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    10 June 2018, Volume 37 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspectives and Contention
    How to revive geography: Our reflection and practice
    Yungang LIU, Dadao LU, Jigang BAO, Chao YE, Maolin TANG, Yu LIU, Yaolong ZHAO, Zhangxian FENG, Xiaojun HUANG, Qing HAO, Gengzhi HUANG, Fenglong WANG, Zongcai WEI, Li WANG, Yang XIE, Liyun QIAN
    2018, 37 (6):  1049-1069.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1795KB) ( )   Save

    Geography is an ancient discipline, yet it is also continuously evolving. Especially in China, geography has been developing rapidly in the past 30 years. However, with the emergence of more and more branches and sub-disciplines, we are facing increasing confusions about geography. For the consideration of construction of geography discipline and its academic community, we are in an urgent need to find a "consensus" on the development of geography and explore the definition of geography community. To this end, we organized a series of workshops and conferences last year to provide a platform for different generations of geographers to express their opinions on how to promote the development of geography in China. This article is a summary of the viewpoints based on the recordings of the conference. In general, several consensuses have been reached as follows: (1) In teaching, we should enhance the comprehensiveness of courses of geography and strengthen the training of methods for geographical investigation and research; (2) In academic research, we should strengthen the summary of the paradigms in geography, provide more comprehensive explanations of "geo" and accelerate the integration and innovation in geographical theories and methods; (3) In disciplinary development, we should highlight the construction of regional geography, emphasize the national and local needs in policy-making, and demonstrate the contribution of geography. We hope that with our joint efforts, both the discipline and community of Chinese geography will be growing stronger in the future.

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    Articles
    The characteristics and driving forces of spatial and temporal evolution of industrial ecology in Guangzhou
    Guojun ZHANG, Juehan WANG, Dachang ZHUANG
    2018, 37 (6):  1070-1086.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806002
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    By using the entropy method and the coupling assessment model, this paper constructs the comprehensive evaluation index system of industrial ecology in Guangzhou from two dimensions, i.e., the economic efficiency and ecological efficiency. Then it explores the spatial and temporal evolution of the industrial ecology in Guangzhou from 2005 to 2015, and analyzes the coordinative evolution of the economic efficiency and ecological efficiency, as well as its driving forces. The results show that: (1) According to the temporal evolution characteristics, the industrial ecological development in Guangzhou continues to improve on the whole despite of some fluctuations, with the improvement rate of ecological efficiency higher than that of economic efficiency. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, the industrial ecological development presents the distribution pattern featured by the decreasing level from the core area to the main urban area and further to the peripheral area. From the perspective of spatial evolution, the overall level difference among regions has become smaller, which remained a relatively stable distribution pattern. (3) The overall coordination degree between economic efficiency and ecological efficiency in Guangzhou is rising steadily. The level of the coordination type shows the trend of gradual improvement from the peripheral area to the core area. The evolution mode of coordination type can be divided into three types: coordinated deepening development, coordinated development and professional development. (4) Industrial development strategy, urban spatial development strategy, environmental supervision, technological innovation and application, as well as enterprises' awareness of energy conservation and emission reduction, are the important driving forces for the development of industrial ecology in Guangzhou.

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    Applying supporting-pressuring coupling curve to the evaluation of urban land carrying capacity: The case study of 32 cities in Zhejiang province
    Yaya JIN, Xiangmu JIN, Chen LI
    2018, 37 (6):  1087-1099.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806003
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    The study of land carrying capacity (LCC) builds the groundwork for specifying fundamental information on land resources, which is conducive to promoting the reasonable utilization and protection of land resources. The measurement of LCC can be divided into two aspects: in an absolute way or in a relative way. From the relative aspect, on the basis of analyzing the coupling relationship between the supporting side and the pressuring side in the system of LCC, this paper defines the LCC as the limitation of pressuring side sustaining supporting side, and builds the indicators of supporting and pressuring types separately to describe the LCC. Based on LCC index, supporting index divided by pressuring index, the zoning criterion of LCC can be deduced by the supporting-pressuring coupling curve. Finally, according to the analysis system mentioned above, 32 cities in Zhejiang are analyzed as a case. The results indicate that: (1) For most cities, the pressured capacity is stronger than the pressuring capacity in 2014, so the overall capacity of LCC in Zhejiang is good. Among them, the supporting index and pressuring index of the prefecture-level cities are much higher than those of the county-level cities, but the LCC ratio of the former is much lower than the latter's. (2) In terms of zoning type, 29 out of 32 cities belong to the overloaded zones while the remaining three belong to the surplus zones. Among the 11 prefecture-level cities, only one is highly overloaded area (Hangzhou), one is high surplus area (Huzhou), and nine cities are low surplus area. Two out of 21 county-level cities are lowly overloaded areas (Yueqing and Longquan) and the rest are low surplus areas. By analyzing the specific reasons, some corresponding policies can be put forward according to different LCC zoning types.

