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Table of Content

    20 April 2019, Volume 38 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Review of Gannan research in Chinese geography
    Xueyan ZHAO, Wei LI
    2019, 38 (4):  743-759.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180532
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    Regional research is the core field of geography. It is not only the generalization and summary of the geographical pattern, process and mechanism research, but also the important basis of research and coordination about the man-land relationship. When we carry out the regional research in geography, it is necessary to select the key region which is both of global significance and regional characteristics as well as in line with the national major strategic needs. As the important components of the “Third Pole”, Gannan Plateau, located in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is not only the typical geographic transition region and the eco-fragile region, but also an important ecological function region and a deep poverty region. Therefore, it has become one of the best experimental areas for regional research in Chinese geography. Based on expounding the value of geography research in Gannan Plateau, this paper systematically teases out the research status of the region in Chinese geography, which include the land surface processes and mechanism, land use/cover change, farmers’ perception and adaptation to climate change, ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanism, farmers’ livelihood and its impact on the ecological environment, social capital and regional development, urbanization and rural settlements, and tourism development. In addition, it is proposed that the Gannan Plateau research should be carried out in a more comprehensive and multi-dimensional perspective in the new era, and focused on the topics, which include the integration of land surface process-pattern, evolution of man-land coupled system and regional sustainable development, ecosystem services and eco-compensation, sustainable livelihoods, new urbanization and rural development. These prospects and reviews would help to offer revelation and reference for Gannan research and regional research in the future.

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    An ECPS framework based assessment on wetland restoration of the Huangshui National Wetland Park in Qinghai province, China
    Xufeng MAO, Xiaoyan WEI, Qiong CHEN, Fenggui LIU, Yaqin TAO, Zhifa ZHANG
    2019, 38 (4):  760-771.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180073
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    The effect assessment for wetland restoration is crucial for wetland management and sustainable utilization. Applying the Huangshui National Wetland Park in the city of Xining, China as a case study, this paper describes how degraded wetland was restored in the perspective of wetland ecological characters, ecological processes and ecosystem services (ECPS). A total of 10 indicators were selected for restoration effect assessment. Vegetation sampling plots investigation, questionnaire survey method and field monitoring were used to collect assessment data. In spatial and temporal scales, we investigated how wetland vegetation, ecological processes and ecosystem services varied in response to restoration project as well as some physical indices. The research results showed that wetland restoration had a score of 41 with a level of Preferably: (1) The abundance of wetland plants increased from 31 types to 42 types with an average increase of 35.5% in plant coverage. The average biomasses of three types of monitored plants (Phragmites communis, Typha minima, and Potamogeton pectinatus) increased by 30.9%. (2) TSIp and FCIp in restoration area increased by 37.2% and 26.3%, respectively, indicating a certain of improvement in matter exchanges and recycles of wetland ecosystem. (3) As for the wetland ecosystem service indices, habitat, soil fertility, water purification, atmosphere adjustment and tourism increased by 92.3%, 50.9%, 98.3%, 73.8% and 82.6%, respectively. (4) The factors of altitude, depth of water, particle diameter, etc., exhibited certain correlations with the abundance and dominant species of wetland plants, which further influence the restoration of ecological processes and the distribution of ecosystem services. (5) With respect to the score distribution of restoration, the ecosystem service indicators scored the highest with over 80% of the total restoration score; followed by the ecological process score, accounting for about 13% of the total restoration score. The above results indicate that the primary targets of wetland restoration related researchers and managers have shifted from ecological characteristics restoration, such as wetland vegetation and wetland area, to ecological processes and ecosystem services. In general, the current framework proposed for wetland restoration assessment can well reflect the characteristics, processes and functions of wetland ecosystems, and provide a good reference for the future assessment of ecological restoration in plateau region.

