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    05 February 2018, Volume 37 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspectives and Contention
    Research progress on rural culture in the context of rapid urbanization and tourism development: Academic debate and future research prospects
    Zhenfang HUANG, Rui HUANG
    2018, 37 (2):  233-249.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802001
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    The decline of rural culture in the context of rapid urbanization and tourism development has become an important and urgent problem that constraints both the government's strategy for new urbanization and the development of rural tourism. Guided by the protection of rural culture and the review of the research progress of rural cultural developments, the research ideas, research trends and main scientific issues of the protection, utilization and restoration of rural culture are put forward in this paper, which focuses on key academic debates such as whether the impacts of urbanization and tourism development on rural culture are matters of "boom" or "decline", "originality" protection or "creative" utilization, landscaping or cultural reconstruction. Then, from the perspectives of both the regional and comprehensive geographical thinking and human-nature relationships, this study integrates multi-discipline theories, different methodologies and modern technologies, focuses on the leading scientific issues, and pays close attention to the measurement of the threatening effects of urbanization upon rural culture, as well as its influencing process and mechanism analysis. It also highlights the scientific protection of rural culture, activation utilization of tourism, tourism rural localization and rural tourism orientation, pastoral countryside construction and rural multi-value elevation. Adopting the theory of community resilience, it proposes the model for rural cultural recovery and reconstruction. Thereby, based on the constructivist approach and other theories (e.g., cultural gene, nostalgia memory, etc.), the contents of rural culture have been re-constructed and the cultural reconstruction model featuring Chinese countryside has also been discussed. To conclude, this study presents theoretical support and practical implications for rural revitalization, rural culture preservation and rural tourism sustainable development, as well as provides references and enlightenment for domestic scholars to further study rural culture and rural tourism.

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    Articles
    Research on micro-mechanism of cross-border tourism cooperation based on transport network: A case study of Wuling Mountain area
    Zhaofeng WANG, Sai XU, Chuxiong DENG
    2018, 37 (2):  250-262.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802002
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    Cross-border tourism cooperation expands the tourism field and domain. In the Wuling Mountain, a typical cross-border area, the traffic has become an important tourism cooperation factor. On the basis of identifying the main body of cross-border tourism cooperation and analyzing the cooperation mode, this paper investigated the three main bodies: local government, tourism enterprise and industry organization, and constructed the model of tourism cooperation under the optimization of traffic network by using structural equation model method to explore the influencing factors and pathways of traffic network on tourism cooperation. The results are obtained as follows: (1) Traffic network optimization had a significant positive impact on tourism cooperation conditions and tourism cooperation consciousness. Tourism cooperation conditions and tourism cooperation awareness of tourism cooperation had a significant positive impact. Traffic network optimization had an indirect effect on tourism cooperative behavior and had a positive impact on cooperative behavior through the two paths of tourism cooperation conditions and tourism cooperation awareness. (2) Based on different statuses of the main bodies in the tourism cooperation, their concerns were different. And there were differences in cooperation mechanism. Thus, implementing tourism cooperation and tourism poverty alleviation in the study area has a high theoretical value and practical significance, which would also provide reference for regional tourism development in other places.

