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Table of Content

    20 October 2018, Volume 37 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    U.S. sanctions policy on Iran's oil export and its influence on global energy security
    Yu YANG, Limao WANG, Dong JIANG, Junhua CHEN, Shoujun CUI, Lisha HAO, Qiang WANG, Shaojian WANG, Changjian WANG, Litao LIU, Min HU
    2018, 37 (10):  1879-1898.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810001
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    The United States started the toughest oil embargo against Iran, and pushed its allies to cut oil imports from Iran in June 2018. What's more, the United States required all countries including the oil producer and consumer to support this unilateral sanction, or else, all the relevant countries and enterprises will face the economic sanctions with no grant of any immunity. In July, the leading oil importers such as China, Japan, South Korea, India and the European Union responded to this requirement. China rejected unilateral U.S. sanctions and maintained normal trade relations with Iran with regard to crude oil, while other countries cut their oil import from Iran sharply. Oil producers such as Saudi Arabia have also pledged to maintain stability in global energy markets through increasing oil production to supporting U.S. sanctions against Iran. In the trend of economic globalization and interconnectivity energy flows, oil embargo is bound to trigger a bureau of energy markets around the world, which will change the geopolitical pattern of oil trade and decrease oil interests of stakeholders. The key points include fluctuations in global oil prices, energy security and specific measures taken by countries to address these issues, as well as the world's energy trade and stability, energy geopolitics and its pattern. We invite experts and scholars who are professional in energy geopolitics to express their views on the possible impact of the oil embargo imposed by the United States against Iran. Experts believe the oil sanction is a strategic dilemma, and will severely impact regional geographical environment security. It will cause the world oil shortage and oil price fluctuations in the short term, but the long-term effect on the world oil market is limited. It may also lead to collapse of OPEC's agreement and change the amount and structure of global oil import. Iran will seek to discount the sale of crude oil, alternative port exports and diversified export routes to counteract the influence of the sanction. The maximum risk is that Iran may block the strait of Hormuz, but this is unlikely to happen under the current circumstances. It is both an opportunity and a challenge for China. China's normal oil trade with Iran under the "Belt and Road Initiative" is a win-win choice. It is expected that the analysis of the geopolitical pattern of energy and energy security caused by the Iranian oil embargo can provide theoretical reference for relevant policymakers.

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    The scientific connotation of sustainable utilization of ecological space in urbanized areas
    Fuyuan WANG, Kaiyong WANG
    2018, 37 (10):  1899-1914.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810002
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    Ecological space plays an important role in ensuring the ecological security and good living environment in urbanized areas. Sustainable ecological space utilization (SESU) in urbanized areas is an important research subject during the period of urban social and economic transformation development in the human-economic geography domain in China. In order to make a systematic and comprehensive study on SESU, the concept of SESU is introduced into the human-economic geography based on the connotation of ecological space in urbanized areas. Then, a research framework including research objectives, research contents, analytical orientation and scales is proposed based on the research progress and inadequacies in the field. The framework further points out that: (1) Research goal on SESU in urbanized areas is to enhance human well-beings; (2) It is suggested that the future research should focus on spatial pattern, evolution mechanism, evaluation and regulation mechanism, as well as planning and governance of SESU in urbanized areas; (3) Regional analysis, spatial analysis and comprehensive analysis of SESU in urbanized areas should be strengthened; (4) Research requirements for different urban scales are different and targeted researches of the scale should be conducted. The paper provides new research perspectives and references for future studies on SESU in urbanized areas.

