Table of Content

    20 December 2018, Volume 37 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspectives and Contention
    Hainan of China: The evolution from a special economic zone to a comprehensive and compound free trade port
    Guangwen MENG, Kaizhong YANG, Fulin ZHU, Yanhua MAO, Zhihua ZENG, Xiaofeng DONG
    2018, 37 (12):  2363-2382.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812001
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    The planning and development of the Hainan Pilot Free Trade Zone and Free Trade Port is not only out of the needs of Hainan's development, but also an important measure and a strategic step for China to deepen reforms, expand opening up, achieve economic transformation and respond to international competitions and challenges. The current related research has carried out preliminary discussions on the necessity, feasibility, mode and implementation measures of the Hainan Pilot Free Trade Zone, but lacks in-depth and systematic study on the planning and development of the Hainan Free Trade Port. This paper collects the views of several scholars who have been engaged in research on geography, economics and planning for a long time, and focuses on the types and functions, industrial development, spatial structure, policy and regulations, as well as risk prevention of the forthcoming Hainan Free Trade Port, in an attempt to spur further debates among the policy-makers and academic community. It has, both theoretically and practically, significant importance for enriching the academic research on free trade zones and the planning and development of the Hainan Free Trade Port.

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    Commemorative Pages for Professor Penghua
    Collaborative governance model of tourism urbanization in rural areas: A case study of Shuiji village in Taining county, Fujian
    Hua PENG, Ruixiang HE, Shixiu WENG
    2018, 37 (12):  2383-2398.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812002
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    Tourism has long been adopted as a means to revitalizing and urbanizing rural areas, and its significant role recently is mirrored in the Rural Revitalization Strategy. Actually, in some villages, such as the Shuiji village of Taining county, Fujian, which is selected in this study, tourism not only plays an essential role in revitalizing the local area. A collaborative governance model has also emerged over the course of the urbanization, which, nevertheless, still fails to seduce many scholars and researchers insofar. This article, thus, contributes to nuanced insights into this new governance model as well as the mechanism of tourism urbanization in Shuiji village. Specifically, despite embracing multi-stakeholders' collaboration and negotiation, this model, still highlights, if hardly prioritize, the roles of a few key agents, notably, but not exclusively, villagers, overseas corporations and the local government. Precisely, it should be first recognized that the local state usually plays an essential part in integrating resources, initiating institutional construction, directing local economic development and negotiating with different stakeholders, whose interests might vary from one to another. Whilst, possessing their land rights and modernized life style villages are usually inspired to actively interact and negotiate with other stakeholders. In recent years, it has already become the fashion that Chinese local governments strive to attract overseas developers and corporations to invest and manage tourism projects in rural areas. Their inclusion might stimulate locals' income. Nevertheless, to realize the collaborative governance mode is never easy, and its success apparently relies upon multiple factors, primarily including effective institutional supply, reasonable division of labor, flexible design of property right system, market rules for realizing distributive justice and rational interaction and balance of power among stakeholders. As a joint effort of all these factors, it is most likely to achieve common interests among stakeholders in rural areas. And resources could be redistributed effectively either, so as to respectively facilitate the urbanization progress and local tourism and economic development. All in all, the collaborative governance, to a considerable extent, could be treasured as an effective way to promote rural tourism urbanization. And tourism-led urbanization mode is unambiguously quite useful in enriching the case studies concerning new-type urbanization in rural areas and paving the way for effective governance of rural transformation in the foreseeable future.