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    Multifunction orientation of rural landscape in metropolitan suburbs based on GRA and TOPSIS models
    Guoping REN, Liming LIU, Jin SUN, Chengcheng YUAN, Dong ZHUO
    2018, 37 (2):  263-280.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802003
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    Rural landscape function exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability. With the rapid technological development, urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural modernization in China, diversity and differentiation of rural landscape functions are constantly enhanced, and multifunction of rural landscape development trend is considerable. Scientific orientation to multifunctional rural landscape has attracted considerable academic interest. Using the basic data from 2004 to 2014, multidimensional evaluation model, the TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution), GRA (grey correlation analysis), and the multifunctional integrated positioning method of "rural landscape multifunctionality orientation-leading and secondary function orientation-obstacle function orientation" are employed to evaluate the scientific orientation of the rural landscape function in Qingpu district in Shanghai Municipality. Results are showm as follows. (1) The multifunction orientation of the rural landscape is the regional function of the limited multi-objective decision making, which should follow the optimal decision rules. (2) The multifunction integrated positioning method can accurately orientate the multiple functions of rural landscape. (3) The multiple functions of rural landscape are more complex; multifunctionality of rural landscape is different from east to the west; regions with high values are highlighted, which present the state of aggregation; leading and secondary functions as well as leading and secondary obstacle functions of the spatial heterogeneity of the rural landscape are remarkable; and the dependence degree between functions is high. Zhaoxiang and Zhujiajiao exhibit the maximum values for areas of multifunctionality of the rural landscape (3.44 and 3.02, respectively), while Jinze and Xujing present the minimum values (1.48 and 1.45, respectively). In the 11 towns in Qingpu District, the deviation of the leading and secondary functions of rural landscape is 0.007, while that of the leading and secondary obstacle functions of rural landscape is 0.005. This study provides a scientific basis for rural landscape planning and landscape management.

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    Optimization of ecological recreation area in Xi'an city based on ecological footprint
    Xiaojun YANG, Chuanshan FANG, Yezi HOU
    2018, 37 (2):  281-291.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802004
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    Urban ecological recreation area serves as an important foundation for urban ecological recreation activities. The rational allocation of ecological recreation area is of great significance to build eco-leisure cities. Based on the ecological footprint theory model, combined with the spatial overplay analysis method, this paper constructs the ecological pressure index standard, and analyzes the spatial distribution, the ecological footprint, the ecological carrying capacity, the ecological profit and loss, as well as the ecological pressure of ecological recreation areas in the urban area of Xi'an city. The results show that the ecological environment in urban area of Xi'an is extremely unsafe, with the ecological deficit per capita reaching 1.4136 hm2/person and the ecological pressure index 13.2. The spatial layout of ecological recreation area in the region has conflict with the local ecological environment. To avoid the existing problems, it is of great importance to adjust and optimize the spatial layout of ecological recreation area, and develop the ecological recreation corridor system of Xi'an, in an aim to enhance the urban ecological civilization, and better shape the high-quality urban living environment and the ecological security pattern in the city.

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    Interactive development of urban agglomeration, industrial cluster and development zone: A case study of Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration
    Chengli TANG, Yan WU, Guohua ZHOU
    2018, 37 (2):  292-306.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802005
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    Coordinated development of urban agglomeration, industrial cluster and development zones is an important means to achieve sustainable and rapid development of urban agglomeration. The relationship and interactive mechanism among urban agglomeration, industrial cluster and development zone are clarified from the combined macro- and micro-perspectives provided in previous studies. Urban agglomeration is the main form of new urbanization and development spatial carrier of industrial cluster and development zone, providing production factors, services and market for development zones and industrial clusters; Development zone is an innovative and entrepreneurial area of urban agglomeration, which is also a significant place for industrial cluster, agglomeration development and important production function area of urban agglomeration; Industrial cluster, a major organizational form of industrial development, is a driving force for development zones and urban agglomerations. Industrial cluster and development zone share the resources and services with urban agglomeration. Development zone through industrial cluster and innovation, industrial cluster by extension of industrial chain, coupling and innovation, and urban agglomerations, shape multi-dimensional interaction in terms of factors of production, market transaction, innovation and service, to realize the coordinated development of the three aspects. Based on the 15 indexes of 4 aspects, such as the scale, structure, function and innovation of the urban agglomeration, industrial cluster and development zone, using the canonical correlation analysis method, taking Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (Chang-Zhu-Tan) urban agglomeration as an example, this study makes a quantitative analysis of the interaction factors and intensity of the two major variables in urban agglomeration, industrial cluster and development zone. Our results suggest the following: (1) Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration, industrial cluster and development zone have formed effective interaction. By developing economic scale, city structure, innovation input and output and service function, the urban agglomeration promotes the economic scale, industrial clusters, economic benefit and industrial innovation, as well as the development of construction quality, industrial clusters and industrial benefit in a development zone. Raising industrial agglomeration and innovation efficiency of development zone, and improving industry scale, performance collaboration development zone efficiency of industrial cluster can strengthen the scale, structure, innovation and function of urban agglomeration. (2) The economic scale, structure, innovation and service are four factors that contribute overall to the development of industrial clusters and development zones of Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration, but industrial clusters and development zones do not fully cooperate to promote the development of urban agglomerations. (3) We should further enhance the efficiency of industrial cluster and development zone, strengthen its supporting role in urban agglomeration, realize the multi-dimensional benign interaction of the three aspects, and improve the core competitiveness of urban agglomeration.