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    The path dependence and relationship change of ecological civilization construction: Based on the panel data analysis of prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2003 to 2015
    Zefeng MI, Can ZHOU, Feifei ZHU, Gang ZENG
    2018, 37 (10):  1915-1926.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810003
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    This paper, from the perspective of path dependence, collected the panel data of 108 prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2003 to 2015. The Pearson correlation coefficient calculation and regression analysis is used to describe the pattern and evolution of path-dependence of ecological civilization in this economic belt. And the influencing factors and changes in relations have been initially discussed. Conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The construction of ecological civilization is a long-term and gradual process. In the short term, there is a strong path-dependent effect on the construction of ecological civilization, and the correlation coefficient of structural similarity is more than 0.5 in 80% or even more cities. All regions should have the strategic force of ecological civilization construction. (2) The establishment of a new type of benign interaction is required by the construction of ecological civilization. However, it is difficult to establish a benign interaction between the natural system and the economic and social systems at present. In the second and third stages, the regression coefficients of natural state growth rate to economic system growth and social system growth in the whole study region are 0.139* and 0.061* respectively, while the regression coefficient is not significant in the lock-in area. The results show that regions where regional lock-in exists are far behind in building the interaction between natural and other systems, and the establishment of a new type of interactive relationship has become an important breakthrough for the path creation of a region. (3) The development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt has a significant feature of functional locking and cognitive locking. The growth rate of natural response (characterized by resource utilization), economic pressure (characterized by economic growth) and social response (representation of education and social security) has a significant negative correlation with structural similarity in different stages. This means that the improvement of resources utilization technology, capital, education and social security can help to form a new type of benign interaction from three aspects: means, capital and consciousness, which is conducive to break through the current regional lock-in.

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    China's ecological protection redlines: Evaluation framework and method of protection effect
    Peng HOU, Qiao WANG, Min YANG, Jing LI, Jun ZHAI, Mingyong CAI
    2018, 37 (10):  1927-1937.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810004
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    Ecological protection redline is one of innovation regional ecological management systems, and a major strategy of construction of ecological civilization of China. This management system is established on the basis of a series of practice and development of regional ecological protection management, such as national reserves, key ecosystem service zones and forest parks. How to scientifically evaluate the effectiveness of ecological protection redline, to serve the comprehensive management of ecological protection redline and protect regional ecological security, has become one of the popular issues. According to the protective objectives and management policies issued, purpose of redline management is to protect regional ecological security and improve ecosystem service ability. The core of this task is to stabilize and gradually improve the regional ecosystem, such as natural ecological space and ecosystem services. Then, an evaluation framework, including indexes and methods, is put forward. In the framework, ecosystem structure and ecosystem services are taken as the main content of ecological protection effect assessment. By multi-dimensional space-time scale expansion, comprehensive evaluation is done by analysis of ecological changes before and after the implementation of ecological protection redline measures, by inside and outside of the red-line protection zone. Moreover, comprehensive ecological protection effect is reflected by the regional ecological security contribution and regional ecosystem self-regulation ability. That is to say, the higher the contribution and self-regulation ability, the better the protection effects are. Furthermore, the management policies, measures and other indirect drivers that may cause ecological changes can be linked and analyzed to evaluate the implementation effectiveness of redline. This paper, taking Hainan and Guangdong provinces as the study region, applies the framework and methods. In Hainan, the contribution rate of ecological protection redline to natural ecological security space is 44.8%, and that of water conservation and soil conservation services is respectively 46.1% and 69.8%. In Guangdong, the contribution rate for increasing natural ecological space reaches 95%, that for improving the quality of ecosystem growth is up to 75%, and that for enhancing water and soil conservation services is 82.4% and 54.6%, respectively.