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    Geographic detection of spatial-temporal difference and its influencing factors on county economic development: A case study of Gansu province
    Xueyao HU, Zilong ZHANG, Xingpeng CHEN, Yueju WANG
    2019, 38 (4):  772-783.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171169
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    As the basic spatial unit and industrial carrier, the county bears significant importance in Chinese economic system, and the spatial disparity of county economic development played a vital role in understanding the evolution of spatial pattern of regional economic development. Therefore, the study on its spatial-temporal difference and the analysis of its influencing factors seem distinctly important. This paper analyzed the dynamics of spatial cluster of county economic development and its spatial-temporal evolution pattern by adopting spatial analysis of ArcGIS, and taking the NICH index and per capita real GDP as measure indicators. The results showed that: From 2001 to 2015, the spatial pattern of economic growth vitality and economic development level is basically consistent; as for the economic growth vitality, the county and city unevenly developed and its overall vitality declined, making county economic revitalization facing great challenge. Hot spot analysis helped us to understand spatial economic agglomeration state of counties in Gansu. The hot and cold spots of economic growth vitality remain relatively stable, which showed a "dumbbell-shaped" spatial pattern whose gravity center leaned towards northwest, and this pattern was gradually strengthened. The hot spots showed a clear "pole-axis" spatial pattern. The cold spots were mainly distributed in the south part of Longdong Region and the Southern Minority Region, which are spatially aggregated beyond the development axis. The main driving factors of the spatial difference of county economy included regional investment level, economic basis, and market scale. In addition, the obvious interaction between the influencing factors improved the contribution of the single factor. There were obvious regional differences in the leading factors influencing county economy development. Based on the dominant mechanism of driving factors, this study could provide scientific reference for functional orientation of county economy and its integrated development in Gansu province.

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    The spatial patterns, generative mechanism and protective strategies of Tibetan village names: A case study in Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture
    Wei LI, Bin YANG
    2019, 38 (4):  784-793.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180465
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    Place names refer to proper terms of both physical and human geographic entities in certain spaces. Village names, as an important part of cultural landscape, are carriers of multicultural information and collective memories. The research on the spatial patterns, generative mechanism and protective strategies of village names is of profound significance to inheritance of native culture. Taking villages in Xiahe county, Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture as examples and applying to GIS kernel density estimation, this paper describes the spatial patterns of Tibetan village names and interprets their classification and generative mechanism from the perspective of culture landscape. The research suggests the three categories constitute the basic paradigm of Tibetan village name system, with the names of nature as the major part, the names of culture as the minor part and the names of mixed mode as supplements, which reflects some essential features of cultural landscape such as the feature of nature, the feature of topophilia, the feature of description and the feature of interrelationship. It is also shown that the environment orientation, ethnic inheritance, belief identity and interregional blending are the driving forces for the genesis of Tibetan village names. To protect Tibetan village names, the top priorities are making a dictionary of protection and establishing an identification system of place names.

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    The climate regionalization variation and its possible climate causes in Liaoning province over 1961-1987 and 1988-2014
    Tao WANG, Yishu WANG, Yan CUI, Xue AO, Yiling HOU, Yumin SHEN, Xiaotao WANG
    2019, 38 (4):  794-806.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180628
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    Based on the identical classification methodologies and criteria system, using the daily observations for 52 meteorological stations during the period 1961-2014, and the characteristics of the temperature, climatic regionalization indicators, area and boundaries changes, the results suggest that the temperature experienced obviously an abrupt change around 1988 in Liaoning province, and after the change, the climate became warmer significantly. The days with daily accumulated temperature above 10 ℃ responds to the change observably, but the annual aridity index and the July mean temperature do not. The regionalization indicators have some changes to various degree in terms of spatial distribution: (1) the number of days with daily accumulated temperature above 10 ℃ increased in the whole province, but more significantly in the central and western parts; (2) climate becomes wet (dry) insignificantly to north (south) of Panjin-Fushun; (3) the July mean temperature alse rises insignificantly. Location of regionalization areas and boundaries have a more significant change: (1) the boundaries of the warm temperate - middle temperate zone mainly shift northward and eastward, and the area of the warm temperate zone (meso-temperate zone) has increased (decreased); (2) the boundary of semi-arid and sub-humid regions mainly shift northward and westward, and the area of semi-arid regions (sub-humid regions) has decreased (increased), but humid regions remains unchanged. (3) The boundary of Tb and Ta mainly shifts northward and eastward, and the area of Ta (Tb) has decreased (increased). On this basis, possible causes for spatial changes of the climatic pattern are analyzed. After the change, 500 hPa height field increased corresponding to the days with daily accumulated temperature above 10℃ and East Asian winter monsoon index increase in April and October may lead to changes of temperature zones. Weakness of increased duration lasting days of Northeast cold vortex from April to September is favorable to changes of semi-arid and sub-humid regions. Increasing 500 hPa height field in July is favorable to changes of Ta and Tb.