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    Coordination of the "economy-society-environment" triad in the transition development of resource: Based cities in Northeast China
    Yan CHEN, Lin MEI
    2018, 37 (2):  307-318.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802006
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    This article examines the coordinating rules of economy, society, and environment of resource-based cities during the process of transition development. The study constructs indicators for the economy, society, and environment based on the coordinated development theory with referring data. The spatio-temporal pattern and the effects of economic, social, and environmental factors are examined at the city level in resource-based cities in Northeast China from 2000 to 2014. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The coordinated level of the "economy-society-environment" triad increases slowly in four stages with cyclical volatility. The spatial pattern appears to be unbalanced with the high-level coordinated cities located in the south of Liaoning province and the low-level coordinated cities mostly situated in the north of Heilongjiang province. (2) Three types of cities can be identified according to their coordinating level. The first type consists of cities with the highest score in society transition development; they contribute to the economy, society, and environment systems equally. The second type are cities that usually invest less in both social and environmental development. The third type, which includes most forest cities, obtained the lowest score with the social development far below the other two types. (3) The development of a service industry, education level, and technology were found to make significant contributions to the coordinated development during the transition process in resource-based cities; however, heavy industry was not found to be as effective as other factors. Overall, transition development in resource-based cities demands higher standards in this new period with historical problems still needing to be solved.

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    The spatial and temporal patterns of inclusive development in the urbanization of Shandong province
    Wei YU, Xiao LV, Jinping SONG
    2018, 37 (2):  319-332.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802007
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    In the period of China's strategic transition in urbanization development, the concept of "inclusiveness" was integrated into the development of a new type of urbanization. Against this backdrop, this study analyzes the connotations of inclusive development in urbanization from three dimensions, namely equal development opportunities, comprehensive development content, and development-achievement sharing. It also constructs a measurement index system and involves an empirical investigation, taking Shandong Province as the study case. The findings indicated the following: (1) From 2005 to 2014, the evaluation values for the inclusive development of urbanization in the stydy area was all below 0. 5, indicating that urbanization was in a transitional phase mainly characterized by exclusiveness. Moreover, the evaluation values for the different dimensions presented a trend indicating that "equal development opportunities < comprehensive development content < development achievement sharing." (2) With the exception of Qingdao, which was entering a transition period characterized mainly by inclusiveness, ten prefecture-level cities, including Jinan, were in a transition phase characterized by exclusiveness, and six prefecture-level cities, including Heze, were at the development stage of exclusiveness. (3) The positive correlation between the comprehensive evaluation values and the development opportunity variables for various prefecture-level cities was highly significant, suggesting that the inequality of development opportunities is the main reason for the low comprehensive evaluation values of inclusive development in the urbanization of many prefecture-level cities. There were weak correlations among the development opportunities, development content, and development achievements, which indicate that in many parts of Shandong, urban and rural areas have yet to effectively benefit from the inputs and achievements of urbanization. Theoretically, Shandong has achieved the development levels of urbanization depicted by three intrinsically linked dimensions, namely starting points, processes, and results, and improved the way in which the quality of urbanization is perceived. Practically, the study examines, from different levels, the factors that hinder the inclusive development of urbanization and subsequently provides guidance for improving the quality of urbanization.