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    The construction of spatial planning system under the background of institutional reform
    Qing HAO
    2018, 37 (10):  1938-1946.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810005
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    In March 2018, China's state institutions were reformed and the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People's Republic of China was established to implement unified management of natural resources and spatial planning. Establishing spatial planning system is an important responsibility of the Ministry of Natural Resources, which is also the prerequisite for the integration of various types of spatial planning and effective operation of spatial governance mechanism. The focus of "establishing a unified spatial planning system" is not to unify the external forms of various spatial planning, but to ensure the rational division and effective transmission of the spatial development rights at different levels and different types of spatial planning, so as to improve comprehensively China's spatial governance capacity. To conduct a comprehensive and in- depth study on the international spatial planning systems, literature review method and comparative analysis method are employed in this paper. Based on the results, it is suggested that the new spatial planning system of China should be consisitent with political system and legal basis as well as the changing trend of future spatial development and governance patterns. A spatial planning system has been constructed, covering policy/guidance planning, bridging planning, and implementation planning respectively from the macro, medium and micro perspectives. It proposes that macro and medium spatial planning only have constraints on the next level of spatial planning and special spatial planning and do not involve the allocation of specific land use and spatial development rights, while micro scale land use planning, urban planning, and village planning provide legal basis for land use and spatial development. The system defines the hierarchical relationships, which would further promote the implementation of major national strategies. Moreover, the allocation of rights of spatial planning at the micro scale can give more autonomy to the local government and market. It is also suggested that spatial planning should strengthen the connection with national economic and social development plan, especially at the city and county level. The rules for the preparation and implementation of spatial planning should be established to improve the scientific rationality of the plans. It is also necessary to establish a use of territorial space system, which plays an important role in the implementation of spatial planning system.

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    International peace parks: Concept distinction, basic characteristics and research issues
    Xinzhi WU
    2018, 37 (10):  1947-1956.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810006
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    International peace parks (IPPs) have a history of more than 80 years since 1932, when the Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada and the Glacier National Park in the United States were merged into Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, the first peace park in the world. With the rise of IPPs since the 1980s, foreign scholars have carried out much research and made great achievements. However, there is much confusion over concepts and terms used in this field, which has led to the need for further research. Therefore, this paper proposes a definition of IPP based on sorting out related concepts and discusses its basic characteristics. The results show that: (1) The term, transboundary conservation area (TBCA), is different from transboundary protected area (TBPA) in that the former has a broader sense according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), while the terms of transfrontier conservation area (TFCA) and transfrontier park (TFP) are mainly referred to Southern Africa context. (2) As a special type of TBCA, IPPs are distinct from those peace parks known to most Chinese people. (3) The IPP has four basic characteristics, namely, transboundary of spatial distribution, multidimension of development goals, diversity of cooperative levels and complexity of joint management. Up to date the IPP is still a new thing for ordinary Chinese people, which has not attracted public attention. And it is of great significance to introduce the notion of IPPs into China, since the Chinese government is trying to improve the levels of international cooperation and to create a community with a shared future for mankind by promoting the Belt and Road Initiative. At the same time, many IPPs with unique tourist attractions are undoubtedly ecological cross-border tourism destinations from the aspect of tourism geography and deserve to be discussed and explored by tourism geographers. By taking full advantage of this discipline, China's tourism geographers can conduct in-depth studies on IPPs in terms of project feasibility, planning and construction, development and protection, monitoring and evaluation, etc., so as to open up a new research field.

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    On the urban agglomeration scope definition method: A case study of the Yangtze River Delta
    Wei SUN, Dongsheng YAN, Jiawei WU
    2018, 37 (10):  1957-1970.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810007
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    Since China's reform and opening-up, with the increasingly rapid industrialization and urbanization process, urban agglomeration has become the main spatial component of the new-type urbanization. Urban agglomeration has also tended to be the most important agent of China to compete globally. Recently, China's central and local governments have paid special attention to the development of urban agglomeration through a series of regional plans and policies. For example, the "National New-type Urbanization Planning" has indicated that urban agglomeration should be the main form of new-type urbanization in transitional China. Many regional plans have been issued to promote the development of urban agglomeration, so as to reshape China's economic geography and regional strategies. Therefore, the definition and related research of the scope of urban agglomeration have been the subject of heated debates. Although the definition of the scope of urban agglomeration has been an important topic of scholarly attention, there are no generally accepted, efficient, and credible methodological system, as well as a set of techniques to identify urban agglomeration in the related literature. Based on the existing studies and geographical perspective, this paper highlights the advantages of the comprehensive analysis on natural-human factors. With regard to the methodologies, we aim to improve quantitative methods such as traditional gravitational models, traffic accessibility and financial connection networks, and we also combine some qualitative methods such as function oriented zoning, language-cultural geography and national strategy. In summary, this paper proposes an integrated method for defining the spatial scope of urban agglomeration. Taking the Yangtze River Delta, which includes Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui, as an example, this paper conducts the qualitative analysis by using the methods such as function oriented zoning, language-cultural geographic relationship, and the requirements of national regional strategies. Furthermore, we also conduct the quantitative analysis by applying the methods such as economic gravity, traffic accessibility, and financial connection network. Then, we define the scope of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as a set of 26 cities, led by Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Hefei. This paper will improve the effectiveness and precision for the scope definition of urban agglomeration by the combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses. And, this study will contribute to the innovations of related methodologies, which are useful for the planning of urban agglomeration especially the scientific definition of the scope of urban agglomeration scope.