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    Development of red bed landform in the western United States and a comparison with Danxia landform in southeast China
    Zhixin PAN, Fang REN, Hua PENG
    2018, 37 (12):  2399-2410.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812003
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    The western United States and southeastern China, featured by landscapes of red cliffs, are major distribution regions of red beds in the world. It is of great value to make a comparative study on red beds and landform development in these two regions. Based on geologic literature analysis and field investigation, this study summarizes the distribution, age, geologic background, lithology, and geomorphic features of red beds in the western United States. Then, a comparison with Danxia landform in southeast China was conducted. It reveals that red bed landform in the western United States and Danxia landform in southeast China are erosional landform developed on red beds, with red cliffs as a remarkable geomorphic feature. However, due to differences in regional geologic background, material basis, and the dominant exogenic force, specific geomorphic features in these two areas are not exactly the same. Red beds in the western United States were mainly deposited in a huge back-arc basin during the period from Triassic to Jurassic. Although depositional environment for these red beds are complex, most of them are continental deposits, especially eolian deposit. In terms of lithology, the majority of red beds in the western United States are composed of fine-grained sandstones, siltstones or mudstones, with very few conglomerates. In terms of geomorphic development of red beds in this region, the downcutting process by flowing streams has been playing a dominant role, creating relatively simple red bed landform types that are characterized by a geomorphic combination of plateau and canyons. As for Danxia landform in southeast China, red beds were deposited in Cretaceous in small and medium-sized rift basins or depression basins. They are all continental deposits, mainly composed of coarse-grained clastic rocks. In aspect of landform development, the controlling exogenic factor is lateral erosion by streams, which produces various types of red bed landforms, with peak clusters and hoodoos as overall landscape feature.

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    Leading the research innovation of Danxia landform and tourism geography by synthetic thinking: The geographical thoughts and academic contribution of Peng Hua
    Shixiu WENG, Luobin YAN, Hua WANG
    2018, 37 (12):  2411-2419.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812004
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    Peng Hua was a professor at Sun Yat-sen University who was long devoted to Danxia Landform research and geographic tourism. In retrospect, Peng's achievements can be introduced from three aspects. First, through seeking overseas collaboration and applying for nomination of world natural heritage sites, he made a great practical contribution in promoting Danxia Landform as an internationally known heritage. Second, concerning his academic contribution, Peng produced a wealth of nuanced insights in multiple aspects of Danxia Landform, including, but by no means confined to, its typology and evolution and the distribution of red beds. Equally, he systematically compared Danxia landform with many others, both in and outside China. Additionally, in recent years, he made benchmark progress by successfully extending the scope of research on red beds, including its underground and above ground surfaces, such as geological structure, rock properties, geomorphological evolution, natural hazards, soil erosion, land degradation, and its socioeconomic development. Also, Peng Hua initiated the national survey of Danxia Landform and constructed its data platform. Third, in addition to research on Danxia Landform, he devised multiple significant concepts in the fields of tourism planning, tourism culture, urban tourism and regional tourism development. Particularly, the concept of 'Broad Tourism', which was proposed by Peng Hua, has had a massive impact on the academic community of Chinese tourism studies. Based on this concept, he proposed a number of innovative theories and research methods, such as the system and mechanism of tourism, development stages of tourism destinations, integration of tourism exploitation and city construction, market classification analysis, and correspondence analysis of products and demands. To a considerable extent, there is no exaggeration in arguing that these theories provide a bird's-eye view of the tourism development, clarify the differences and inter-connections among the direct, involved, and supportive systems and mobilize the role of tourism in regional development. All in all, Peng's achievements reflect his openness, overall awareness, and optimal portfolio, which helps researchers keep a comprehensive view in dealing with more subtle research of geography.

