Table of Content

    20 September 2018, Volume 37 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspectives and Contention
    The ideal and inheritance of writing the college human geography textbooks: A review of the Chinese edition of Political Geography by The Commercial Press
    Maolin TANG
    2018, 37 (9):  1673-1682.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1522KB) ( )   Save

    The paper begins with the importance of political geography in human geography and a short introduction to the existing Chinese textbooks on political geography. Political Geography by Colin Flint and Peter J Taylor has been translated into Chinese by Professor Liu Yungang, and published by The Commercial Press. The Chinese edition of the world's famous political geography textbook is reviewed on the contents, characteristics and advantages, quality of translation, and shortcomings and so on. The textbook almost covers all the topics in the last half century such as geopolitics, nation-state, geopolitical transformations after the Cold War, globalization, and the current imperialism and terrorism. The obvious characteristics can be summarized as six points: Continuing retrofitting with the time; many discussing scales from global to local even body scale; all the materials are linked by a red thread, i.e. world system analysis framework; the cooperation between the two generations of political geographers set us a good paradigm; using many world-wide case studies; and it is written based on the research literature and with many full citations.

    The main translator, Liu Yungang, a famous Chinese political geographer at Sun Yat-sen University, who has a Chinese and a Japan Ph.D, gave me an impression of being diligent and indulged in academics from our first meeting in Beijing in 2005. And from his investment on teaching and research, and the academic output reaches high academic standards and enjoys high reputation in Chinese human geography academia, and was elected vice-president of the Political Geography and Geo-Political Relationship Committee, and director of the Youth Committee, the Geographical Society of China. All these can guarantee the quality of the translation. In the way there are some issues in the current Chinese edition, and should be corrected in the new printing, including the omission of the bibliography and index, wrong translation of several scholars such as Jean Gottmann, and some editorial problems.

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    Special Feature on Dongting Lake Region
    Monitoring water quality of Dongting Lake region based on GF-1 image
    Baofa PENG, Zhefu CHEN, Jianhui LI, Wangjun LUO, Jie GAN, Rongliang ZENG
    2018, 37 (9):  1683-1691.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809002
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    Lake water quality monitoring is the foundation for the effective implementation of comprehensive management of lake water environment as well as water pollution prevention and control. Moreover, the dynamic monitoring of water quality can provide an important basis for the assessment of the risk of algal bloom in lakes and the ecological safety construction in the lake area. Dongting Lake is the second largest freshwater lake in China, the acceleration industrialization and urbanization had caused the lake water pollution to be more and more serious in recent years. Many studies were focused on the traditional water quality monitoring method that rely on chemical analysis after water sample collection, but paid less attention to the remote sensing technique due to the shortages of aerospace imagery. In this paper, the GF-1 image during the period 2014-2016 were collected based on the high resolution earth observation system Hunan Data and Application Center, and the inversion of water quality parameters of Dongting Lake was carried out including chlorophyll-a concentration, suspended matter concentration and transparency. The water boundary of Dongting Lake was extracted by the normalized water index (NDWI), and water quality parameters were quantitatively retrieved by the remote sensing model. The results show that the chlorophyll-a was mainly concentrated in the Anle Lake, Daxiao West Lake and the western part of East Dongting Lake, where the flow speed is slow, the chlorophyll-a content in other parts of Dongting Lake is relatively low due to water disturbance. The transparency of water quality is relatively high in the tributaries, then decreases from south to north and reaches the peak in the Yangtze River Estuary. There is a negative correlation of spatial distribution between transparency and suspended matter concentration as a whole, which is consistent with the routine monitoring rule. The water quality of the East Dongting Lake is much worse than that of the southern Dongting Lake and the West Dongting Lake. The water pollution of East Dongting Lake is at the highest level of the whole lake, which is closely related to human activities, causing a large amount of pollutants, agriculture and forestry chemical fertilizer being discharged into the East Dongting Lake. The GF-1 PMS imagery can accurately reflect the spatial variation of chlorophyll a concentration, suspended solids concentration and transparency index, and this study is expected to provide an important reference for the study of theory, method and application of inland lake water quality monitoring based on high-resolution remote sensing images.