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    Geographical identification and classification of residential environmental deprivation: A case study of Zhengzhou city
    Qing LUO, Shuangjin LI, Rongzeng LIU, Xiaojian LI
    2018, 37 (10):  1971-1981.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810008
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    The design of multidimensional deprivation measurement and the improvement of geographical identification accuracy are important contents of urban social geography research in recent years, being also the key problems faced by the city government in building a harmonious and comfortable residential environment. According to the requirements of the residential planning and the 15 minutes community life circle, based on the accessibility of the nearby facilities related to the daily life, this paper constructs the evaluation framework of city residential environment and identification methods, carries out the geographical identification of residential environment in Zhengzhou on the sub-district scale, and brings forward some measures to eliminate the environmental deprivation according to the similarity of the types of policies. The results show that the sub-districts with a low value of multidimensional deprivation index represents a "ten" distribution pattern and increases gradually from the center to the periphery, and the interaction between any two dimensions has a nonlinear enhancement to explain the spatial differentiation of the multidimensional deprivation index. The single dimension deprivation index shows significant spatial clustering characteristics, but the spatial variation of different environmental dimensions presents different morphological characteristics. This paper identifies 32 sub-districts as the multidimensional deprivation area, and can be divided into the five types including the noise deprivation, the medical and education deprivation, the life and travel deprivation, the quality and life deprivation, and the living deficiency based on the deprivation dimension. According to the different types of deprivation, this paper puts forward the targeted measures to improve the suitability of the residential environment and enhance the vitality of the sub-district.

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    Human settlement evolution of traditional village based on theory of complex adaptive system: A case study of Zhangguying village
    Bohua LI, Rongqian ZENG, Peilin LIU, Yiman LIU, Yindi DOU
    2018, 37 (10):  1982-1996.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810009
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    Severe crisis such as architectural landscape destruction, cultural gene loss, settlement space conflict and ecological environment deterioration have aroused widespread concern on transformation of traditional villages' human settlement. Based on complex adaptive system theory, this paper analyzes the systematic characteristics of human settlement from the perspectives of the systematic basic features, structural composition and adaptive mechanism. Composed of natural ecology, social culture, regional space and multi-agent systems, the rural human settlement environment system is a huge open complex system. Compromising multiple objectives, multiple subjects and multiple sub-systems, the system is compatible with complex adaptive system features. With the case of Zhangguying village human settlement evolution studied, the conclusions are shown as follows: (1) At the wavering stage (1978-1988), the villagers' self-organizing development was the leading force of the human settlement evolution. The subject adaptive behavior and the effect of human settlement were both limited. The human settlement evolution of Zhangguying village was still on the accumulative stage of quantitative change. (2) At the transitional stage (1989-2001), strong government intervention was the leading force. This intervention resulted in the complexity of interest relation, high speed transformation of flow elements and uncertainty of systematic evolution. The human settlement evolution of Zhangguying village was on the key stage of qualitative change. (3) At the revulsion stage (2002-till now), interaction of multiple subjects has been the leading force. The intensity and complexity between subjects or between subjects and environment have both increased. Continuous tourism input has led to the dramatic change of the human settlement environment. The transformation of human settlement has been realized. The structure and level of the system have undergone a qualitative leap. In order to promote the orderly development of the traditional villages' human settlement, the paper constructs systematic regulation mechanism from the perspectives of promoting self-adaptive capacity, emphasizing self-organizing reaction, optimizing dominant regulation and introducing social governance. Using complex adaptive system theory to study science of human settlements is still at a groping stage, and it needs to be further improved, which provides innovation space for future research.

