Table of Content

    20 April 2018, Volume 37 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspectives and Contention
    Three-dimensional thinking for land management and land space resources recognition
    Renzhong GUO, Ping LUO, Tingwen LUO
    2018, 37 (4):  649-658.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804001
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    In the background of social-economic elements agglomeration and increasing land resources shortage accompanied with industrialization and urbanization progress, stereoscopic land-use appeared and developed constantly, with the primary features of developing and constructing the ground, upground and underground spaces in spatial cell and multiple functions. Based on the path of three-dimensional urban development and the tendency of stereoscopic land use, using document retrieval and comprehensive analysis, this paper dissects the urgency of strengthening three-dimensional thinking in land management, analyzes the essential attribute and spatial traits of land, proposes the concept and connotation of land space resources, and pre-explores the system and technology of land space resources management, therefore to promote the development of land discipline and the solution of land problems.
    Results show that: (1) three-dimensional thinking in land management, which aligns with the tendencies of social development and land use, is an innovative demand based on land management practice. (2) One of the essential attributes of land as the resource is the spatiality with the three-dimensional features. Land space resources, as the extension of land resources, are available three-dimensional spatial existence with the base of or separated from land surface. (3) The recognition of land space resources will initiate the reconstruction and innovation of conceptions, systems and technologies in land management field, which is of theoretical significance and practical value.
    Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: developing the three-dimensional thinking in land management based on the continuation of current land management theory and technology, and exploring the land space resources management framework is of theoretical and practical significance. It is necessary to further deepen the theoretical understanding and scientific methodology of three-dimensional management. Then a systematical research and development can follow.

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    Land consolidation project layout based on ecological suitability evaluation in hilly areas of Southwest China
    Shaojun TAN, Jing'an SHAO
    2018, 37 (4):  659-677.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804002
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    How to reasonably identify the ecological suitability of land consolidation project (LCP) is the important recordings of current land consolidation project to evaluate whether to realize the following goals: "favorable production, convenient life, and improved ecology", and also is the important proposition of theory and planning of land consolidation to be solved. Dianjiang County located in parallel ridge valley of east Sichuan is selected as the study area in this paper. Based on the 146 LCPs, this paper used the idea of niche to evaluate the ecological suitability of LCP, to calculate ecological potential index of LCP, and to finally decide the direction of ecological layout of LCP. The results showed that these indexes influencing the ecological suitability of LCP has significant variance, and among them, cultivated land contiguous degree, slope, irrigation guarantee rate are the primary factors for the ecological suitability evaluation of LCP. The ecological suitability levels of single project in LCP presented significant differences. Among them, the ecological suitability levels of land leveling and irrigation and drainage's system were below the critical level, while the ecological suitability levels of field road and ecological landscape were above the critical level. The ecological suitability levels of the whole LCPs were obviously different. On the whole, the average value of the ecological suitability of land consolidation was 0.72, and this value was observed in the critical level of ecological suitability. The suitable, critical suitable and unsuitable grades were related to land consolidation areas of 7434 hm2, 54530 hm2, and 18845 hm2, accounting for 9%, 67%, and 24%, respectively. The ecological suitability layout of LCP in the study area was overall in a diversified pattern. The suitability area of the first grade was mainly located in the central and western parts of the study area, and the layout direction of LCP was to serve the development of multi-functional agriculture. In this region, we should pay attention to how to ensure its economic value without damaging its ecological value. The suitability area of the second grade was widely distributed, and the layout direction of LCP was a help to the development of grain and oil industry. In this region, we should try to avoid destroying the farmland ecosystem while ensuring the grain production. And the suitability area of the third grade was mainly located in Heda platform area, and the layout direction of LCP was for the service to the development of three-dimensional ecological agriculture. In this region, we should place emphasis on how to ensure that the ecological environment was not destroyed to develop ecological agriculture with mountain features.