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    The evolution of ethnic integration patterns and their influencing factors in multi-ethnic cities from the perspective of residential space: A case study from Hohhot
    Wei ZHANG, Yongchun YANG, Kunbo SHI, Jianxin LI
    2018, 37 (2):  333-352.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802008
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    Residential integration is the spatial embodiment of the ethnic integration of the city. The study of residential integration is beneficial to quantitative and systematic analysis of the degree of urban internal integration. It is of great significance to get a better understanding of the structure and interactive relationships of ethnic integration. Using the typical multi-ethnic city of Hohhot as an example, based on demographic data from 2000 to 2015, this study uses the integration index and inverse distance weighted interpolation method to explore the process of residential integration in Hohhot. Three dimensions of integration were used: city, municipal districts, and blocks. Using double variable correlation analysis and multiple linear regression models, this paper examines the influence of urban residents' individual attributes on residential integration. The results show that: (1) Hohhot, as a representative, typical, multi-ethnic city in China, shows a high degree of residential integration. (2) There was a rising trend of fluctuations in the degree of residential integration in Saihan and Xincheng districts, and a smaller increase in the level of residential integration in Huimin District; the regional residential integration is highly focused on Yuquan district, which has been largely inhabited by Han Chinese for many decades. Over time, the areas with high residential integration have spread quickly to the whole city, and living space has become increasingly homogenized. There are three ethnic residential blocks in the city's central area, but their integration index has increased significantly. (3) The dynamic mechanism of residential integration includes five aspects: cultural motivation, historical continuity, policy dynamics, urbanization influence, and individual factors. Cultural motivation and historical continuity are the basis of residential integration. Policy dynamics, urbanization influence, and individual factors are the direct driving forces. (4) Residential integration is closely related to individual attributes such as age, gender, marriage, education, family, and occupation.

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    Characteristics and construction mechanism of enterprise networks in "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster: Empirical evidence from Chery cluster in 2014, China
    Xiaofei CHEN, Changhong MIAO, Shaoqi PAN, Shaowei AI
    2018, 37 (2):  353-365.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802009
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    Along with the adjustment of world economic structure and the reconstruction of global rules, "the fourth wave of industrial transfer" in the world provides an opportunity window of "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster in China. Within the "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster, the division of labor and the strengthening of social relations gradually form complex enterprise networks. Taking Chery automobile cluster as a typical representative of "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster, this study is conducted based on in-depth interview and questionnaire survey for a long period time to measure the characteristics and the construction mechanism of enterprise networks. Some conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Enterprise networks centrality is very prominent and networks presents a significant "core-periphery" structure. It is pointed out that the core enterprises represented by QR have the absolute "market rights", "technical rights" and "network rights" in the cluster, which have played an important role in the construction of the enterprise networks; (2) The overall development level of enterprise networks is relatively low, but the differences are large. Industrial network is relatively high, however, the innovation network is still the lowest. Vertical supply and horizontal division of products are still the main forms of enterprise communication. Although there is a phenomenon of social interaction among enterprises, the degree is relatively weak. At the same time, the technical differences in production system and the "small club" also lead to the slow development of the innovation network. (3) The construction of enterprise networks are the results of the interaction of the geographic proximity, the relationship heterogeneity and the cognitive interaction. Geographic spatial proximity and face-to-face communication provide the basic condition for network formation. Enterprise relationship assets and actor networks offer the medium conditions for network formation. Enterprise technology association and path creation furnish the guarantee conditions for network formation.