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    Spatio-temporal characteristics and evolution of rural production-living-ecological space function coupling coordination in Chongqing Municipality
    Cheng WANG, Ning TANG
    2018, 37 (6):  1100-1114.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806004
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    The production space function, living space function and ecological space function promote and restrict each other; the complex relationship among the three functions is the major cause of the development and evolution of production-living-ecological space in rural areas. The coordinated and mutual development of the rural production-living-ecological space function is one of the most crucial issues in the current process of spatial restructuring in rural China. In this study, we established an index system for rural production-living-ecological space function with the production-living-ecological space theory in territorial space planning, based on the fact that a coupling coordination model was built. Therefore, after quantitatively calculating the coupling degree and coupling coordinate degree (2005, 2010, and 2015) of 37 districts and counties in Chongqing, we conducted spatial comparison and temporal analysis, the results are shown as follows. There were four types of coupling degree (low level coupling type, moderate level coupling type, break-in coupling type and coordination coupling type) and three types of coupling coordination degree (moderate incongruous type, elementary coordination type and moderate coordination type) appeared in rural production-living-ecological space function, which offered implications for calculating the mutual relationship among the three functions. The coupling coordination degree of rural production-living-ecological space function exhibited significant difference spatially and temporally; to be specific, it presented a spatial pattern of "high in the west and low in the east". In the time dimension, it waved from low level to high level coupling. There were obvious differences of coupling coordination status among every two of the three rural space functions. The coupling coordination of "production-living space function" was higher than that of "production-ecological space function" and "living-ecological space function" in the same period, whilst the coupling coordination of "living-ecological space function" had the poorest condition. Thus, living-ecological space function should be the key point for spatial restructuring and it must be proposed firstly in rural areas.

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    Spatio-temporal variation and its influencing factors of rural energy poverty in China from 2000 to 2015
    Xueyan ZHAO, Huanhuan CHEN, Yanyan MA, Zhiyu GAO, Bing XUE
    2018, 37 (6):  1115-1126.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806005
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    Rural energy poverty—one of the severe challenges facing the global energy system—has become the primary indicator of poverty in developing countries. Therefore, it is urgent to find out the key factors contributing to energy poverty and seek effective measures to alleviate it. In this paper, taking 30 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China as the research unit, and the energy access and energy service as the measurement index of energy poverty, through an integration of Theil index and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and spatial panel econometric model, we examine the characteristics and spatio-temporal patterns and the factors of rural energy poverty in China from 2000 to 2015. The aim is to provide scientific basis and reference for desicion making on rural energy policies in China. The results are shown as follows: (1) The rural energy poverty showed an "inverse U" trend from 2000 to 2015, that is to say, it increased first and then decreased. And the pattern of rural energy poverty in China has maintained a saddle-type spatial distribution, that is, the rural energy poverty in the central region was higher than that of the eastern and western regions. (2) The regional disparity of rural energy poverty presented a narrowing trend with big flucation, and the Theil Index decreased by 13.71%. During this period, the gap in rural energy poverty was widened between regions, but it was narrowed within regions. And the growing rate of inequalities of the rural energy poverty in the eastern region was higher than that of the central and western regions. (3) By observing the change of Moran's I in 2000, 2008 and 2015, the spatial agglomeration range of rural energy poverty presented an enlarging trend. All of the "hot-spot" and "cold-spot" of rural energy poverty showed an expanding tendency, and the stable hot-spots are located in the central region, while the stable cold-spots are situated in the eastern coastal area. (4) The selected explanatory variables, such as the level of economic development, rural energy supplies, energy investment level, rural energy infrastructure and rural energy management level, have significant direct impacts on rural energy poverty in China. We found that these factors have a positive effect on rural energy poverty alleviation. With the regional development level increasing, the rural energy poverty will be effectively alleviated.