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    Rural residential land consolidation strategy from a perspective synthesizing towns, villages and land parcels:A case study in Xinyi city, Jiangsu province
    Jing LIU, Xiaobin JIN, Yeting FAN, Xiaomin XIANG, Na RAN, Yinkang ZHOU, Chunzhu SHEN
    2018, 37 (4):  678-694.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804003
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    As an important potential space for improving the utilization efficiency of land resources, land consolidation of rural residential areas is an important part of promoting sustainable rural construction. Towns are the social, economic and cultural centers of the region. The relationship between towns and villages restricts the space potential of rural residential development while the relationship between villages and land parcels reflects the suitability of the layout of rural residential areas and the coordination of resource utilization. In the context of promoting the construction of "New Village" and harmonizing urban and rural development, this study integrates a hierarchy "town-village-land parcel" into a proposed strategy analysis framework to facilitate the spatial association of the behavior subjects in rural areas and the coordination among impacts of different spatial scale factors on land consolidation in rural residential areas. Meanwhile, this study constructs an evaluation system of rural residential land consolidation potential from aspects such as the development of town radiation, the suitability of the village layout and the coordination of land use and applies it to evaluate contemporary programs aiming at promoting the rural residential land consolidation based on the analysis of the elements and structure of rural residential land system. Finally, the study conducts a case study in Xinyi city, Jiangsu province. As a result, the rural residential land consolidation area within the city has been classified into five categories: the priority consolidation area, the key consolidation area, the moderate potential tapping area, the optimal consolidation area and the special consolidation area. Corresponding land consolidation modes and optimization means have further been discussed in order to provide a useful reference for the general rural residential land consolidation programs and promote the sustainable and harmonious urban and rural development.

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    Research on the functional zoning and regulation of rural areas based on the production-life-ecological function perspective:A case study of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area
    Yue AN, Guohua ZHOU, Yanhua HE, Kebiao MAO, Xuelan TAN
    2018, 37 (4):  695-703.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804004
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    With the rapid economic growth in the 21st century, China's economy has been in a transitional period of rapid development and a mass-type economic development. With the rapid urbanization and industrialization, the internal and external environments for the development of rural areas are experiencing significant changes. The rural areas have entered a new period of transformation and development, which has shown the characteristics of diversification and regionalization. There are great differences in their dominant superiority functions because of the differences in the basis of social and economic development, location conditions and resource endowments in different regions. Under the background, the development of rural functions has become a new topic of rural geography research. Meanwhile it has also become a new theory and a new paradigm for guiding the determination of dominance in rural areas and the development of space regulation in the new era. With the rapid urbanization, China's social and economic development has entered a transitional period, and the diversity of function of rural regional development and spatial differentiation has increasingly become apparent. Taking the Chang-Zhu-Tan area's 23 counties as a geographical unit, we construct an index system and evaluation model of rural area function evaluation, and reveal the feature of "Production-Life-Ecology" in the study area. The results showed that: (1) The characteristics of spatial differentiation of "production-life-ecological" function in rural areas in the study area are obvious. The cities of Liling and Liuyang with rich cultivated land has a strong production function, Hetang and Yuetang districts with well-equipped infrastructure have powerful living function, and Chaling County with better eco-environment has a strong ecological function. (2) Based on the evaluation results, the study area is divided into five types of functional areas, namely, the eastern plain production area, the central hilly living area, the southern mountainous ecological area, the central hilly ecological area and the northern hilly ecological area. Among them, the eastern plain production area, the central hilly living area and the southern mountainous ecological area are the tri-functional superiority development areas. Based on the principle of "optimizing the leading superiority function, enhancing the moderately-oriented function and improving the disadvantaged function", we propose the path of regulation and the strategy of development of each function zone, thus providing a theoretical basis for the recognition and determination of the rural function transformation and development and the leading function in the Chang-Zhu-Tan area.