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    Spatial pattern and its industrial distribution of commercial space in Changchun based on POI data
    Feilong HAO, Shijun WANG, Zhangxian FENG, Tingting YU, Li MA
    2018, 37 (2):  366-378.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802010
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    Commercial activity and its spatial structure are one of the important issues in urban geography and economic geography. The study of the industrial structure of commercial space helps to understand the formation of spatial structure of economic activities. In recent years, with wide use of geographical big data, it has become a new trend to study the spatial structure and location choice of commercial sites with a quantitative method. Based on the commercial POI (Point of Interest) data in the central district of Changchun, the study focuses on eight types of retailing industry: synthetic retail trade; food beverage and tobaccos; textiles, garments, doily consumer articles; culture and sports appliances and equipments; medicines and medical appliances; motor vehicles fuel and parts; household electric appliances and electronic products; hardware, furniture and decoration materials. The spatial pattern and its industrial distribution of commercial space were discussed in detail using kernel density estimation, location entropy analysis and Ripley's K function. The results show that: (1) the agglomeration of commercial sites is significant, and presents the multi-center pattern. In general, there are two main agglomeration centers: one is the "horseshoe-shaped" pattern with Railway Station, Renmin Squre, and Dama Road commercial centers in the core area; the other is the "islands" pattern with Hongqi Street, Guilin Road, etc. in the peripheral area, and the density centers show the gradient descending from the center to the periphery. (2) The hierarchical structure of the scale size is reasonable, which is mainly reflected in the stage of gathering from the single center to multicenter. There are more the first and second grade centers, and less third grade centers, while the third still presents the feature of small scale and slow development. Compared with the traditional commercial center grading, some regional commercial centers show significant scale advantage, and the quantity grade of commercial sites is higher than that of some of municipal-level commercial centers. (3) From the industry perspective, "core-periphery" spatial distribution of urban commercial space is obvious. The type of textile and apparel, food and beverage industries have high density agglomeration in core circle, while the automobile motorcycle, hardware furniture type is in surrounding regions, the others have a large scale of space density distribution, and show different spatial distribution patterns. (4) Each industry has different performances in multi-scale spatial agglomeration. Synthetic retail, household electric appliances, food beverage and tobaccos, medicines and medical appliances show the agglomeration features a large scale, with a wide range of location selection. Culture and sports, textile and apparel, hardware furniture and automobile motorcycle industries are located in a small space, with smaller location choice space. (5) Each industry has formed certain specialized function blocks, but has different regional specialization degrees. The mature districts generally have more advantage industries and more functions, while the function pattern of developing districts features a distinct single-focus approach.

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    Location model of cultural & creative industry and its application in Zhejiang
    Renfeng MA, Tengfei WANG, Wenzhong ZHANG, Xueli LI
    2018, 37 (2):  379-390.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802011
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    Industrial location has been a heated debate in the field of economic geography and urban geography. The selection of industrial location theory includes classical location theory, behavior location theory, strategic location theory, organizational structure location theory and new economic geography location theory. The location theory of cultural & creative industry is one of the crucial topics in the field of new industries, representing a new branch of the location study in terms of the new economic geography. Existing research has been lacking of the classic empirical materials to analyse the spatial pattern and driving factors of cultural & creative industry. This paper chooses Zhejiang as a case study to demonstrate location factors of cultural & creative industry and its impact on cities. Firstly, based on the perspective of enterprises, this paper attempts to build cultural & creative industry location model including infrastructure, governance, market, and soft factor. Secondly, this paper uses the employment data of each city / district to describe the spatial pattern of cultural creative industries at city level from the perspective of whole industries and the key industries dimension by means of location entropy. Then, principal component analysis and OLS model were used to identify the contribution of driving factors to industrial location. The results can be concluded as follows:(1) From the perspective of spatial selection of cultural & creative industry, cultural & creative industry tends to choose primate city in Zhejiang, and some of the key industries choose their locations in big cities such as Hangzhou, as well as in some historical small and medium-sized cities such as Zhoushan, Jinhua and Taizhou. So, the spatial pattern of cultural & creative industry in Zhejiang has presented a pattern of "capital space" agglomeration and differentiation of "local space". (2) Economic, science and technology, government support, market demand, environment, transportation and local characteristics are important location factors of cultural & creative industry in this province. Different key industries and their geospatial scales show their impact on geographical location factors, which colloborates the rationality of the location model of creative industry. That is to say, the cultural & creative industry location model has heterogeneity. (3) The spatial location of the whole industries in Zhejiang is mainly driven by factors of infrastructure provision and government policy. The spatial location of the key industries is mainly driven by the "soft factor", such as social tolerance. Jinhua became the "highland" in the field of art creation and trade and media publishing industry, and the industrial pattern of cultural & creative industry in Zhoushan and Taizhou, can respectively be characterized by the tourism and leisure industry and art creation and trading industry. (4) This research aims to construct the theoretical framework of integrating economic geography and cultural geography from the perspective of the theory of new industry location. In addition, the cultural & creative industry is actively rooted in local city, and leading industries of eleven cities in Zhejiang are not the same, so the location model can provide policy implication for the government in terms of cultural & creative industries policy, and targeted policies support with consideration of features of the city and industry.