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    A study on the influencing factors of rural residents' well-being under the ecological migration: Based on the sampling survey of rural areas in Lantian county of Shaanxi province
    Xinyuan LI, Min LEI, Jiaqi XI, Xiaoli CAO, Zhiqing ZHAO
    2018, 37 (6):  1127-1141.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806006
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    The well-being is a complete expression on living actuality and satisfaction degree, referring to several factors such as wealth, education, health, security, facility, livelihood, and happiness. The rural residents under eco-migration facing new risks of economy, society and mentality should pay attention to improving well-being level and help for merging into immigrant areas and new life. Based on a microcosmic view of rural residents and supported by Amartya Sen Capacity Theory, this paper examines the influencing factors and mechanism of action on well-being of rural residents under eco-migration from farmers' demand by connecting literature researches and results of participatory rural appraisal as well as by establishing multidimensional index systems of the well-being of rural residents under eco-migration. The research shows that the rural residents' well-being under eco-migration presents a general pattern of "one body with two wings, ten points interact", because the immigrants face the combined impacts of family well-being, external well-being and psychological well-being, but the impact degrees are significantly different. The "main body" is that the external well-being plays a leading role while immigrants face well-being maintenance transfers to well-being improvement, and the "two wings" are the coactions of family well-being and psychological well-being with harmonious propulsion. The complicated coupling relationship of 10 vital functions (living standard, health, security, social bond, environmental culture, communication for information, time utilization, social adaptation, equal rights and life realization) influences directly or indirectly the integral level of rural residents' well-being to different degrees and shows a pattern of obvious focal point and echelon improvement. Of 10 vital functions, the effect of social bond is the most remarkable, the appeal for equal rights is the most intense, and indirect effect of time utilization is relatively obvious. Thus, the research suggests that the implementation of eco-migration should consider the family well-being, external well-being and psychological well-being of immigrants, focus on the relations of immigrant well-being and policy implementation, and ensure the rural residents under eco-migration adaptation to new environment in immigrant areas and enjoy a lasting, steady and high-level well-being by means of sustainable supply, important guarantee and omni-directional support of benefit farming policy.

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    Type classification, pattern characteristics and influencing factors of rural cultural memory space: A case study of Jinting town in Suzhou
    Long LV, Zhenfang HUANG, Xiaoyan CHEN
    2018, 37 (6):  1142-1158.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806007
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    The studies on culture of rural areas have been the focus of tourism geography. Especially, the study of rural cultural memory and its space is the logic origin of rural cultural studies, which is of great significance to the exhibition, recovery and reconstruction of rural culture. Based on cultural memory theory, we define the concepts of rural cultural memory, discuss the spatial type classification and rural cultural memory space. Moreover, we apply the proposed classification system to discuss the rural memory space of Jinting town (the original name: Xishan town) in Suzhou based on the combination of local chorography and GIS spatial analysis method. The results showed that: (1) Based on the cultural memory form and the memory field, the types of cultural memory space are divided into life and production type, functional symbol type, social representation type and spiritual consciousness type. (2) The characteristics of the time pattern are as follows: the space of life and production type has remained relatively stable growth from the beginning, with a peak in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Afterwards, its cumulative level has retained better and developed smoothly. The spaces of functional symbol type and social representation type shows a changing trend of an inverted U-shape pattern, and has been greatly reduced since the Republican Period. The space of spiritual consciousness type has developed smoothly from the beginning to the end. (3) In terms of spatial pattern, the rural cultural memory spaces have presented the characteristics of the aggregation distribution. The dominant distribution showed a southwest-northeast trend, and gradually expanded from south to north. The distribution density demonstrated the cluster distribution characteristics, and presented the change trend from south to north. In particular, the core regions of space density were given priority to the space of life and production type. (4) The key influencing factors included: the change of human-environment interactions is the precondition for the evolution of rural cultural memory; the flourishment of folk belief and folk style is the important condition for the evolution of rural cultural memory; the inheritance of official support, clan and celebrity are the support condition for the evolution of rural cultural memory.