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    The effects of sloping landscape features on water quality in the upper and middle reaches of the Chishui River Watershed
    Hong CAI, Guomin LIN, Wenhua KANG
    2018, 37 (4):  704-716.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804005
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    This study, with the sampling cases of the upper and middle reaches of the Chishui River Watershed in the karst region of southern China, attempts to examine the response mechanism of water quality variables to sloping landscape elements, which include landscape structure, landscape development intensity and landscape pattern, respectively extracted from three aspects of the whole sub-watershed, sloping land and steep land of the sub-watershed. The GIS spatial analysis and statistical analysis are employed based on Landsat8 OLI data and the water quality monitoring data during the plentiful water season and the withered water season from 2012 to 2013. There are three sub-sections in this study. One is the relationship between landscape structure and water quality. The data analysis results indicate that the landscape structure of sloping land and steep land has significant effect on the water quality of the river. Compared with the total woodland, the slope woodland has more significant positive effect on water quality. The percentage of steep slope cropland area has significant positive correlations with total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (the correlation coefficients reach 0.608 and 0.614), which shows that the percentage of steep slope cropland area has significant negative effect on water quality. The second is the relationship analysis between landscape development intensity and water quality. The indicators, which have a significant and stable positive correlation (the highest correlation coefficient is 0.960), show that the landscape development intensity is more explicable to the water quality variables than any other single landscape composition. The last is the relationship analysis between sloping landscape pattern and water quality. The water quality is affected by complexity of the patch, isolation and diversity of landscape in this region. It is also found that the water quality variables have become increasingly sensitive to the Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI) and the Shannon Diversity Index (SHDI) with slope degree increase. Therefore, more restrictions should be present to curtail land clearing on steep hills, and to keep away disturbance and destruction from human on the sloping land, especially on the steep land. It is significant to protect water quality in the karst area.

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    The spatial and temporal differences and driving forces of wind erosion climatic erosivity in Qinghai province from 1984 to 2013
    Chengyong WU, Kelong CHEN, Guangchao CAO, Shuiqiang DUAN, Huaju XUE, Chongyi E, Zhengxia LUO
    2018, 37 (4):  717-730.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804006
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    The soil erosion is prone to occur in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) where freezing and thawing, weathering and wind erosion are all strong, precipitation is rare, wind is strong and frequent, vegetation is sparse, and the loose ground surface material is susceptible to blowing away by wind. Climate is an important external force for soil erosion and its influence on soil erosion can be described quantitatively by wind erosion climatic factors index (C). Qinghai province's C were calculated based on the method suggested by FAO, using the continuous and complete surface meteorological observation data from meteorological stations in Northwest China's Qinghai Province from 1984 to 2013. Applying geographical weighted regression model (GWR), the gravity center and its transfer model as well as the effective sensitivity index and effective influence area which were defined in this paper, we obtained spatial and temporal distribution and evolution law of wind erosion climatic erosivity (WECE) and its influencing factors, and also analyzed their driving forces and mechanisms. The results showed that WECE in Qinghai province was on the decline and the most severely eroded region has been extending from the Qaidam Basin to the western part of southern Qinghai Plateau during the past 30 years. Wind speed was the dominant factor of WECE, the secondary factor was the temperature and the least impact was the precipitation. The gravity center of wind speed effective sensitive region moved from the edge of the southwest Qaidam Basin to the western part of southern Qinghai Plateau, whose displacement direction was roughly opposite to the direction of cyclone system center of the surface layer over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The gravity center of air temperature effective sensitive region moved from the low-altitude region of central Qinghai to the high-altitude southern Qinghai Plateau. This was related to the law of increasing temperature, namely, temperature was increasing from the edge of the plateau to the plateau hinterland and the higher the altitude was, the faster the temperature increased in the southern Qinghai Plateau. Precipitation mainly affected the WECE in the Qaidam Basin, and its gravity center moved to the southeast, which might be related to the advance and retreat of the Plateau Summer Monsoon. The research of this paper can provide the technical support and theoretical guidance for the prevention, assessment and prediction of soil wind erosion disaster in the QTP. It can also provide a new perspective for the study on large-scale driving force of the biogeochemical cycles (such as C, N and P cycles) in QTP and even in the world.