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    Spatial differentiation and coupling effect between land ecosystem services value and economic development: A case study of West Dongting Lake area
    Duanlyu CHEN, Zhefu CHEN, Baofa PENG
    2018, 37 (9):  1692-1703.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809003
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    The ecosystem service value, which is an effective tool to measure the ecosystem services, to a certain extent, reflects the relation between land use and social economic system by changing the value of regional ecosystem services. Spatial analysis of West Dongting Lake region based on massive vector and raster data were made with the aid of ArcGIS 10. Eco-economic regulation mechanism was studied by constructing the ecological economic coordination index and analyzing the characters of spatial differentiation of eco-economic harmony degrees between land the ecosystem service and economic development. The results are shown as follows: (1) The ecosystem service value of West Dongting Lake area decreased from 1292.13×106 yuan in 2000 to 953.03×106 yuan in 2011, a reduction of 339.10×106 yuan. (2) In the whole study area except Taoyuan, 6 counties have low intensity conflict in the whole research period, which are Changde, Anxiang, Hanshou, Lixian, Linli and Jinshi. All this shows that there are conflicts and the potential crisis between the economic and social development. (3) In terms of spatial differentiation, the ecological economic coordination of land use from 2000 to 2008 and 2008 to 2011 is basically a state of low intensity conflict, and that from 2008 to 2011 was a potential crisis in space. It is necessary to take measures in ecological service recovery and reconstruction and control the rapid growth of the consumption demand of ecological services.

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    Low-impact urban development mode based on waterlogging security pattern
    Sheng JIAO, Jingyan HAN, Min ZHOU, Yong CAI, Zongwei HAN, Bei LI
    2018, 37 (9):  1704-1713.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809004
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    The main causes of urban waterlogging are decrease of urban storage land, the spillway network fragmented by construction land, overlap of stormwater storage and construction land, and so on. This paper, based on the three levels of substrate (source of runoff), corridor (runoff pathway) and patch (confluence land), attempts to set up a low-impact urban development mode to absorb extreme storm water through its inherent storage capacity of natural hydrological system: Suyuyuan, a typical area of Changsha in southern China was taken as an example to build the low-impact development mode by spatial analysis tools ArcGIS and in hydrological analysis module in soil conservation service (SCS) based on geomorphologic and hydrometeorological data. The waterlogging security pattern was built according to the flood submergence scope and runoff path simulation of extreme rainfall. According to the construction target of sponge city with annual runoff control rate of 85%, the source control water volume and corridor control water quantity were determined respectively, and then the patch control water quantity was obtained. It is estimated that the area should preserve 228.2 ha stormwater storage regulation patch and 1.075 million m3 controlled water volume, and 51.5 ha waterlogging corridors and 0.101 million m3 controlled water volume after the development. This method can provide a reference for exploring the new model of sponge city construction based on extreme climate waterlogging prevention and control.

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    Study on the balance of ecological service supply and demand in Dongting Lake ecological economic zone
    Yishao SHI, Donghui SHI
    2018, 37 (9):  1714-1723.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809005
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    Based on the land cover types and land use status of Dongting Lake eco-economic zone, this paper revises the regional equivalence of ecosystem services value per unit area proposed by Gaodi Xie et al. And we calculated the equivalent value of ecological service function of supply function, regulation function, support function, cultural function and the total ecological services in the study area. According to the relevant provisions of national eco-county, eco-city and eco-province construction index and per capita resource consumption, the value equivalent of each ecological service demand is obtained by combining the land area and resident population of each district within the region. According to the assessment results of the equivalent value of the supply of ecosystem services, we can obtain the supply-demand profit-loss status of the regional ecosystem services. Research indicates that: (1) The overall supply and demand of various ecological functions and ecological services in the Dongting Lake eco-economic zone are in a good condition with the ratio of supply and demand being more than 1.2; (2) There are differences in the supply and demand of various ecological functions within the region, which is listed as supporting service (1.46) > regulating service (1.44) > supplying service (1.39) > cultural service (1.28); (3) The supply-demand ratio shows a distribution mode of areas with high values around it, but the supply and demand is relatively low in Jingzhou area on the north side of the region; (4) From the perspective of supply and demand of ecological services, the difference between urban and rural areas is significant. In this study, the supply-demand ratio analysis is limited to the boundaries of administrative divisions. The research on the natural boundary of spatial distribution based on supply and demand needs to be further strengthened.