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    Poor people, or poor area? A geostatistical test for spatial poverty traps
    Zhenbang MA, Xingpeng CHEN, Zhuo JIA, Peng LV
    2018, 37 (10):  1997-2010.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810010
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    The test for spatial poverty traps (SPTs) is a hot issue in the field of the geography of rural poverty. However, the main existing approaches cannot provide spatial scale-related information, which may be a restriction on gaining a deeper understanding of the mechanism of SPTs. Therefore, we conducted a case study in the Liupan Mountain Region by introducing geostatistical methods. The semivariogram and cross-correlogram were employed to quantitatively describe the spatial pattern of village-level poverty and its relationship with the selected geographical factors respectively, so that the scale-dependent spatial form and underlying reasons for SPTs can be explored. The village-level poor population (PP) and poverty rate (PR) were used as the poverty indicators. The results show that the geostatistical methods can provide satisfactory and reliable performance in the test for SPTs: (1) The semivariogram models can indicate both the spatial structure and the autocorrelation range of the two indicators, which can describe the extent and the range of the spatial form of SPTs (i.e. the spatial aggregation of poverty). The percentages of the random variance (nugget, C0) in the total variance (sill, C0 + C) are 34.4% and 11.5% for PP and PR, respectively. The range of autocorrelation is 9.3 km for PR, and 5 and 48 km for PP. (2) The cross-correlograms further show that the two indicators are significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the geographical factors within different spatial ranges. Generally, the poverty status of a village is mainly in response to three factors (i.e. the distance to the nearest county town, the elevation, and the total population) within a wide range. In conclusion, the evidence of SPTs from our work is consistent with the reality that the study area has suffered persistent poverty in the past three decades.

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    The intercultural study from geographical perspectives in the context of cultural globalization
    Jinhe ZHANG, Guorong TANG, Huan HU, Peng YU, Lin ZHAO
    2018, 37 (10):  2011-2023.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810011
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    The multicultural world is a realistic description of cultural globalization and localization condition. Intercultural theory provides a new paradigm for thinking about cultural diversity as well as a strategy, wisdom to deal with cultural differences in the process of cultural glocalization. This paper argues that intercultural theory adheres to a dialectical view on cultural diversity. On the one hand intercultural theory acknowledges and accepts the fact that cultural diversity exists prevalently, and cultural diversity is a common heritage and precious wealth of humankind; on the other hand, cultural diversity is also the cultural barrier that needs to overcome, and needs to deal with the intercultural paradox, that is how to coexist with the difference in a multicultural world. Recognizing the diversity and respect otherness is a prerequisite of interculturality which seeks the coexisting sameness with the common meaning of intercultural characteristic, reveals the internal relevancy in the intercultural situation and commits to strengthen the interaction between the heterogeneous cultures in the premise of mutual subjectivity. Meanwhile, interculturality establishes the principle on how to coexist with the difference in a multicultural world. Interculturality reveals the essence of intercultural relations and advocates intercultivism of cultural and political practice. Intercultural understanding is the basis of interculturality, and intercultural interaction is the way to achieve interculturality. Intercultural respect is the necessary guarantee for intercultural understanding and interaction, and the equality of intercultural interaction has promoted the intercultural understanding and respect. Intercultural identity not only shows respect and acceptance of the underprivileged culture, but also answers the question on how to calmly deal with the major issues of dialogue between the weak culture and the powerful culture. More importantly, it has aggregated the mutual development of different cultural characteristics. On the basis of the analysis on intercultural situation and intercultural theory in the multicultural world, this paper discusses geographical perspective on intercultural research and argues that the progressive geographical thought should adhere to a dialectical view on cultural diversity, and admit the difference, sameness, relevance and interactivity in diversity as well as establish the principle, that is how to coexist with the difference in a multicultural world. The mutual respect and identity between the local cultures is formed on the basis of mutual understanding and equal interaction, with the final aim to construct a special intercultural world with temporal and spatial characteristics. The intercultural world opens up a new path to address the challenges that resulted from the super-diversity, mobility, fluidity and mixed inherency in the multicultural world. Multicultural world presents its extraordinary splendour of cultures around the world, and intercultural worlds are able to better cope with super-diversity and multidimensional differences in the world of others. The study from the geography perspective makes intercultural theory more profound, and intercultural theory can also inspire geographical ideology.