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    Niche characteristics of plant populations in the paleo-periglacial areas of Mt. Laotudingzi, eastern Liaoning mountainous region
    Jie FU, Caizhi SUN, Hua ZHANG, Hong HE, Yeping ZHU, Ying WANG
    2018, 37 (4):  731-741.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804007
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    Based on the community survey in 48 sampling areas, we use the samples to signify the comprehensive state, and the species importance values as the state index of niche instrumentation. We employ Levins and Schoener indices to study niche breadth and niche overlaps of three layers of arbor, shrub and herb in paleo-periglacial areas of Mt. Laotudingzi, eastern Liaoning mountainous region. The results show: (1) In the arbor layer, the niche breadth of Abies nephrolepis, Tilia amurensis, Acer barbinerve, Betula ermanii and Picea jezoensis var. komarovii are much larger than that of others, among them, the Abies nephrolepis is the generalized arbor seed, and Tilia amurensis is the constructive species of forest community below 800 m, while the Acer barbinerve, Betula ermanii and Picea jezoensis var. komarovii are the constructive species of forest community above 800 m. The value of niche overlap between Abies nephrolepis and Picea jezoensis var. komarovii is as high as 0.616, showing that these species had similar biological characteristics, and adapted to each other in the long-term process of communities succession, which formed an optimal survival state in the dark coniferous forest. (2) In the shrub layer, the niche breadth of Actinidia kolomikta, Lonicera subhispida, Euonymus macropterus and Syringa velutina are larger than that of others, which has already evolved into the generalization plants of the deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed needle- and broad-leaved deciduous forest. The values of niche overlaps between Actinidia kolomikta and Lonicera subhispida, Syringa velutina, Euonymus macropterus, Euonymus pauciflorus range from 0.515 to 0.610, which have high similarity of demand for environmental resources between all these species. (3) In the herb layer, the niche breadth of Aegopodium alpestre, Meehania urticifolia, Oxalis corniculata, Circaea alpine are larger than that of others, which has already evolved into the generalization plants. The value of niche overlaps between Aegopodium alpestre and Meehania urticifolia is as high as 0.702, and the values between Oxalis corniculata and Circaea alpine, Spuriopimpinella brachycarpa and Aegopodium alpestre, Spuriopimpinella brachycarpa and Phlomis maximowiczii are from 0.556 to 0.580. (4) The niche overlaps between major populations were quite common, but the overlap degree of species was relatively less, part of the species niche even separated completely, which shows that it is not so fierce for the major plant populations to compete for the same environmental resources.

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    EKC framework analysis of the effects of tourism development on regional carbon emissions: Based on China's 1995-2015 panel data
    Kai WANG, Haiqin SHAO, Tingting ZHOU, Chuxiong DENG
    2018, 37 (4):  742-750.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804008
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    In the context of global warming, it is of great significance to analyze the impact of tourism development on regional carbon emissions regarding promotion of the sustainable development of tourism. Based on EKC Theory and related literatures, this paper tried to develop the EKC Theoretical Model by introducing tourism development variables and exploring the effects of tourism development on regional carbon emissions on the basis of the provincial panel data of China during 1995-2015. Meanwhile, we examined the effects of economic growth, opening degree of trade, unemployment rate, education level and urbanization level on carbon emissions. Results show that the inverse U-shaped EKC relationship exists between per capita CO2 emissions and per capita GDP. In addition, the education level (-0.061), unemployment rate (-0.062) and opening degree of trade (-0.170) would be conductive to per capita CO2 emissions reduction, among which the biggest contributor is the opening degree of trade, while the urbanization level (2.113) would tend to increase the per capita CO2 emissions. Moreover, the development of tourism has a significant impact on per capita CO2 emissions. To be specific, the fitting curve of tourist reception and per capita CO2 emissions shows a positive "U"-type, while that of per capita tourism consumption and per capita CO2 emissions is a typically inverted "U"-shaped curve. Furthermore, the level of tourism specialization has a significant effect on the peak and position of EKC. More specifically, the improvement of tourism specialization level will cause the EKC to move downward so that environmental pressures of economic development will be alleviated, and the turning point of the curve reflecting the relationship between tourism arrivals and per capita CO2 emissions in the regions with high-level specialization of tourism is relatively higher than in other regions, while that of per capita tourism consumption and per capita CO2 emissions is at lower levels. Finally, some policies for the low-carbon tourism economy are recommended.