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    Responses of variations of plant ornamental period to climate change in the west suburbs of Beijing from 1965-2014
    Xinyue GAO, Junhu DAI, Mingqing ZHANG
    2018, 37 (12):  2420-2432.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812005
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    Based on the phenological data of 50 plant species and the mean daily temperature data from 1965 to 2014, we analyzed the trend, the change patterns, and their response to climate change of ornamental period of leaf greenness, flowering, and leaf coloring and falling (beginning date, end date, and duration), respectively, by applying correlation and regression analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) For all the 50 plant species, the ornamental period of leaf greenness, flowering, and leaf coloring and falling was from April 14 to October 15, April 29 to May 17, October 15 to November 14, respectively. The duration ranged from 163 to 219 days for leaf greenness ornamental period, 6 to 77 days for flowering, 16 to 41 days for leaf coloring and falling. (2) During the study period, the beginning date exhibited an advancing trend of 3.1 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental activities and 1.6 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental activities, respectively, but a delaying trend of 3.6 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling ornamental activities. The end date exhibited a delaying trend of 3.6 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental activities and 1.1 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling ornamental activities, respectively, but advancing trend of 0.5 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental activities. The duration has extended by 6.8 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental period and 1.2 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental periods, respectively, but shortened by 2.5 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling. (3) The extending leaf greenness ornamental period was caused by an earlier beginning date and a later end date. The extending flowering ornamental period was induced by a much earlier beginning date and a less earlier end date. The extending and shortening forms of flowering ornamental period of spring flowering plants were consistent with those of summer flowering plants. The shortening leaf coloring and falling ornamental period was induced by a much later beginning date and a less later end date. (4) The beginning date of ornamental periods of leaf greenness, the beginning and end dates of flowering ornamental period advanced by 3.9 days, 3.4 says and 1.9 days °C-1 in spring, respectively. However, the end date of ornamental period of leaf greenness delayed by 5.2 days °C-1 in spring. The beginning and end dates of ornamental period of leaf coloring and leaf falling delayed by 5.2 days and 2.2 days 1°C-1 in autumn. (5) By combining different phenophases, we identified landscape patterns with different colors and styles, and designed different landscape themes accordingly. Therefore, the study of changes of plant phenology provides a reference for both the innovative design of landscape and the arrangement of plant ornamental vacation.

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    Vegetation change and its topographic effects in the karst mountainous areas of Guizhou and Guangxi
    Liangmeizi LIU, Chesheng ZHAN, Shi HU, Yuxuan DONG
    2018, 37 (12):  2433-2446.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812006
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    Rocky desertification is one of the most severe ecological issues that restrict the sustainable development of karst area in southwestern China. Compared with other ecosystems, mountain ecosystem is more sensitive to climate change due to its complex topography. Understanding the variation of vegetation growth associated to topographic factors is critical to promote ecological management in karst mountainous areas. Based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MODIS NDVI) data from 2000 to 2016, the spatial-temporal variation of NDVI in the karst mountainous area of Guizhou and Guangxi was analyzed. The topographical factors, including altitude, slope gradient, aspect and relief amplitude were introduced to examine the response of vegetation variation to topographical factors. The results showed that NDVI in the middle of karst mountainous area was higher than that in the northwest and southeast. Averaged NDVI during growing season showed a single-peak curve distribution with altitude, with the largest value (0.67) at an elevation of 400-600 m. However, no significant difference was found along the slope and aspect gradient. A greening trend occurred in the karst mountainous area, with an averaged increasing rate of 0.0018 yr-1, illustrating that the vegetation restoration in recent years tended to be better. More than 75% of the study area showed an increasing trend of NDVI, and about 20% of the study area, distributed in the western and southeastern parts of the region (southwest Guizhou and central Guangxi), performed a significant increase. Pixels with a decreasing trend of NDVI were only observed in the northeast and middle-eastern parts. The percentage of pixels with a significant increasing trend increased with the elevation gradient. The increased rate is higher at high altitude than that at low altitude, indicating that the ecological construction of vegetation at low altitude with gentle slope should be strengthened. These conclusions provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive treatment of rocky desertification and improvement of fragile ecological environment in the karst mountainous area in a certain sense.

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    Farmers' value and attitude model of farmland non-agriculture conversion: A questionnaire from farmers in Xining city
    Qiong CHEN, Yunlong CAI, Fenggui LIU, Xiaoyan WEI, Qiang ZHOU, Haifeng ZHANG
    2018, 37 (12):  2447-2458.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812007
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    Farmland non-agricultural conversion is a common phenomenon during urbanization and it has different influences on farmers. According to different situations, this study, from a perspective of farmers, examines farmers' value and attitudes of farmland non-agricultural conversion. A case study is from 812 households of 22 villages in Xining city. Four analytical frameworks of land acquisition degree, land development direction, spatial location and administrative region and 13 conditions are built. The results are showed as follows: (1) The farmers' value of farmland non-agricultural conversion varies from person to person; (2) The factors that affect the farmers' attitude toward expropriation and life satisfaction are complicated and diverse; (3) At different situations of cultivated land non-agricultural conversion, there are significant differences in farmers' perceptions on economic value, happiness, and attitude toward expropriation; (4) Increasing economic source is the major factor that affect farmers' satisfaction and attitude toward expropriation. Through this questionnaire research, we can attain the comprehensive acknowledge about the value of cultivated land. It is helpful for us to enrich and complete the land-use policies.