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    The overview of research areas of Chinese Mainland'ssocial and cultural geography
    Xiaoliang CHEN, Hong ZHU
    2018, 37 (10):  2024-2038.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810012
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    The discipline of human geography in China has travelled a difficult and tortuous path towards development. Since the reform and opening-up policy, the sub-discipline of social and cultural geography has gradually revived in accordance with human geography's renaissance in academia, but its relatively marginal position has not significantly changed. This article provides an overview of the recent development of social and cultural geography in China with its focus on five bodies of work: cultural areas, cultural diffusion and cultural integration; geographies of ethnic cultures; cultural landscape and cultural economy; place and place-based politics; marginal social groups. Three characteristics of the social and cultural geography in the mainland of China emerged in the past few years. (1) The research paradigms become diverse. (2) The applications of theories become trans-disciplinary. (3) The research topics are expanded. In sum, since the 1990s, the Western geographical studies have started to reform based on the "cultural turn". Within this new research paradigm, space and place become no longer empty container or entity but root in the specific social discourse, non-substance, flexible, and an essence dimension of the production of cultural meaning and social relations. At the same time, the critics of "logocentrism" on the perspective of post-modernism in the Western academia bring out the discussion of spatial heterogeneity, pluralism, justice and righteousness. The past two decades witnessed a growing concern of theoretical dialogues between Chinese and Anglo-American academia; many new thoughts and theories from Anglo-American world were introduced to China. In this article, we argue it is urgent for us to start the constructive academic dialogues with Chinese characteristics. Besides, the empirical evidence should be situated in the perspectives of "human-place" thought and contribute to the theoretical debate rather than just case studies. Nevertheless, to transfer Chinese philosophy and practical theories into an important school and break the dual structure of binary oppositions, as well as to seek the diverse ways of explaining identities, we need to start from the perspective of criticism and self-reflexivity and deconstruct the Western knowledge and the hegemony of epistemology. Moreover, future studies of social and cultural geography should straddle on the interdisciplinary perspective and focus more on the present social issues.

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    Centennial research process of tourism geography in Japan
    Yushi JIN, Yuzong ZHAO
    2018, 37 (10):  2039-2057.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810013
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    In this paper, the historical evolution and development characteristics of research on tourism geography in Japan are introduced through literature reviews on major geographic journals and academic books of tourism geography. According to historical background and current academic research, the development of tourism geography in Japan is divided into four stages: (1) Emergence stage (before the WWII): the tremendous literatures concerning tourist handbooks before the Meiji Restoration with the religious tourism development were rich in tourism geographical knowledge. The international tourism after the Meiji Restoration attracted academic attentions and participation of famous geographers, which laid a foundation for the following tourism geography. Overall, research accumulation in this stage was very limited and no explicit idea of tourism geography was formed. (2) Start-up stage (WWII-1970s): as entering into the age of mass tourism, the rapid growth of tourism demands and updating of tourism supply influenced regional environment and society significantly. Geographers show more and more concern on tourism. They enriched research contents, began to make theoretical explorations on tourism geography and established an independent discipline preliminarily. (3) Development stage (late 1970s-early 1990s): the tourism development enthusiasm promoted by leisure sports, popularization of vacation and bubble economy were changing Japan profoundly, which provided abundant research materials for tourism geography. Research width and depth increased significantly. The research theories and scientificalness of tourism geography further enhanced. The formation of a group of tourism geographical experts was the talent foundation for professional development of tourism geography. (4) Pluralism development stage (middle 1990s-): the tourism leisure became rational, personalized and diversified. Emerging tourisms occurred continuously and the international tourism market became increasingly active. Research spatial range and perspective of tourism geography further expanded. Regional-based research was developed after long-term theoretical explorations and accumulation. It was determined by a professional discipline. Research on tourism geography in Japan started early and has been developed academically for nearly one century. Unique features have been formed through continuous theoretical and methodological explorations and developments. Regional-based research, which is the key of Japan's tourism geographical study, especially based on micro-space unit, is relatively mature and has accumulated a number of cases. Diversification and internationalization of tourism geography study began to be manifested. Meanwhile, it is faced with various challenges, such as macro-research shortage, oversimplified research methods, weak applicability, inadequate interdisciplinary researches, low international level, etc.