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    Carbon density and storage in flood sediments of the Yellow River during the Mid-Late Holocene in Kaifeng city
    Dexin LIU, Jianhua MA, Lei GU, Yanfang CHEN, Pengfei WU, Jing LU
    2018, 37 (4):  751-760.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804009
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    Concerns over global change have fueled interest in the carbon cycle, which has impelled the research on the distribution of various forms of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, and the estimation of carbon storage amounts in various reservoirs. Black carbon (BC) is an important component of organic carbon (OC), and also an important component of the inert carbon pool involved in the global slow carbon cycle. Palaces of several dynasties were buried in the underground of Kaifeng city by flood sediments of the Yellow River. This has formed the unique spectacle of overlapping cities, which provide excellent and rare samples to study carbon density and storage in the historical period. Four sedimentary cores with a length of 25 m were drilled in April, 2012. Three of them were located in the urban area of Kaifeng city (ZKsz, ZKyz and ZKml), and another one was located at the western suburb of the city (ZKjm). Each core was split into 10 cm intervals mostly, for a total number of 861 sediment samples. Then the density and storage of OC and BC were analyzed based on their respective content determination and bulk density. The results show that OC and BC contents can demonstrate the consistent vertical distribution characteristics, and their high values are mainly concentrated within a range of 0-1 m in depth, followed by the historical cultural layers. The OC and BC contents are both significantly higher in urban strata (ZKsz, ZKyz and ZKml) than those in the suburb (ZKjm) of Kaifeng city. The BC density and storage in the 0-25 m layer are 24.67 kg/m2 and 11.30 Tg, accounting for 24.26% and 21.75% of the total organic carbon (TOC) density and storage, respectively. This indicates that the BC storage of the strata occupies a large proportion of the whole carbon pool, so that it should be taken into account when we calculate carbon density and storage in soils and sediments. Comparison of the storage ratio of BC/TOC respectively in the old urban area and new area of Kaifeng city in 0-25 m layer, show that the former is over 10% higher than that of the latter, mainly due to its stronger influence of human activities and more extensive use of coal. This study can provide a reference for finding "missing carbon" and further studying the cycle and balance of carbon.

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    Spatial-temporal changes of ecological footprint in the Loess Plateau after ecological construction between 1995 and 2010
    Xiaohu DANG, Yanbin WU, Guobin LIU, Qinke YANG, Xiaotao YU, Yinli JIA
    2018, 37 (4):  761-771.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804010
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    The Loess Plateau is a key ecological fragile area in China, so Chinese central government has taken a series of measures such as small watershed management, key projects for soil and water conservation, and Grain for Green Program to address the eco-environmental issues of the Loess Plateau since the 1980s. Whether these ecological projects have totally taken effect on the ecological security in the Loess Plateau is an urgent need to understand. Based on the ideology and methodology of ecological footprint, this work quantitatively analyzed the spatial-and temporal changes in the appropriation of the bio-productive areas/carrying capacity and ecological security in the study area over the 15-year period from 1995 to 2010. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the carrying capacity was lower than the ecological footprint (the appropriation of the bio-productive areas), with an ecological deficit for the 15 years; (2) the carrying capacity per capita substantially presented a spatial heterogeneity, with a high value in the northern and central parts and low value in the rest parts of the plateau, and decreased from the east to the west over the period from 1995 to 2010. However, the ecological footprint increased from the southeast to the northwest of the Loess Plateau during the same period; and (3) the indices of ecological stress increased from 1.059 in 1995 to 1.165 in 2000 and 2.181 in 2010, which suggested the growing ecological stress in this region. The spatial pattern of ecological security was consistent with spatial distribution of the ecological footprint. The results of this work demonstrated that, although ecological security has partially improved, the issues for ecological security have been still pressing in the Loess Plateau as a whole.