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    Spatial differentiation and its influencing factors of settlements evolution in mountainous counties: A case study of Songxian county in western Henan province
    Xiaowei DUAN, Xiaojian LI
    2018, 37 (12):  2459-2474.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812008
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    Combining GIS spatial analysis, topographic relief degree, terrain niche index and other methods, this paper analyzes the spatial differentiation of settlements evolution in Songxian, based on the settlement patches data of the county in 1975, 1995 and 2015. We then examine their influencing factors as well as their changes by using factor analysis, geographic detector and multiple regression analysis method. The results showed that: (1) The number of settlements decreased nearly a quarter while their scale increased more than 1.2 times over the past 40 years, however, the number during 1975-1995 reduced more than that from 1995 to 2015, while the scale expansion was more significant during the period 1995-2015. (2) Restricted by mountain topography, the settlements were mainly distributed along the main roads and rivers like ribbons, as well as distributed along the county seat and township sites forming massive texture, and their evolution followed strong path dependence; The settlements tended to be located on low land, smaller topography, gentle slope and small relief, or more settlements concentrated in the hilly region, flat and slightly undulating topography, and the areas where the slope degree is less than 6° and the terrain niche index less than 0.4. In addition, the south slope directivity of settlements' location and the south slope, southeast slope and southwest slope directivity of settlement scale's spatial distribution was gradually strengthened. (3) The location of settlements was mainly affected by topography, production conditions and the radiation effects of roads, town centers, township sites as well as proximity to industrial and mining enterprises. However, with the passage of time, the effects of topography were weakened while the impact of roads and township centers was gradually strengthened. (4) The spatial distribution of settlements scale was obviously affected by natural, social and economic factors, but the explanation effect of each factor changes over time; Among them, the influence of topography standed at the top, followed by the distance to township sites and county seat in social economic factors, but with the accelerating process of urbanization, the influence of the county center was gradually strengthened, while the influence of township sites and terrains was gradually weakened. Finally, based on the above research, some suggestions were proposed for future development and planning of the mountainous rural settlements.

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    Spatial pattern and influencing factors of quality of lifein rural areas of Hunan province
    Guohua ZHOU, Chang LIU, Chengli TANG, Yanhua HE, Jiamin WU, Lan HE
    2018, 37 (12):  2475-2489.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812009
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    Understanding the regional differentiation regularities and causes of quality of life in rural areas is not only the new content of rural geography for a new era, but also the inherent requirement of the scientific implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. Taking 101 counties (cities, districts) of Hunan province as the research unit, this paper proposes a assessment indicator system of quality of life in rural areas consisting of six dimensions. Then, using the entropy method, exploratory spatial data analysis and geo-detector, we elaborate spatial pattern characteristics and influencing factors of quality of life in rural areas of the province. Our results suggest the following: (1) The spatial distribution pattern of quality of life indicates that the overall feature is high to low from the east to west and descends from east to west. (2) From the perspective of the spatial correlation pattern, obviously, the spatial pattern of High-High area and Low-Low area present a pattern of agglomeration. High-High area is mainly located in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration and its adjacent counties, while Low-Low area is mainly in western Hunan. (3) The primary factors influencing quality of life are per capita GDP, urbanization level, distance from provincial capital, and elevation. The secondary factors are the slope, the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries, the proportion of non-agricultural labor in rural areas, and total power of agricultural machinery. To realize rural revitalization and improve the quality of life in rural areas, we should give priority to rural industrial and economic revitalization based on eco-environmental protection, actively strengthen the interconnection between regions and enhance the modernization of infrastructure and public service facilities in rural areas.