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    Orginal Article
    The empirical determination on appropriate management scale of cultivated land in mountainous areas: A case study of Chongqing
    Qiaoxi FAN, Jing'an SHAO, Shouying YING
    2018, 37 (9):  1724-1735.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809006
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    In the context of the state allowing the transfer of rural contracted management rights and the development of modern agriculture, what scale is appropriate in the mountain area, and which is characteristic of the ups and downs of the topography, the fragmentation of the land and the far radius of the distribution? This is one of the scientific problems that must be clarified at the moment. Using 480 valid questionnaires, with the investment of agricultural labor force as the calculating unit, and with per labor net income as the evaluation index, we constructed econometric model from two aspects of crop type and radius of plot distribution. The results showed that: (1) In the current social and economic conditions, the area of moderate scale management of agricultural land is 24-32 mu. Per labor net income is far higher than the current rural per capita net income at moderate scale, and the gap between the urban and rural residents has significantly reduced. (2) The type of crops has little influence on the moderate scale, but it has a great influence on the net income of farmers. The moderate scale of economic crops and grain crops were 24.33 mu and 24.63 mu, respectively, but the difference was not significant. Per labor net income gap is 3638 yuan by planting economic crops and grain crops at moderate scale. The huge gap will prompt the development of economic crops in some areas suitable for economic crops. (3) The distance has great influence on the land moderate scale, but has little effect on the per labor net income. The areas within the distance of 0.5 km and 0.5-1 km at moderate scale were 28.62 mu and 31.83 mu, respectively, and the gap between moderate scales of average labor is 3 mu. This shows that distance is an important factor in agricultural production. However, the gap between per labor net income is small, which illustrates that the expansion of the moderate scale is mainly attributed to machinery with the increase of working distance. The model of land outside of 1 km fails to pass statistical test, which is further confirmed. Therefore, large-scale operation and mechanized farming are effective ways to solve the problem of distance; (4) Moderate scales of land are feasible and the feasibility and necessity for promoting the moderate scale of land management are demonstrated. This will provide scientific reference for the government to formulate the rural land management policy.

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    Market potential, spatial spillover and manufacturing industry agglomeration
    Haohan WANG, Jianjun XU
    2018, 37 (9):  1736-1750.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809007
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    In order to have an in-depth analysis of the important role of the domestic and foreign markets potential that plays in promoting the agglomeration of manufacturing industry in China, this paper firstly introduces a new economic geography model to analyze the impact of domestic and international market potential (DIMP) on the manufacturing agglomeration, and then uses spatial Durbin methods to examine DIMP's impact on China's manufacturing industry agglomeration based on the cross-provincial panel data. The result of parameter estimation well confirms the significant direct effect of the DIMP within provinces on manufacturing agglomeration and the spatial spillover effect of the DIMP between provinces on manufacturing agglomeration. The empirical results also illustrate the direct role of transport infrastructures and marketilization in promoting manufacturing agglomeration, the direct promotion of labor productivity to manufacturing agglomeration and the positive spillover effect, and the direct and indirect blocking effects (negative spillover) of actual wage levels on manufacturing agglomeration. What's more, the estimation results based on different spatial weight matrixes are consistency. Finally, the policy implications for the above conclusion are proposed. The characteristics of this study are as follows: (1) The market potential is subdivided into two parts, namely domestic and foreign market potentials, which characterize the intrinsic relationship between the two types of market potentials and manufacturing agglomeration under the framework of the new economic geography; (2) Integrating supply and demand factors into a unified analytical framework and taking into account the characteristics of spatial dependency among regions, and using the spatial Durbin model to focus on the complicated impact of the potential of domestic and foreign markets on manufacturing agglomeration, this model suggests that the market potential not only has a direct impact on manufacturing agglomeration but also takes note of the spillover effect of market potential on manufacturing agglomeration; (3) We introduce the interactive items of DIMP into the model to further verify the existence of the "alternative" relationship in domestic and foreign markets in the formation of manufacturing agglomeration; (4) The conclusions drawn from the spatial weights of geographic distance and 0-1 space adjacency spatial weight matrix are consistent, which illustrates the empirical conclusion of the stability.