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    Dynamic mechanism in global geopolitical pattern evolution: Analysis based on variables and variable relationship
    Daqing LIU, Ling BAI, Hong ZHANG, Dugang XI, Kun JIAO, Bin WU
    2018, 37 (2):  391-403.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802012
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    A general survey of the historical process of global geopolitics pattern evolution shows that, the transformation of global geopolitical pattern is always accompanied by the rise and fall of major world countries, differentiation and restructuring of great powers, unbalance and balance of rights. The regularity of the phenomenon is caused by the constant dynamic mechanism, and this mechanism still plays an important role and has far-reaching influence on the development and evolution of the current global geopolitics. This paper studies the dynamic mechanism of global geopolitical pattern evolution from the perspective of a mechanism, which is based on the analysis of variable relationship among mechanisms. The dynamic mechanism of global geopolitical pattern evolution is divided into a core mechanism, two sub-mechanisms and two auxiliary mechanisms. The change of the power structure is the important symbol of global geopolitical pattern evolution, which is identified as the core mechanism of evolution. Among them, the qualitative change in the rise and fall of powers and geostrategic relations is the fundamental cause of the power structure change, which is identified as two sub-mechanisms of core mechanism. Resource geopolitics and geo-cultural factors are researched as auxiliary mechanisms which are important approaches to influencing global geopolitical pattern evolution. Based on division mechanisms research of global geopolitical evolution, the dynamic mechanism of global geopolitical pattern evolution is obtained through establishing the coupling between division mechanisms.

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    The competition and cooperation spatial pattern between railway transport and shipping in China under the Belt and Road Initiative
    Mengqiu LU, Yu CHEN, Yuqi LU
    2018, 37 (2):  404-418.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802013
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    It is obvious that the amount of container freight traffic between China and Europe has increased since the China Railway Express (CRE) was established. With the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, discussing the comparative advantage of railway transport and shipping is economically and geographically meaningful. By considering both freight and time costs, we present two models to depict the spatial pattern of container transportation from China to Europe: the balance line of land-sea transport and the balance point of container value. The study reveals that: (1) The balance line is located in northwest China, while it transfers to the southeast coastal area gradually with the increase in container value. (2) China can be divided into two regions (railway transport and shipping-dominated areas) and six parts (Alashankou part, Manzhouli part, Erenhot part, Bohai Rim part, the Yangtze River Delta part and the Pearl River Delta part) by the balance line of Tongliao-Shenyang-Beijing-Shijiazhuang-Xiangyang-Chongqing-Lijiang-Baoshan. (3) Considering the reduction in railway transport freight rates in the future, a new partition of two regions and five parts can be extracted by the line of Nantong-Nanjing-Nanchang-Yueyang-Guiyang-Kunming-Pu' er. (4) Three regions (railway transport region, shipping region and land-sea transport region, with the area of 70.9%, 12.9% and 16.2% of China, respectively) can be constructed by the above two partitions. Thus, we can obtain the optimal land-sea intermodal transport by adjusting the railway freight rate and optimizing location of transport hubs.