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    Rural settlement reconstructing driven by mountain scenic spot construction: An empirical study of Yunqiu Mountain Scenic Spot
    He ZHU, Jiaming LIU
    2018, 37 (12):  2490-2502.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812010
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    Under the background of rural tourism development, great changes have taken place in traditional village, especially in mountainous areas. Influenced by natural environment and resources, the reconstruction of these villages appeared to be unique and typical. This study was conducted based on in-depth interview and questionnaire survey, and remote sensing image interpretation and GIS analysis. It, taking two villages in Yunqiu Mount as cases, focused on multidimensional reconstruction process of rural settlements from micro scale, and gained some findings as follows: driven by the tourist site constructiion, the three dimensions of "space-economy-society" in the two villages in Yunqiu Mountain have been reconstructed. At the spatial dimension, the land use status and the scale of the three basic space have changed, specifically, production space and living space reduced, and the ecology space increased. The spatial pattern changes from a circular pattern of "living-production-ecology" to a model in which living and production spaces are embedded in the ecology space. At the economic dimension, the income of the villagers increased, and their livelihood model changed. The increasing industrial dependence on tourism has replaced the traditional production mode. At the social dimension, the population and the labor force has increased significantly, the spatial differences of social classes have been narrowed, and the rural organization gradually has shifted to the mode of tourism production. There exists an interaction between space, society, and culture in the countryside, thus an organic system is formed under the promotion of tourism development in the scenic spot.

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    The growth path and mechanism of small tourism businesses: Taking world cultural heritage site Hongcun as an example
    Shoubing YIN, Qiang GUO, Yunxia LIU
    2018, 37 (12):  2503-2516.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812011
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    Taking the world heritage site of Hongcun as an example, with the help of enterprise growth theory, in-depth interviews and non participation observation methods are applied to explore the growth path and driving mechanism of heritage site small tourism businesses. The creation, development and withdrawal of small tourism enterprises in Hongcun are a dynamic process. Under the dual factors of entrepreneurial spirit and market demand, community residents managed to make use of their dwellings to achieve identity transformation and place change, and established small tourism businesses. In the course of development, the limitation of heritage protection and the pressure of market competition make the differentiation of the main group of the small tourism enterprises. Small business owners who lack of growth will withdraw from the market by sublease, which will promote the creation of new small enterprises. Small tourism enterprises with growth will achieve enterprise growth through imitating innovation, intergenerational inheritance, chain expansion, cluster management and brand joining. The study found that integration, diversification, follow ups and corporate growth strategies together with the internal succession of family businesses constitute the growth path of small tourism businesses. At the same time, the tourism development factors such as the heritage protection and the market consumption upgrade have driven the circulation of the growth of the small tourism enterprises.

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    Fractal dimension study of urban morphology based on network accessibility
    Chenming ZHANG, Jianhua GAO, Shimin LI, Shang GAO, Jibin ZHAO
    2018, 37 (12):  2528-2540.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812013
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    In order to expand the range of fractal dimension from the two-dimensional homogeneous space to a composite space integrated with urban land and road network, a network-based calculation method was proposed. Compared with the area-radius method, this new method can clarify the convergence and decentralization of build-up area in the road network rather than in a flat space, which can describe the urban form more reasonably. Fractal dimension of different plots in Zhengzhou downtown area was calculated by applying the above methods. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) There exists a stable change of the land use density from center to periphery, which meets the requirements of the two fractal models. This means that the land-use system presented a specific fractal feature. (2) The same principles and features for the dimension values have been presented by using two different quantization methods: commercial land < all the construction land (without street and transportation area) < residential land < industrial land. This indicates that the central area in Zhengzhou demonstrated a circle-layer structure and different land-use patterns dominated different layers. The phenomenon can be explained by the land rent theory and affected by the fixed features, such as rivers and railway. (3) The scale-free range determined in the network-based calculation method was larger compared with the traditional area-radius method, which means that the space can be divided more delicately by the scale units constructed in the network-based method. However, the space area corresponding to the scale-free range determined in the new method was smaller. (4) There exist some differences on the dimension values between the above two methods for the same land use type. The results with the network-based method had a dispersive, agglomerate and unremarkable correction function on residential land, commercial land and industrial land respectively compared with the traditional area-radius method.