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    The coordinated development of regional tourism innovation in the Pearl River Delta: Based on interduality theory
    Jinbo JIANG, Jinwen TANG
    2018, 37 (9):  1751-1761.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809008
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    Based on interduality theory, the regional tourism innovation system is divided into the state subsystem and the process subsystem which characterize the innovation ability and innovation efficiency, respectively. Focusing on nine cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, this study develops the index system and the evaluation model of coordinated development in tourism innovation. In addition, the innovation ability, the innovation level of the subsystem, and the degree of inter-city coordination are derived from relevant statistical data. The evaluation, calculation and classification results of the comprehensive development level and the coordinated level of the innovation subsystem show that the developmental differences in tourism innovation of the nine cities could be characterized as a U-shaped pattern. The tourism innovation ability of Guangzhou and Zhongshan is good but with a low coordination degree, while both of the indexes are good for Shenzhen. For the remaining six cities, the comprehensive level of tourism innovation is low; however, their coordination degree is high. Therefore, to promote the coordinated development of tourism innovation in the nine PRD cities and thereby enhance the overall level of regional tourism innovation, the following measures should be taken. First, effective measures should be taken to increase investment in tourism innovation, initiate favorable policies of tourism innovation, ensure a beneficial environment for tourism innovation, and create a positive atmosphere for tourism innovation. Emphasis should be placed on the areas with low-level tourism innovation; constant improvements should be applied to the innovation mechanism in those areas and innovative talents and funds should be provided continuously, which turn to the learning region of tourism innovation. Second, innovation within the tourism industry is expected to be strengthened and the productivity of tourism innovation should be enhanced. We should comprehensively improve the overall quality of the employees, train innovative talents, and vigorously promote the construction of tourist talent tanks. Third, it must be acknowledged that regional cooperation will deliver growth across regions. In order to accelerate the diffusion and spillover of tourism innovation, the effect of spatial proximity on tourism innovation should be exaggerated. For example, in terms of tourism innovation, Hong Kong and Macao can exert a leading influence on the Pearl River Delta; meanwhile, Guangzhou and Shenzhen should cooperate with other cities in order to promote the coordinated development of regional tourism innovation. At the same time, we should actively guide the rational allocation of tourism innovation resources among regions, and promote the relevant industries to support tourism innovation in the special regions.

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    Generational differences in the influence of exotic gastronomic culture on local residents' place identity in Guangzhou
    Qiuju LUO, Shaolian DING, Ke PAN
    2018, 37 (9):  1762-1774.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809009
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    Following the cultural turn of geography, and the introduction of perspectives from "body" and "sentiment", the space topics on gastronomic culture have attracted human geographers' attention. Based on Breakwell's (1986, 1992) Identity Process Theory, and on the deep interview materials of 38 local residents in Guangzhou, this paper discusses the influence of exotic gastronomic culture on place identity and generational differences in this process. Results indicate that the influx of exotic food culture arouses multiple senses of identity crisis among the older generation in Guangzhou, which stimulates them to take practices to reinvigorate the traditional local culinary culture, and to construct their place identity through their loyalty and insistence on traditions. However, for young people who live in the environment of both exotic and local gastronomic cultures since childhood, they are adopting the inclusive attitudes towards different cultures and the skillful strategies in varied contexts to construct their place identity, thus to alleviate the place identity crisis. These generational differences reflect the rotated political structure of gastronomic cultural space, which gestates the inheritance and succession of local culinary culture.