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    The origin and application history of statistical analysis of spatial data
    Yong ZHAO
    2018, 37 (10):  2058-2074.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810014
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    Along with the historical background, characters and works of a particular period, this paper systematically summarizes the theory, method and technology of statistical analysis of spatial data (SASD), and divides the SASD into five periods: (1) The early gestation (before the quantitative revolution): Including German location theory in the early 19th century, and the early studies in ecology, geology, etc. (2) Quantitative revolution (1950s-1960s): Including mainly the direct application of classical statistics and mathematics, theoretical exploration, the understanding of spatial autocorrelation, and the birth of geostatistics. (3) Spatial statistics (1970s-1980s): Including systematic research on spatial autocorrelation, and the analysis of spatial point data, lattice data, and spatial continuous data. (4) Maturation and diffusion (1990s-2000s): With the help of computer, geographical information system (GIS) and spatial data collection technology, an in-depth study was conducted on large spatial databases and the spatial heterogeneity. It includes spatial data mining (SDM), e.g., GeoMiner, and local spatial statistics such as local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA), geographical weighted regression (GWR), spatial scan statistics, and GeoDetector. On the other hand, with the maturity and systematization of SASD, many works of summary and application in many fields have emerged naturally. (5) Spatio-temporal big data (2010s and beyond): This is the most important trend of SASD at present. In other words, since the quantitative revolution, SASD has produced important new methods or technologies every 20 years or so. In the current era of spatio-temporal big data, several research directions are worthy of attention, i.e., spatio-temporal point pattern and process, data streams analysis, network analysis, outlier detection, and uncertainty. In summary, after more than 60 years of development since quantitative revolution, SASD has become an effective study field, with mature methods, technology, and remarkable social benefits. In the present period of spatio-temporal big data, the development of SASD requires the joint efforts of computer scientists, statisticians, geologists and many others, for the new major innovation in technologies and methods to appear.

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    Urban geography research in the e-society: A perspective from human activity
    Bo WANG, P. Y. LOO Becky, Feng ZHEN
    2018, 37 (10):  2075-2086.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810015
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    Overall, the academic research and government/media reports regarding the development of e-society mainly focus on technological progress. The ubiquitous influence of information and communication technology (ICT) on people and the society, however, is largely ignored. The fact is that a multitude of ICT has been penetrated into almost every sphere of people's daily life in the e-society, which exists in their everyday e-activities/physical activities experience. Therefore, the impact of ICT on people and the society, as the key to the understanding of e-society, has emerged in people's e-activities/physical activities experience. Urban geographers have devoted much attention to investigation of the virtual-physical space and e-activities-physical activities relationships and their potential (or actual) effects on the evolution of urban spatial development. Based on a review of spatial-temporal activity literature, this paper points out that the e-activities-physical activities relationship has gone beyond the simple substitution-generation relation. And the virtual and physical space which bear the e-activities and physical activities have interrelated complicatedly, which is far beyond the assumed virtual-physical space dichotomy. This complicated interrelationship has further challenged our traditional understanding of the place and mobility in the physical space and reshaped the orders and rules of virtual space. Furthermore, the exploration beyond the virtual-physical dualism which is stemmed from the technological determinism also highlights the important role of urban geographers in analyzing and guiding the development of e-society. Unlike developed countries where informatization lags behind urbanization, China experiences the rapid urbanization and informatization simultaneously. The research on the interrelationship between physical space and virtual space through human activities/e-activities not only contributes to enriching the literature with new cases but also provides empirical insights for sustainable urbanization in the e-society.