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    Comparative study on micro-scale location choice of typical industries: The case study of management service and automobile manufacturing in Beijing
    Jiaming LI, Wei SUN, Wenzhong ZHANG
    2018, 37 (12):  2541-2553.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812014
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    Industrial location has attracted much attention since classical location theories were built, but most of literature focused on location choice at macro scale. However, micro-scale location choice became a troublesome problem due to the reduction of land and the increase of land price. The research employed a unique micro-firm dataset to identify industrial agglomeration areas of service and manufacturing industries in Beijing and then uncovered factors which have impact on micro-scale location choice within urban areas. Importantly, the result further showed difference of location choice between two typical economic sectors--management service and automobile manufacturing in Beijing. The findings are obtained as follows: (1) 102 service and 130 manufacturing agglomeration areas were identified by firm and employment densities. Firms within these two kinds of agglomeration areas accounted for 72.66% and 44% in service and manufacturing industries respectively. Generally, most of large service firms had concentrated into those service clusters, while large manufacturing enterprises used to be located otherwise. Compared with large firms, small and medium-sized manufacturing firms were more inclined to distribute in agglomeration areas. (2) Although the results showed that urbanization economies had significant effect on location choice of both modern service (representing by management service) and manufacturing industry (representing by automobile manufacturing), the influence mechanisms are completely different. The former prefers a diversified local labor market and relatively diversified industrial environment, while the latter needs a complete industry supplying chain. It is only because the automobile industry has a diverse and comprehensive range of auto parts, it seems that automobile manufacturing firms prefer diversified environment. Naturally, upstream and downstream industry chains and specialized labors are key factors for location choice of automobile firms. Even for the service industry, it is not the more diversified the better at the micro scale. (3) Different from existing literature, the results showed that industrial policies had more influence on service than manufacturing industry. It is partly because one of important factors for location of management service is public infrastructure such as subway, on which local governments have enough impact; and partly because, automobile, as an advanced manufacturing industry, is not among the negative list of manufacturing. Besides, enterprise property has significant influence on location choice of both industries.

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    Space trade-offs analysis in the urban floating population residential self-selection: A case study of Chengdu
    Shaoyao ZHANG, Zhenqin SHI, Xueqian SONG, Wei DENG
    2018, 37 (12):  2554-2566.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812015
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    A large floating population has entered urban areas under the rapid urbanization in China. However, their residential space pattern is strongly affected by residential self-selection, which has reconstructed the urban population distribution pattern and social space. This study examines urban floating population residential space pattern and its formation process, by using the floating population data of 2010 and 2015 in the yearbooks of Chengdu downtown block, and choosing influence variables from the perspective of behavioral decision made by the urban floating population. Therefore, the aims of this study are to analyze the influence of urban characteristic variables for residential self-selection and the influences' spatial differentiation, and to reveal process of space trade-offs in residential self-selection and its role in the formation of urban floating population residential space pattern. The results show that from 2010 to 2015, the urban floating population of Chengdu increased rapidly in the southern part of the downtown area and in the urban centers, and a significant space agglomeration situation featured by low-west and high-east is obviously reflected. Moreover, residential space pattern of urban floating population shows that the level of residential segregation is partially related to the residential space pattern of the registered population, but a notable degree of residential segregation has reduced from 2010 to 2015. More importantly, the study proves that the proportion of urban floating population in permanent residential population, residential land area, housing rent, public transportation, enterprise, hospital, drugstore, restaurant and marketplace have influences on floating population residential self-selection. In addition, the proportion of urban floating population in permanent residential population, residential land area and housing rent are the three significant variables in the spatial error model, but it is dramatically impacted by spatial autocorrelation of floating population statistic block. A major contribution of this study is that the spatial differentiation of the variables' influence on residential self-selection is verified by using geographic weighting regression (GWR), and it reveals the process of urban floating population space trade-offs on how to realize residential self-selection by weighting spatial variability of variables’ influence among different urban regions. That is to say, the spatial difference of living cost, employment opportunities, living environment and commuting costs have shaped the floating population residential space pattern, which is a complex reflection of the urban spatial perception, spatial trade-offs and spatial self-selection of floating population. It can help us to deeply understand the formation process of urban floating population residential space pattern, and provide references to promote community integration and urban management.