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    Soil erosion and water supply change in Qihe watershed of Taihang Mountains from 2000 to 2015
    Shasha HE, Lupei YE, Wenbo ZHU, Yaoping CUI, Lianqi ZHU
    2018, 37 (9):  1775-1788.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809010
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    The changes of soil erosion and water supply of mountain ecosystem plays an important role in assessing regional ecological environment. Based on four-stage land use change data from 2000 to 2015, this study assessed the changes of main ecosystem services in Qihe watershed of Taihang Mountains with the assistance of InVEST model. The results showed that: (1) The main types of land use were cultivated land, grassland, and woodland, accounting for more than 90% of the total area of the Qihe watershed. During the 16-year study period, cultivated land decreased obviously, and grassland, water, and construction land all increased. (2) The soil erosion modulus decreased from 154.27 t/(hm2·a) in 2000 to 32.09 t/(hm2·a) in 2015, indicating that the average soil erosion modulus decreased obviously from 2000 to 2015. The area rates of land with strong erosion, extreme erosion, and severe erosion decreased from 9.04%, 12.19% and 25.96% to 7.17%, 6.36% and 4.21%, respectively, while those of land with slight erosion, mild erosion, and moderate erosion increased from 24.31%, 16.96% and 11.57% to 41.89%, 27.71% and 12.68%, respectively. The measures of returning farmland to forest and grassland have optimized the land use pattern, promoted vegetation restoration, and played a significant role in soil erosion control. (3) The volumes of water supply in the watershed increased firstly and then decreased during 2000-2015, and reached the peak of 179 million m3 in 2005. The volumes of water supply in two adjacent periods were different. The increased areas and volumes of water supply were more than decreased areas and volumes from 2000 to 2005, showing that the water supply capacity was enhanced. However, the water supply capacity weakened during 2005-2010 and 2010-2015, with the latter period seeing a smaller reduction. The increase of forest land and grassland area resulted in the decrease of water supply and the enhancement of soil water conservation capacity. Soil erosion and water supply are important indicators representing mountain ecological vulnerability. It is important to take concrete measures in soil and water conservation so as to enhance the service ability of mountain ecosystem.

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    Activity space of regional high speed rail corridor in information era: Conceptual model and research framework
    Jia TANG, Feng ZHEN, Xiao QIN
    2018, 37 (9):  1789-1801.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809011
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    As one of the most important infrastructures of regions and cities, information technology and high speed rail have been affecting the residents' behavior and activities. As a result, a new type of residents' activity space featured by high flowability has been gradually formed in regional high speed rail corridor in information era, promoting research on activity space into a new period. Against the backdrop, it is necessary to transform the traditional research paradigm based on advanced information and transportation technology and explore the basic forms, characteristics and research paradigm of activity space in the new period. Therefore, this paper tries to construct a conceptual model of activity space of regional high speed rail corridor in information era, exploring its composition, formation mechanism as well as its characteristics from the perspective of its attributes, scale, form and structure. Based on this, a research framework has been proposed by analyses of the theoretical supporting system, data and methods, the key research contents, and practical application of activity space in the new period, which is constructed based on space of flow theory, diverse data and new research methods, with the aim to explore the interaction between activities and spatial elements as well as its mechanism and spatial effects, and ultimately contribute to people-oriented regional planning. This research framework will enrich and deepen the research system of activity space and provide references for empirical study and regional planning of high speed rail corridor.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of population distribution and floating changes in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    Jing WANG, Benteng LIU, Yurui LI
    2018, 37 (9):  1802-1817.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809012
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    Based on multiple types of data and using qualitative and quantitative analysis, the paper analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of population changes in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from the two aspects of population distribution patterns and population floating in long and short periods. The main results are summed up as follows: (1) BTH region presents an obvious population distribution characteristic, which is influenced by physiographical conditions and traffic location factors; Beijing-Tianjin region reflects the prominent circle features, which is due to social and economic development; and Hebei lacks a mature regional sub-center. From 2000 to 2010, the population of this region is characterized by a significant growth. (2) Over a long period of time, the vitality of population floating has increased and the pattern of population floating is more concentrated. Over a short period of time, Beijing and Tianjin have become the hottest cities of population inflow and outflow respectively in China. The population floating among Beijing, Tianjin and Langfang is the most active, while the Beijing-centered population floating is relatively active. (3) The main influencing factors of the spatial-temporal change of population over a long period of time include human capital accumulation, industrial structure, urbanization, initial economic development level, rurality and public services, geographical location, central city radiation and topographic relief. Holidays and seasons are the important superimposed factors that affect the direction and quantity of short-term population movements.

