of empirical evidence: first, averagely, increasing in foreign firm presence of a local firm decreases the state ownership of that firm; Second, the richer the regional mineral reserves, the lower the presence of foreign firms within that region; However, the cities with wealthy educational resource attract foreign enterprises to be located there. Third, as the opening up policies launching gradually from eastern to central and western China, the positive beneficial effect brought by being in coastal cities, Changjiang riverside cities, and special economic zones to the firm-level ownership structure reform has been faded out. Notwithstanding, the regional transportation development shows its significant impact on mixed ownership economy.

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    Research of citizenship pressure based on the spatial pattern of population
    Dongsheng YAN, Wen CHEN, Pingxing LI
    2015, 34 (9):  1733-1743.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509011
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    Since the reform and opening up, the large-scale migration in China has caused dramatic changes in population distribution, which has become a hot research field of human geography. Drawing upon official census data in 2010, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of registered population (huji renkou), resident population (changzhu renkou) and the relationship between them with the help of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). The results indicate that: (1) The overall distribution of both the resident and registered population is consistent with the Demarcation Line from Heihe of Heilongjiang Province in the northeast to Tengchong of Yunnan Province in the southwest, namely the "Hu Huanyong Line", reflecting a strong spatial agglomeration in the east coastal regions. (2) Registered and resident population are mainly concentrated around the traffic lines and economic belts. Furthermore, the distribution of resident population is based on a stronger oriented economy. (3) By incorporating the method of ESDA, we also reveal the distinct patterns of migration on the whole: migration patterns demonstrate an obvious tendency from the central to the eastern regions of China. (4) The population migration also leads to an obvious difference between hot spot regions of registered and resident population. Although the range of hotspots are different between registered and permanent population, both of them are clustered in the Pan Pearl River Delta and the core areas of the Yangtze River Delta. In addition, the authors apply the ratio of registered and resident population and per capita GDP to identify the four different categories, and then analyze per capita GDP, the ratio of registered and resident population, citizenization pressure and interrelation among them, which may provide references for urbanization research.

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    Job accessibility and its impact on income: Outcomes from Shanghai Metropolitan Area
    Jiangjie WU, Bindong SUN
    2015, 34 (9):  1744-1754.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509012
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    The social effects of city spatial structure have long been an important issue in the field of urban geography and urban economics research. However, the impact of job-housing spatial relationship on income has received little attention in empirical analyses. Employing the Sixth Population Census and the Second Economic Census datasets, we apply a measure of job accessibility developed by Ong & Blumenberg to describe the spatial structure of employment opportunities and working people in Shanghai Metropolitan Area at sub-district level. Combining survey data, we empirically investigate the extent to which individual income may be influenced by job proximity. The results are the following. First, Shanghai has a polycentric job accessibility structure, indicating that job accessibility are very similar both in the inner city and in the sub-district. This does not apply to the case of Beijing. The main reason which can explain this phenomenon may be that Beijing and Shanghai have different industrial structures. Beijing strongly relies on services sector, which has caused most of job opportunities to be located in inner-city. As for Shanghai, manufacture still plays an important role in economic growth and many of jobs are located in suburban area of Shanghai. Second, the output of the regression shows that incomes are significantly and positively associated with job accessibility, indicating that personal income level increases along with job proximity increases correspondingly. In more detail, people who live in the sub-districts with richer job opportunities have higher income level. For people who live in job-poor sub-districts usually have lower incomes, which may be due to higher commuting expense and employment pressure. Since job proximity is closely related to income, those housing areas far from inner city and job opportunities may not only damage social efficiency but also drive the level of individual income down. This may be one of the reasons why people are not willing to live far from inner-city. It also inspires the local government that moderate measures on increasing job accessibilities are needed for improving employment situation and individuals’ income level. Job accessibility can be improved by creating more job opportunities which are suitable to the residents, and also by enabling the workers to travel easily to work sites.

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    Evolution of road accessibility and its effects on economy development in Wuling Mountain Areas from 1978 to 2012
    Wulin WANG, Miaomiao WANG, Xiaoshu CAO
    2015, 34 (9):  1755-1769.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509013
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    The patterns and characteristics of accessibility evolution in 64 counties (county-level city, district) of Wuling Mountain Areas and 38 cities related to the surroundings from 1978 to 2012 are discussed. Based on the indexes of accessibility coefficient and weighted average travel time, the GIS network and space analysis are employed. Then after the pattern analysis of economic development in this region, Cobb-Douglas Production Function Model is used to simulate the impact of accessibility on economic development. The research shows that the accessibility coefficient was consistent from 1978 to 2000, but the smaller values of accessibility coefficient turned to be agglomerated towards the southeast areas from 2000 to 2012. During the period 1978-2000, both the qualities of economy weighted average travel time and population weighted average travel time showed a gradual decline from east to west, and constructed a "circling structure". However both the smaller value of economy weighted average travel time and population weighted average travel time mainly appeared in the southeast from 2000 to 2012, because of the rapid and advanced development of road networks in the eastern and southern areas. From 2000 to 2012, the patterns of economic development were relatively stable, forming an economic development pattern of "strong east and north, but weak south and central north", while the absolute gap in economic development was widening with a strong and obvious trend of polarization. At the same time, the importance of the accessibility for Wuling Mountain Areas changed. The accessibility quality had more effect on the growth of GDP, and the improvement of accessibility promoted the growth of GDP in the study area on the whole, which is more important for the local eonomic development. Meanwhile, the improvement of accessibility weakened the development of primary industry, but had a gradually increasing positive influence on the secondary industry and noticeably increasing positive influence on the tertiary industry. This paper enriches the empirical and theoretical relation between transportation and economic development in poor regions, provides reference to the formulation of relevant policies, and is instructive and meaningful to the enhancement of accessibility and economic development.