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    Geography between the general and the specific: A review on Geographic Thought: A Critical Introduction
    Liangming YIN, Qingmei YIN, Jianhua XU, Chao YE
    2018, 37 (10):  2087-2095.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810016
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    Geography is a profound subject and the history of geographical ideas is important to the development of the geographical science itself. Western geography not only seeks for general theory, but also focuses on particular problems. The tensions between the general and the specific is one of the major concerns of geographic thoughts. And these tensions were getting stronger as many schools emerged after World War II, including positivist geography, humanistic geography, Marxist geography, feminist geography, postmodern geography, post-structural geography, post-human geography, and relational geography. This paper is a review of Geographic Thought: A Critical Introduction, which reveals the evolutions of the Western countries geographic thoughts, focusing on the thoughts of post-World War II geography schools; summing up the dialectical interaction between general and special, by introducing a brief history of geographic thoughts. And pointing out a critique is a core of Chinese geographical research and education. Since ancient Greece when Eratosthenes laid the tradition of mathematics, pursuing the general, Homer built up the tradition of description, region, art, what, in fact, is the special. Regional geography concentrates on specific areas, emphasizing particularities. Positivist geographers criticize regional geography and seek for general rules of science, which are universal. Humanistic geographers believe that something in reality must happen in a specific place. They are eager to rediscover that particularities are everywhere and cannot be covered by generality. Marxism geography digs out a theory of conditions to make such theory possible, and then challenges these conditions, focusing mainly on generality. Feminist geography not only focuses on common problems, but also emphasizes the difference between cognition; it is a combination of generality and particularity. Postmodern geography rejects the existence of absolute space order, emphasizing heterogeneity, peculiarity and uniqueness, but neglecting the regularity of things. Post-structural geography analyzes the surface without digging the truth of the structure, focusing on contextualization and diversity, rather than identity and universality. Relationship geography insists on universal materiality. Post-human geography is still concerned about the issue of particularity. Geography schools switch constantly between the general and the specific. This means that in future Chinese geography research and education should focus on critique, only through critical thinking and practice can we achieve a deeper understanding of the discipline and its evolution process, and only then we can better carry out popularization and theoretical innovations.

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    Inheritance and innovation of human and economic geography: Actions of young scholars
    Mingxing CHEN, Dadao LU, Changchun TANG, Chengliang LIU, Yuyao YE, Jianjun DING, Jiaoe WANG, Ye LIU, Zhipeng TANG, Zhongwei SUN, Dong CHEN, Gang LI, Wei SUN, He LI, Fenghua PAN, Yuangang ZHANG, Yuheng LI, Yurui LI, Ye WEI, Jianji ZHAO, Li PENG, Boyang GAO, Zhiding HU, Liyun QIAN, Yanpeng JIANG, Guanpeng DONG, Chuankai YANG, Hu YU, Ning AN, Wei QI
    2018, 37 (10):  2096-2124.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810017
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    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the reform and opening up and the spring of science. As socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, China's human and economic geography will also cross the threshold into a new phase. We, young scholars in the transitional period, will actively conduct research in consideration of academic heritage and innovation as well as the national and social demands. We will continue to enrich the discipline system from the following four aspects. Firstly, to construct the discipline culture and to establish an academic community with identification and belongingness. Secondly, to strengthen theory construction and innovation with Chinese characteristics while learning from the West. Thirdly, to learn from the related disciplines and to promote data and method innovation so as to build a scientific and diversified research method system. Finally, to be more assiduous and earnest, to excavate personal research direction, to create new knowledge and to deepen research. The academic dream of human and economic geography will surely come true after the efforts of young generations.

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