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    Chinese cruisers' product cognition, emotional expression and brand image perception: A web content analysis
    Xiaodong SUN, Rongxin NI
    2018, 37 (6):  1159-1180.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806008
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    There is no doubt that the cruise industry has become one of the most actively and rapidly developed segments in the entire tourism and leisure market. In recent years, the global cruise industry has accelerated the pace of transferring from the European and American markets to the Asia-Pacific region with exciting growth rates, especially to China. As the largest component of the Asian market, China is undergoing rapid development in terms of both infrastructure construction and cruise ship/passenger service. In the dual thrust of the national "515" and "The Belt and Road" strategy, China has become the strategic emerging market for international cruise lines. Since the first ocean cruise ship's arrival in 2006, there had been more than 20 homeporting ships from 4 cruise groups (Royal Caribbean, Carnival, MSC and Norwegian) sailing from more than 10 sea ports of China as of 2017. All cruise companies are trying to create competitive and distinctive cruise products and services for Chinese tourists. At present, the emerging market is facing difficulties and challenges on effectively cultivating cruise culture, enlarging the tourist market, and enhancing awareness of cruise product and cruise brand identification. The key is to better understand local tourists' perception of cruise tourism. We collected 1691 cruisers' online comments from www.ctrip.com, the largest OTA in China, on four cruise lines, including Royal Caribbean Cruises, Costa Cruises, Princess Cruises and SkySea Cruises. We analyzed these comments and explored Chinese cruisers' perception of image, emotion and satisfaction for cruise tourism itself and different cruise brands. The data contain both cruisers' review contents and satisfaction scores for six attributes of service: accommodation, shore excursion, dining, entertainment and guide leader. The content analysis shows that for Chinese tourists, cruise tourism is perceived as a leisure vocation with a high level of service, dining, accommodation and entertainment, offering the opportunity of shore excursions, suitable for the family, elderly and children. High-frequency words and relevant semantic networks illustrate that there is no significant difference in perceived image between different cruise lines. The sentiment analysis shows that Chinese cruisers express overall positive and optimistic emotions toward cruise tourism. In addition, results of the satisfaction analysis show that cruisers are strongly satisfied with the cruise features of service, accommodation, dining, entertainment and sports, while weakly satisfied with shore excursion. There is significant difference in dining, accommodation, entertainment and shore activity between brands; no significant difference is found in service and guide leader. Finally, according to the results, some implications and suggestions for promoting the cruise tourism in China are proposed.

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    City network link analysis of urban agglomeration in the middle Yangtze River basin based on the Baidu Post Bar data
    Chuxiong DENG, Xiongwei SONG, Binggeng XIE, Min LI, Xiaolong ZHONG
    2018, 37 (6):  1181-1192.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806009
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    Based on the Baidu City Post Bar data, this paper used the social network analysis method, dominant flow analysis method, D-Value and C-Value analysis method, to make a quantitative analysis on the city network link characteristics of urban agglomeration in the middle Yangtze River basin from the following three aspects: city network link density and city link type, city network link hierarchy structure, and city's dominance and control power. The results show that: (1) The network link density of City Post Bar of urban agglomeration in the middle Yangtze River basin is 77.74%, and that of each city sub-group is 100%. There is a general network connection among most cities, in which the city network connection is more consanguineous in city sub-groups. (2) A total of 31 cities in urban agglomeration in the study area can be divided into five types: all partner, universal partner, more partner, ordinary partner, and few partner cities. There are no all partner type cities or more partner type cities in the circum-Poyang Lake urban agglomeration, whose city network link is not as active as that of the Wuhan urban agglomeration and the circum- Chang (Changsha)-Zhu (Zhuzhou)-Tan (Xiangtan) urban agglomeration. (3) Urban agglomeration in the middle Yangtze River basin has not yet nurtured a truly dominant city or a secondary dominant city. Dominant cities and secondary dominant cities only appear in the three city sub-groups, with an insignificant city network link hierarchy structure. Wuhan and Changsha can affect the other cities across the city sub-groups' boundary, being miniature dominant cities at the level of urban agglomeration in the study area. (4) Urban agglomeration in this region has basically formed a pyramid pattern of city network link featured by “one core, two sub-cores, three centers, and five nodes". In terms of the dominance and control power, Wuhan can be considered as the regional central city; Changsha and Nanchang are the regional sub-core cities; Zhuzhou, Jiujiang and Yichang are the central cities in their respective city sub-group; Yueyang, Huangshi, Xiangyang, Hengyang and Jingdezhen are the control node cities in their respective city sub-group.