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    Game between ecosystem disservices and resident survival under ecological restoration: A case of the retreat of farmers led by the invasion of wild boars
    Wenrui WANG, Lu TIAN, Qiong TANG, Xiaoyong DENG
    2018, 37 (4):  772-782.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804011
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    Research on ecosystem services (ES) to human wellbeing has increased over the last few years following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. These positive services have contributed reasonable decision-making suggestions for ecosystem reconstruction and restoration. However, the negative effects of ecosystem services on human wellbeing, termed ecosystem disservices (EDS), have been overlooked. In the recent few years, various EDS have been observed and discussed by western scholars. China has initiated several ecosystem restoration projects to conserve the environment and ecosystem as well as to promote ecosystem services, which have simultaneously brought nuisances to humans. Under the context of abundant studies on ES, EDS were concealed in researches and practices. We propose that EDS should be taken into account in China by a case study of the conflicts between the survival of countryside residents and invasion of wild boars, which took place in Tianshui and Longnan in the western Qinling range. In this area, 66% of villages were invaded by wild boars. The number of wild boars has increased under the forest restoration projects implemented in the recent 15 years. These restoration projects provided five types of EDS, including cropland damages from the invasion of wild boars, relocation of local inhabitants away from their original houses, abandonment of arable land, pressure of personal safety from wild boars, and probability risk of infection. The Game Theory model was employed to analyze the complex relationship between human survival and wild boar invasion as well as to determine the degree of EDS. The data of land use/cover and reforestation was obtained from remote-sensing images, and the negative effects of wild boars on local residents were obtained through interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that the improved ecosystem extended the area of forests toward the living areas of farmers and induced more wild animal activities in farmlands or living areas. Famers tried to maintain normal agricultural activities by avoiding the invasion of wild boars. The Game Theory model analysis provides the Nash equilibrium (prevention, invasion), which implies that wild boar invasion could not been avoided in the current situation. The government policies should focus on balancing the ecological restoration and human survival and as well as on improving and optimizing the resource allocation to help and compensate the loss of agriculture products. These approaches are the most effective ways to improve ecological construction, wild animal conservation, and farmer wellbeing. This research illustrates the significance of EDS and ES research in the process of ecological civilization construction in China. The Game Theory is one of the effective approaches to analyze the conflicts between human wellbeing and ecosystem restoration. Our results will also provide useful reference to the harmonious development strategies concerning ecological restoration and human survival in China.

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    Innovation diffusion hypothesis or efficiency hypothesis: Spatial penetration of online-to-offline e-commerce in China based on Meituan.com
    Kunbo SHI, Yongchun YANG, Shuo BAI, Enlong LI, Dan CHEN
    2018, 37 (4):  783-796.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804012
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    Two hypotheses about the spatial development of urban e-commerce are proposed herein. The innovation diffusion hypothesis surmises e-commerce exhibits better development in strongly urbanized areas than that in weakly urbanized areas. However, the efficiency hypothesis asserts there is better development in weakly urbanized areas. Obviously, the path the spatial development of urban e-commerce follows is a debated topic. In the context of the two hypotheses, we take online-to-offline (O2O) e-commerce of 286 Chinese prefecture-level cities as a research sample, and adopt spatial analysis models and multilinear regression to explore which hypothesis spatial patterns of e-commerce in China follow. The results indicate, first, the spatial pattern of comprehensive size of O2O e-commerce follows a hierarchy of decreasing from China's east coast to the inland areas. However, the development level of such e-commerce follows uniform spatial distribution, and its penetration level follows a "reverse hierarchy" of increasing from the east coast to the inland area. Second, in weakly urbanized areas, less-developed traditional commerce (physical stores) promotes development of O2O e-commerce. Thus, the spatial pattern of O2O e-commerce in China tends to follow the efficiency hypothesis. However, the development level of traffic has a promoting effect on O2O e-commerce development. This is contrary to the efficiency hypothesis. Therefore, the efficiency hypothesis is not absolutely suitable for explaining the spatial development of O2O e-commerce in China. Finally, the reverse hierarchy spatial pattern of O2O e-commerce has a greater promoting effect on the development of traditional commerce in weakly urbanized areas, which will lead to uniform distribution of urban commerce in China.

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    Appropriate human capital and coordinated development of regional economy
    Yanchao SHENG, Yujiao ZHOU
    2018, 37 (4):  797-813.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804013
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    Appropriate human capital (AHC) should match regional industrial structure and regional economic development model, because a matched AHC can maximize human capital effectiveness to enhance the level of regional economic development. Taking both national and regional levels into account, we use the panel data of 30 Chinese provinces and cities from 1998 to 2014. We introduce ESDA method and spatial econometric method for us to examine the spatial differences in AHC promoting regional economic development effectiveness from the perspectives of primary human capital, intermediate human capital, advanced human capital, material capital, labor force, total factor productivity and other factors. Our research shows that (1) there are significant spatial correlations and path dependence between human capital and regional GDP, (2) at the national level, the impact of primary and intermediate human capitals on regional economic growth is insignificant, whereas the impact of advanced human capital is obvious, and (3) at the regional level, in the eastern and northeastern regions, the economic development mainly relies on advanced human capital, in the central and western regions, the impact of primary human capital is significant, and in the four regions the impact of intermediate human capital is not significant. The findings lay a theoretical foundation for regional talent cultivation and policy making of regional economic development.