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    Influence of high-speed rail on choices of tourist destination based on the gravity model: A case study of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail in China
    Degen WANG, Yu NIU, Li WANG
    2015, 34 (9):  1770-1780.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509014
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    The goal of this study was to identify the primary factors affecting choices of tourism destination through factor analysis and to measure the degree of change in the influence of primary factors on tourism destination choices under the high-speed rail condition by constructing a tourism supply-demand gravity model. The results showed that travel time, tourism resource endowment, reception ability and traffic accessibility were the four primary influencing factors. The spatial distance from the tourist’s origin to the destination was the most important factor influencing the choice of tourist destination before the high-speed rail opened, and distance promoted resistance to travel. However, the situation significantly changed after the opening of the high-speed rail. The resistance to travel associated with distance tended to be weak, and the traffic network density, the endowed resources and the reception ability of the tourist site have become the most important factors influencing the choice of destination. This study provided a theoretical framework for constructing tourism destination in the era of the high-speed rail, which will enable the development of a scientific and reasonable system incorporating tourism elements under high-speed rail conditions that will optimize and improve the tourism destination.

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    Evolution characteristics and mechanism of tourism commercialization development in a religious heritage site: A case study of Shaolin Temple Scenic Area
    Aili LIU, Qionghua TU, Min LIU, Fucheng LIU
    2015, 34 (9):  1781-1794.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509015
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    Commercialization has become a common phenomenon in the tourism development process of world heritage sites, which remains to be solved in heritage protection and tourism development in practice; especially for the religious cultural heritage sites with special cultural significance, the development of tourism commercialization not only affects the protection of heritage resources and sustainable development, but also brings negative impacts to tourists’ experience. In the theoretical research, the tourism commercialization of ancient towns and ancient villages have been paid special attention while other categories of destinations such as religious cultural heritage sites have aroused little concern. In the research content, the analysis of evolution process of tourism commercialization also lacks a comprehensive and systematic perspective. Based on the review of relevant researches of tourism commercialization, taking Shaolin Temple Scenic Area as a study case, this paper firstly analyzed the evolution of tourism commercialization of the religious heritage site from four perspectives: commercialization stages, cultivation and expansion of industrial chains, tourism landscape transformation and impacts brought by religion secularization, and then examined the mechanism of tourism commercialization of Shaolin Temple Scenic Area from the perspective of stakeholders. The main conclusions of the paper include: (1) The tourism commercialization of Shaolin Temple could be divided into six stages, that is, pre-commercialization stage, preparation commercialization stage, primary commercialization stage, grown-up commercialization stage, development commercialization stage and mature commercialization stage. Seen from the perspective of tourism creative destruction model of Mitchell, the commercialization of Shaolin Temple has been in the post-destruction stage. (2) Seen from the perspective of industry economics, the process of tourism commercialization is the cultivation of industrial chains, which help further the extent of commercialization with the expansion of different industries. (3) Seen from the perspective of semiotics, the process of tourism commercialization is the landscape transformation from original landscape signals to tourism landscape signals. (4) Seen from the perspective of religion secularization, the tourism commercialization is part of the process of religion secularization in religious heritage sites, in which the religious function fades out and the religion constantly adapts to the secular society. (5) The formation of tourism commercialization of Shaolin Temple is affected and restricted by many stakeholders, including the government of Dengfeng City and Songshan Management Committee.

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    Temporal-spatial evolution patterns of regional tourism economic development in Anhui province
    Wenhai HU, Jianping SUN, Feifei YU
    2015, 34 (9):  1795-1806.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509016
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    This paper first analyzes the development modes of regional tourism in Anhui province. Based on the basic data such as total tourism revenue, inbound tourism and domestic tourism revenue between 2001 and 2013 in each city, we analyze economic disparities of regional tourism from the perspectives of temporal variation and spatial evolution. The result shows that, firstly, the development of tourism industry in the region evolves from the dotted mode to the radial mode and then to the dual-core joint development mode. Secondly, economic development of Anhui tourism shows a big disparity among different cities. And the spatial disparity of international tourism is bigger than that of domestic tourism. Thus, the basic pattern that tourism economy of cities in southern Anhui gets ahead of that of cities in northern part has remained fundamentally unchanged. Thirdly, economic development of tourism in different cities of Anhui, inbound tourism in particular, is obviously characterized by the primacy distribution. And the urban primacy index of both the total revenue and domestic tourism has gone through a process of fall in the beginning and rise in the later stage. The urban primacy index of inbound tourism basically follows a downward trend, with the two cities of Huangshan and Hefei competing for the primary city. Fourthly, when elements of the tourism industry are viewed from the temporal perspective, tourist attractions, travel agencies and star hotels have grown rapidly. Viewed from the spatial perspective, tourist attractions are mainly located in Huangshan, Anqing and Lu'an, and travel agencies and star hotels mainly lie in Hefei and Huangshan. Finally, the main factors affecting the evolution of regional tourism economy in Anhui can be attributed to natural endowments of tourism resources, tourism policy, transportation networks, market demand of tourism, strategic adjustment of tourism industry development and level of regional economic development.

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