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    Multi-dimensional analysis of housing segregation:A case study of Shenzhen, China
    2018, 37 (12):  2567-2575.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812016
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    Residential segregation has been a severe and widespread phenomenon in mega cities along with fast urbanization in China. Migrants from rural area flock into developed cities especially coastal regions for better job opportunities, which provide essential cheap labor for urban growth. However, their housing problems could not be resolved in formal housing either hindered by institutional barrier or unreachable housing price. The housing segregation gradually formed as locals reside in formal gated communities while migrants crowd in informal housing like urban villages, which is characterized with lower rent but substandard living conditions. The housing segregation in China derives from household registration system (hukou). The Index of Dissimilarity (ID) only emphasizes the unevenness of population distribution but could not fully manifest the segregation characteristics in density, location, proximity, etc. Inspired by the work of Massey Denton in multi-dimensional segregation, this article applies three measures of housing segregation (Clustering, Centralization, and Concentration) based on the ID to analyze the segregation between urban residents with and without hukou. It examines the multi-dimensional housing segregation based on hukou status using data from China’s 6th national census in 2010. The typical migrant city Shenzhen was chosen to conduct the case study, and the segregation index of three dimensions was calculated based on 55 sub-districts for comparison. The multi-dimensional segregation indexes showed that Shenzhen has high segregation problems at the city scale, but more homogeneous inside each district. The history, industrial structure and socioeconomic background of each district play a crucial role in the segregation. The outside-custom area provides more chances in labor-dense sectors and attracts more migrants to reside in a large scale, while the inside-custom regions are more advanced in informatics and financial sectors, which results in scattered spots of migrants housing. Cluster analysis reveals the three types of segregation, each of which has its unique processual mechanisms, and policy prescriptions. The study shows that the housing segregation has multiple dimensions and scales. Thus two sets of people could be featured by a single ID yet to be clustered or dispersed, central or peripheral, or concentrated or deconcentrated. Migrants may occupy continuous neighboring blocks in peripheral area, or densely reside in few scattered urban villages in inner city, or congregate in factory dorms alongside each industrial zone. Based on segregation patterns, locations and density, local governments should take different measures like redevelopment of targeted urban villages, large-scale public housing construction or cooperation with factories in worker dormitory improvement accordingly. This article contributes an innovative and comprehensive perspective to conceptualize housing segregation, and provides policy recommendations to deal with the social problems that arise from segregation in China. With the advancement of big data, more practical real-time housing management measures could be developed for practitioners to provide human-centric housing planning and avoid the housing polarization.

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    Water-related urbanization and locality: Protection and utilization of water environment as well as planning and design of water space in a sustainable perspective
    Fang WANG, Shunyi WANG, Martin PROMINSKI
    2018, 37 (12):  2576-2584.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812017
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    In recent years, water pollution, water shortage and natural disasters caused by the unsustainable use of water resources have restricted the social and economic development of cities, regions and countries, and posed a threat to the safety of ecological environment and the sustainable development of human beings. How to ensure the sustainable development and utilization of water resources and the preservation and enrichment of cultural localities, in the process of environmental evolution and urban development, has become a major challenge for ecological environment protection, urban planning and design. Under the background of environmental changes, the bilateral symposium focuses on the theme of "Protection and utilization of water environment as well as planning and design of water space in a sustainable perspective", involving the fields of planning, geography, landscape, architecture, tourism, ecology, hydraulic engineering and history. During the symposium, participants jointly explored the issues of water resources protection and sustainable development faced by China and Germany in different stages of urbanization development, as well as their relevant strategies and experiences. Twenty-nine experts from China and Germany exchanged ideas/views around three major hydrological issues related to the process of urbanization, including challenges between water environment protection and utilization, sustainable use of water resources, and water-related planning strategies. On one hand, Chinese scholars provided diverse cases and accumulated water management experience in the long-term practice and latest developments in water technology; on the other hand, German scholars introduced innovative design concepts and technical methods, as well as citizen spontaneous practice. Through the sharing and communication, the experts in different fields have proposed sustainable water resources utilization and water space planning and design strategies based on local characteristics. The scholars also discussed how to build up cooperation channels and models in bilateral academic research, personnel training and results communication.

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