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    Spatial scope cognition of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River from the perspective of college students
    Dan HE, Chong SHAN, Panpan ZHANG, Peng GAO
    2018, 37 (9):  1818-1831.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809013
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    The promulgation of Development Plan of Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River (2015-2030) by the State Council of the People's Republic of China delimited the scope of Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River (UAMRYR) and put an end to the dispute of "triangle" or "quadrilateral" (i.e. , whether Anhui province is included in UAMRYR or not). However, as the UAMRYR is an administrative scope, some distortions still exist in contrast to the scope cognized by the public. The advancement of information technologies strengthens the weight of public in the interests game, and reshapes the diversified pattern of "government + market + public" in public policies. To a certain extent, public cognition and its determining factors have exerted substantial impact on the policy orientation of the development of UAMRYR. Nevertheless, the public are overlooked in the existing studies on the delimitation of urban agglomeration. Hence, it is necessary to illustrate the scope delimitation of UAMRYR from the public perspective. Taking into account college students' diversified individual attributes, comprehensive knowledge, and the "main labor force" role in the forthcoming years, they are selected as the representative of the public. Survey questionnaires are conducted on the junior and senior college students in Wuhan, Changsha and Nanchang to acquire their cognitive maps of UAMRYR and individual socio-economic information. Area distortion index and center distortion index are introduced to quantitatively measure the scope distortions between the cognitive maps and the Plan map. Furthermore, a binary logistic regression model is applied to explore how individual socio-economic attributes impose influence on the cognition distortions. The research findings reveal that: (1) Cognitive maps of UAMRYR drawn by college students in the three cities are generally characterized by "Wuhan +" (i.e., Wuhan-centered), and that of Changsha and Nanchang has a distinct distortion tendency towards south and southeast respectively; (2) In contrast to the Plan map, the cognitive maps in the three cities have various degrees of distortion, among which Nanchang holds the largest distortion degree, followed by Changsha and Wuhan; (3) Individual socio-economic attributes generate different impacts on the cognition distortions. Gender, residence place, major and residence time are the significant determining factors in the study.

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    Uncovering spatial organization patterns of regional city networks from expressway traffic flow data: A case study of Jiangsu province, China
    Wenqian KE, Wei CHEN, Qing YANG
    2018, 37 (9):  1832-1847.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809014
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    Under the influence of the "space of flows" theory, city network with the emphasis on element connectivity and spatial relevancy has become the core perspective to indicate the regional spatial interaction. This means that researchers focus more on spatial structures of city networks, which can provide scientific basis for the policy making on regional development. Based on the average daily variation expressway traffic flow data in 2014, this article depicts the macro-patterns of city networks and its hierarchical structures, and then uses the community detection algorithm to segment the city networks and mining its potential spatial correlation structures. The results show that: (1) The characteristics of macro-patterns of city networks are dispersive, which are similar to the "gold corner, silver edge, grass belly" in Go Game, and this means that there are several sub-network systems developed in Jiangsu province. (2) The city nodes and linkage axes have presented the obvious hierarchical structures. On the one hand, the importance of the city ranks has a spatial coupling with their socioeconomic attributes and geographical locations to certain extent; On the other hand, the hierarchical characteristics of the linkage axes have obvious spatial interaction with the geographical distance. (3) Using the community detection algorithm to mining the city network in Jiangsu, six "city communities" with spatial connection and clear boundaries are identified. The communities include the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou community, Nanjing-Zhenjiang-Yangzhou-Taizhou community, Nantong-Yancheng community, Lianyungang community, Suqian-Huai'an community and Xuzhou community. The spatial metaphors of the communities can be concluded in the five aspects. Firstly, trans-prefectural linkages can be formed through spatial integrated effects of metropolis regions. Secondly, cities are located in the marginal neighborhood areas in different communities and have a close connectivity, which enable themselves to be absorbed into the neighboring community due to the distance attenuation effect. Thirdly, some communities have the same boundaries with the prefecture level administrative units, which reveals that significant administrative region economy still exists in contemporary Jiangsu province. Fourthly, several cities located in the marginal areas of the prefectures and captured by the powerful center cities in the neighboring prefectures would lead themselves to be absorbed into the communities of the neighboring prefectures. Fifthly, the couple gateway cities serve as the linkages in different prefectures because of their strong strength with the surrounding areas, which would be exchanged by each other. According to the spatial interaction in paired communities, there are seven spatial interactive structures that can be divided, i.e., dual-nuclei structure inter-cross connection with polycentric structure, dual-nuclei structure inter-cross connection with monocentric structure, monocentric structure inter-cross connection with polycentric structure, monocentric structure inter-cross connection with monocentric structure, dual-nuclei structure inter-cross connection with low-level equilibration structure, monocentric structure inter-cross connection with low-level equilibration structure and polycentric structure inter-cross connection with low-level equilibration structure.