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    Evaluation and optimization strategy of city network structural resilience in the middle reaches of Yangtze River
    Chong PENG, Yingzi LIN, Chaolin GU
    2018, 37 (6):  1193-1207.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806010
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    The structural resilience of a city network is a rising concept in the field of regional resilience; it focuses on how structural properties affect a region responding to external shocks, as well as recovering, maintaining, or improving the characteristics and key functions of the original system, which is of great significance to the healthy development of regional space. With the help of the Gephi social network analysis tool, this article takes the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River as the example and constructs three kinds of networks of economy, information, and transportation, and attempts to measure the structural resilience of the network and spatial characteristics of urban agglomerations. The results show that the structure of the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River has a certain resilience. Specifically, the study includes four distinct dimensions: (1) Hierarchy. Economy and information networks have higher levels of hierarchy, and regional locking is more prominent. (2) Assortativity. The disassortativity of information and transportation networks is evident, and they have heterogeneous and diverse contact paths. The economy network has weak disassortativity, leading to an inhibited structural resilience. (3) Transmission. The average path length of the above three networks is generally long and the diffusion efficiency of the material flow is satisfactory. (4) Clustering. Although the spatial clustering of the three network types is different, the aggregation degree is high and the level is equivalent. In a word, the aggregation effect of the three networks is obvious. From the perspective of spatial structure, the structural resilience presents three characteristics. (1) Disparity of the overall morphological patterns. The economy network mainly presents the structural model of "broken core-heterogeneous nested triangle". The information network mainly presents the structural model of "core triangle-star radiation". The transportation network mainly presents the structural model of "core triangle + heterogeneous star radiation". (2) Dislocation of the classified central cities. Wuhan urban agglomeration shows a unique network structure characteristic, which will be summarized as "a single core + edge cities". The Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city group exhibits a local network of the city's balanced trend, the performance of "core group + edge city". The comprehensive level of the Poyang Lake urban agglomeration is low, and is mainly based on the isolated structure model of the "single core" of Nanchang. (3) Diversification of the network connection characteristics. The measure of structural toughness is not dependent on the single index value—it should be combined with hierarchy, match, transmission, and clustering. Furthermore, some suggestions are put forward to optimize the spatial structure of urban agglomeration in the aspects of general structure, area structure, and element flow.

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    Spatial identification and scale effects of floating population agglomerations at the community scale: A case study of Beijing
    Meifeng ZHAO, Shenghe LIU, Wei QI
    2018, 37 (6):  1208-1222.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806011
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    Floating population agglomeration is a typical "heterogeneous community" in big cities, with the characteristics of socioeconomic duality and and spatial heterogeneity. How to transform the floating population agglomeration has become the focus issue that influences the new-type urbanization process and the citizenization of rural migrant workers. As the basis and premise of the research on floating population agglomeration, the spatial identification of floating population agglomeration is the primary problem that needs to be solved urgently. Based on the identity of land use and population distribution, this paper uses the floating population agglomeration identification method based on spatial collocation to achieve the spatial identification of floating population agglomerations at the community scale. Then it compares the spatial identification results of the floating population agglomerations at the subdistrict scale and the community scale, identifies the spatial scale effects of floating population agglomerations, analyzes the mechanism of spatial scale effects of floating population agglomerations, and explores the necessity of choosing community scale as the basic unit. The results show that: Firstly, the floating population agglomerations at the community scale based on spatial collocation method are highly accurate, which can effectively identify approximately 90% of the floating population agglomerations in the case area. Secondly, the floating population agglomeration has significant spatial scale effects. The identification method at the larger spatial scale (subdistrict scale) easily leads to excessive or omissive identification of floating population settlement area. Meanwhile, the identification method at the smaller spatial scale (community scale) is better to grasp and reflect the social spatial differentiation. Thirdly, the main reasons of the spatial scale effects of the floating population agglomerations are as follows: the large spatial scale that easily overlooks the social spatial differentiation, the urban and rural binary socio-economic system and the high-speed urbanization process. The findings will provide technical support and methodological reference for the systematic and meticulous research of floating population agglomeration, as well as the scientific basis for the government to make relevant policies on floating population agglomerations.