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    A hybrid personalized data recommendation approach for geoscience data sharing
    Mo WANG, Xiaohuan ZHENG, Juanle WANG, Yongqing BAI
    2018, 37 (4):  814-824.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804014
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    Recommender systems are effective tools helping Internet users mitigate information overloading. In geoscience data sharing domain, items (datasets) are more informative in terms of spatial and temporal attributes compared to regular item (e.g. books, movies, music). Thus, high-performance recommendation algorithms for geoscience data are more challenging. This study proposed an approach that combines content-based filtering with item-based collaborative filtering using dynamic weights. The approach examines merits of both collaborative filtering in its predictive ability and item content information to mitigating data sparsity and early ratter problem. Users' ratings on items were first derived with their historical visiting time by Jenks Natural Breaks. In the CBF part, spatial, temporal, and thematic information of geoscience datasets were extracted to compute item similarity. Predicted ratings were computed with k-NN method separately using CBF and CF, and then combined with dynamic weights. With training dataset, we attempted to find the best model describing ideal weights and users’ co-rating level. A logarithmic function was identified to be the best model. The model was then applied to tune the weights of CF and CBF on user-item basis with test dataset. Evaluation results showed that the dynamic weighted approach outperformed either solo CF or CBF approach in terms of Precision and Recall.

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    The Taiwan scene and changes in modern maps
    Wenhui XIANG
    2018, 37 (4):  825-833.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804015
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    Modern map serves a kind of tool, for providing us a deeper understanding of Taiwan's economy and society. Our discussion is based on analysis of the time and space information displayed by the following three maps: the measured map drawn by the French missionary Feng Bingzheng in 1714, and the ‘overall map of the full geography of Taiwan' in 1891, the ‘fort map with the scale of one to twenty thousand' in 1904. We also referred to historical references and original data and discussed Taiwan's economic and social change and its main characteristics, especially during the period after being included into the territory of Qing Government. We have the following main conclusions: (1) At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Taiwan stayed in the early stage of economic and social development; (2) After the opening of ports and the beginning of trade in the late Qing Dynasty, the traditional Taiwan society headed for modern times. Gradually, it stepped into the stage of modernization; (3) During the Japanese-Occupied Period, the change of Taiwan's economy and society was closely related to the need of Japanese colonial governors. These conclusions are meaningful to understand Taiwan's economic and social changes. At the same time, they provide us experience for today's development.

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    Humanity-oriented place making in S&T innovation districts: International best practices and the implications
    Jing LIN, Jianming CAI, WEBSTER Douglas, MULLER Larissa
    2018, 37 (4):  834-846.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804016
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    Of the urban economy and city competitiveness, innovation districts have increasingly become the most important component, particularly in the current era when science and technology (S&T) are emerging as the dominant and even decisive factors in driving the innovative economic development and urban vitality. Therefore, this paper tries to identify the common elements, benchmark and principles for the effective place making of S&T innovation districts, through the systematic review of the three international innovation districts, i.e., 22@Barcelona in Europe, Boston Innovation District in North America and One North Innovation District in Asia. The three best practices above prove that the humanity-oriented place making has become a major trend in successful S&T innovation district development, with the essence to meet various kinds of human needs to a maximized extent in terms of their life stages and hierarchy of needs, as well as by integrating the selected key elements to further give full play to their functional mechanism. The comparative study of the three best practices concludes that seven key elements, i.e., creative talent, enterprise cluster, enabling infrastructure, supportive financing, operational management, spatial structure and cultural ambience, should be identified and deemed as a whole system for making and promoting a well-performed S&T innovation district. Aligned with the analysis, the paper puts forward some implications to high-quality development of China's S&T innovation districts in the following five aspects: (1) vision-based sustained nurturing; (2) forward-looking positioning; (3) humanity-oriented spatial arrangement; (4) innovation-inspired activities programming; (5) multi-stakeholder participation. Lastly, the paper proposes that the systematic research should be conducted in the four aspects, i.e., how to identify the human needs in holistic way by their development stages; how to effectively integrate culture into place feeling and experience; how to construct a multi-dimensional habitat environment; how to brand the uniqueness and specificity of various types of innovation districts, in an aim to form an integrated theory on humanity-oriented place making.

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