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    China's inter-provincial population flow based on the interaction value analysis
    Xiao DOU, Blanca ARELLANO, Josep ROCA
    2018, 37 (9):  1848-1861.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809015
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    Based on the national census data of 2000 and 2010 as well as population sample survey of 2005 and 2015, this article utilizes the interaction value to analyze the dynamics of floating population in China. The analysis of "population floating system" demonstrates that: (1) Floating population shows great aggregation, in which exist several "population floating systems". (2) The development of the Yangtze River Delta and the Bohai Economic Rim has witnessed the northward trend of the floating population. (3) The improving inter-provincial connections among the western region has gradually strengthened its importance in China since 2010. In addition, the unidirectional interaction value can not only indicate the scale of the population flows but also explain their directions: (1) The largest unidirectional interaction flow occurs mainly between provinces in eastern China and those in central or western China which are exporters of labor forces. Even though eastern China gathered most of the floating population, some provinces have gradually lost their dominance in attracting population from central and western China. (2) The floating population in China presents a "asymmetric bilateral pattern". With the decline of the three major population centers, return flows have become remarkable. (3) Some sub-centers of floating population emerged in the central and western regions, though they are still developing. (4) Population nearby floating has become increasingly prominent in the western region. According to the analysis above, population research can benefit from the interaction value model by considering the inter-provincial population flows among the whole system and presenting their directions. Meanwhile, making comparison of population flows between 2010-2015 for a better understanding of the new characteristics and patterns of floating population is meaningful in formulating population policies and promote regional coordination.

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    Spatial and temporal differentiation and driving mechanism of social security level in China during 2002-2015
    Qiong LI, Yu ZHOU, Yu TIAN, Xiongzhou WU, Lanlan ZHANG
    2018, 37 (9):  1862-1876.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809016
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    Using the principal component analysis to measure the level of social security in China from 2002 to 2015, this paper analyzes its spatial-temporal differentiation, and uses the geographically weighted regression model to explore its influencing factors and driving mechanisms. Results show that: (1) The overall level of social security in China and the regional level have been increasing year by year, but the security level gap between regions has increased; (2) The level of social security in China is not balanced, and the pattern of "Eastern-Central-Western (region)" in social security is consistent with the pattern of economic development in China. The hotspot and cold spot areas of social security level of the country show more obvious characteristics of spatial evolution. High-hot spot areas have been spreading to the eastern region and radiating to the central region. Cold spot areas are distributed and continuously strengthened in the western region; (3) Per capita GDP, rural per capita net income, urbanization rate, education level, financial transfer payment, and the formation of the four driving forces of economy, education, finance, and society lead to the temporal changes and spatial distribution of social security.

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