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    Science and technology innovation patterns and their spatial and temporal evolution of provinces in China
    Zhe LI, Yuming SHEN, Chunshui ZENG
    2018, 37 (6):  1223-1237.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806012
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    Given the fact that China's economic growth pattern is transforming from the previous factor-driven type into innovation-driven one, the more innovative a country is, the stronger competition advantage it will obtain and maintain around the world. Likewise, appropriate science and technology innovation pattern tends to be the key to promoting China's economic and social development in a balanced and sustainable manner. In this paper, entropy technology is introduced for the purpose of building a comprehensive index evaluation system. Based on weighted values generated by the evaluation system, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial evolution of provincial science and technology innovation input and output level in 2004, 2009 and 2014 via Theil index. Then, by exercising K-means clustering analysis, 31 provincial weighted values of science and technology innovation input are divided into 5 grades from high to low, so are the weighted values of science and technology innovation output. On this account, there are totally 11 input-output combinations of science and technology innovation in China which can be classified into 3 types, namely, input-output coordination, input leading and output leading. Among them, there are 3 subtypes of input-output coordination which are high-, medium- and low-level input-output coordination in regard of input and output grades, while the latter one can be divided into 2 subtypes which involve high- and low-level output leading in comparison of input and output grades. This paper further studies the temporal and spatial evolution of all the types. The results show that: (1) input-output coordination maintains the dominant position in China on the move; (2) Innovation platform construction imposes the most significant influence on science and technology innovation type transformation in eastern China. By means of multi-stage DEA model, this paper identifies four science and technology innovation patterns in terms of science and technology innovation input, namely mixed driven, innovation platform driven, labor-capital driven and labor driven pattern, and three science and technology innovation patterns in terms of science and technology innovation output, which involve economy, knowledge-economy and knowledge innovation oriented pattern. It is obvious that science and technology innovation types are associated with the patterns in temporal and spatial evolution. What's more, this paper makes some suggestions to regional science and technology innovation development of China in the future.

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    The design of dissertation proposal, an important aspect highly prone to being neglected: A case study of Human-economic Geography
    Degen WANG
    2018, 37 (6):  1238-1250.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806013
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    Postgraduate education is an important way to cultivate innovative talents, which is of great significance for implementing the national strategy of Rejuvenating China through Science and Technology. Accordingly, dissertation is used as a major indicator to evaluate the quality of postgraduate training program. Dissertation proposal, as a start of dissertation, will determine the level and quality of dissertation to a large extent, thus, it also play an important part in cultivating the innovation ability of postgraduates. In reality, dissertation proposal is largely ignored, which makes it like a "chicken rib", distasteful and boring to read but its existence is still necessary. The paper will analyze this phenomenon and reveals the reasons behind. The three significant sections of an excellent proposal design are demonstrated from cognition, skill and design aspects. The paper can help realize the pivotal role of "verification and guidance" of the proposal; acquire the academic skills such as simplification; acquire the academic skills on selecting, reading, and reviewing literature for the designing of literature review and enlightenment sections, which occupy a large proportion of dissertation proposal. Avoiding piling up, searching for correlation, increasing research significance, finding a breakthrough, and elaborating a point are essential factors for a dissertation proposal. The proposal should be designed with a far sighted view, especially for these four important parts: title and abstract, topic basis, literature review and enlightenment, and research design.

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