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    Spatio-temporal variation on habitat quality and its mechanism within the transitional area of the Three Natural Zones:A case study in Yuzhong county
    Chunfang LIU, Chuan WANG, Licheng LIU
    2018, 37 (2):  419-432.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802014
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    Habitat quality is an important proxy for the service level of a biological system, and is also critical for the maintenance of regional ecological security and human wellbeing. Evaluating the spatiotemporal variations that result from land use changes can therefore provide the scientific basis for regional ecological protection and land management. Thus, taking Yuzhong County as a case study, which is located in the transitional area of the Three Natural Zones, this paper examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of habitat quality and its evolution over the period between 1995 and 2015 based on coefficient of variation and Taylor index. Choosing 14 explanatory variables, such as rainfall, distance to the county center, and area of land remediation, this paper explores by means of geographic detector analysis the factors that influence habitat quality and its evolution across a range of different spatial levels. The results of this analysis reveal that, in the first place, habitat quality throughout the whole county has remained stable and has improved slightly over the last 20 years. However, due to variations in natural and socioeconomic conditions, internal changes in habitat quality within the three sub-regions considered in this study are different from one another, consistent with an overall decrease along a south-north transect. Secondly, the differences in habitat quality between the three regions, as compared to the differences within them, have tended to decrease over time. Over the period of this analysis, variations in habitat quality continued to increase on the Loess Plateau in the north, declined continuously in the Middle Plain Area, and initially descended then ascended in the Southern Mountain Area. Thirdly, geographic scale is an important component that must be considered for evaluating habitat quality changes, as factors and mechanisms vary at different levels. Natural environmental variables play a fundamental role in habitat quality changes; on the other hand, the effect of socioeconomic variables on habitat quality has become weaker over time, whereas the effect of policy variables has become greater. Furthermore, synergism occurs amongst the different factors. Considering the importance of different policies based on different geographical scales, this paper proposes relevant policy suggestions for optimizing habitat quality within comparable areas.

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    Late Quaternary strata and environmental evolution record of core LG in Longgang, north Jiangsu plain, China
    Fei XIA, Yongzhan ZHANG
    2018, 37 (2):  433-446.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802015
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    Original experimental analysis results, including field descriptions, photos, grain size, 14C dating, foraminifera, pollens and heavy minerals, of core LG sediments in Longgang, north Jiangsu plain of China, were acquired by predecessors in the 1980s. Based on studies on these data, plus referring to published results of adjacent area and new data in the study area, a reinterpretation of stratigraphic sequence, chronological framework and environmental evolution record of core LG was presented in this paper. The results showed that, (1) Core LG with a length of 34.8 m preserved the sedimentary environment evolution since Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); this study area has undergone a progression of regional sedimentary environments (i.e., river overbank, fluvial and lacustrine floodplain (the second stiff mud layer), intertidal and subtidal zone of relatively open tidal flat, subtidal zone of relatively open tidal flat, intertidal and lower part of supratidal zone of relatively open tidal flat, fluvial and lacustrine floodplain (the first stiff mud layer), coastal marsh in the supratidal zone, and chenier); the MIS 3 transgressive layer with tidal flat facies was well developed in this core; (2) The thickness of Holocene strata in the Longgang section of Xigang chenier is quite small and commonly less than 10 m; due to the fact that core LG has two stiff mud layers, the core should be located in paleointerfluves rather than in paleovalleys, and it is more logical that the top surface of the first stiff mud layer is regarded as the base of Holocene strata, furthermore, it is impossible that its Holocene strata reached 25 m in thickness which the original researchers argued; (3) Since all of the conventional and AMS 14C dating results which are older than the Last Glacial Maximum have errors and uncertainties with different levels, and dating materials for mud and calcareous concretions are prone to be contaminated, the two 14C dating results in the second stiff mud layer of core LG are younger than the real age obviously and could not be adopted to interpret the strata age.

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