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    Variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and its response to extreme climate in coastal China during 1982-2014
    Xiaoli WANG, Xiyong HOU
    2019, 38 (4):  807-821.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180111
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    Based on GIMMS NDVI3g dataset, the spatial-temporal dynamics of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growing season in the coastal area of China from 1982 to 2014 was explored. Additionally, the response of NDVI to extreme temperature events and extreme precipitation events at annual as well as monthly scale was further estimated at the regional scale of meteorological stations. Results showed that NDVI in the coastal area of China and its sub-regions all presented an upward trend during the past 33 years, and the increasing tendency would continue in the future. NDVI in the sub-regions to south of Jiangnan (south of the Yangtze River) (inclusive) coastal area was much higher than that to north; however, a significant decreasing trend of NDVI during 1982-2014 was found in the Yangtze River delta and the Pearl River delta, which were both located in the southern coastal area, and a general increasing trend was detected in the sub-regions to north of Jiangnan coastal area. NDVI was negatively correlated with the warm extremes (warm days and maximum value of daily maximum temperature) in the west of Dongbei (northeast China) coastal area, and sub-regions of Huabei (north China) and Huanghuai (Huanghe and Huaihe river basins) coastal areas, but was showing a positive correlation in the other sub-region coastal areas. A negative correlation was found between NDVI and the cold extremes (cool days and minimum value of daily minimum temperature) in the coastal area of China, where vegetation growth showed a lagging effect to cold extremes. NDVI generally had positive correlation with diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the sub-regions to south of Jianghuai (Yangtze and Huaihe river basins (inclusive) coastal area but was negatively correlated with diurnal temperature range to north. There was a positive correlation between NDVI and extreme precipitation indices (maximum 1-day precipitation amounts and maximum 5-day precipitation amounts) in the sub-regions to north of Huanghuai coastal area, but a negative correlation in the sub-regions to south, as well as in the central east of Dongbei coastal area. Moreover, an obviously lagged correlation between NDVI and extreme precipitation indices was found in the sub-regions to north of Huanghuai coastal area.

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    Spatiotemporal variation of the response of tree radial growth and its sensitivities to climate changes in the United States since the 20th century
    Mengxin BAI, Jingyun ZHENG, Zhixin HAO, Xuezhen ZHANG
    2019, 38 (4):  822-830.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180049
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    The response of tree radial growth and its sensitivity to climate change is an important topic in the global environmental research community. Using tree-ring width index data from 1058 sample sites in the United States and instrumental temperature and precipitation data since the 20th century, correlation analysis was carried out to reveal the spatiotemporal variation of tree radial growth's response and its sensitivity to climate changes. Results show that in the United States radial growth rates of trees were mostly negative correlated with temperature and positive correlated with precipitation. Moisture may be dominant limiting factor of tree growth in most of regions of the United States. Response sensitivity of tree radial growth rate to temperature and precipitation changes exhibited seasonal variations. The most sensitive season varies with regions. The spatial variability of most sensitive seasons was mainly resulted from seasonal variations of moisture conditions due to local seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation. Moreover, the response sensitivities of tree radial growth rate to temperature and precipitation changes along with climate changes. The negative correlation between tree radial growth rate with temperature would be strengthened (weakened) along with the climate warming (cooling). The positive correlation between tree radial growth rate with precipitation would be strengthened (weakened) along with precipitation decrease (increase).

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    Forest insect-disease monitoring and estimation based on satellite remote sensing data
    Zhongwei GUO, Chaoyang WU, Xiaoyue WANG
    2019, 38 (4):  831-843.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180299
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    Forest insect has been known as the "Fire without Smoke" due to their major damages to forest resources. Therefore it is of great significance for research on ecosystem safety. Current remote sensing based monitoring of forest insect outbreak mainly focuses on its distributions, reasons and consequent influences on productivity. Using insect outbreak data acquired at British Colombia in Canada over 2002-2012, we here provide an analysis of the impacts of insect intensity on relationship between leaf area index (LAI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI). We showed that for pixels converting from light to moderate and from moderate to severe, correlations between LAI and NDVI became higher first, then lower evidently and correlations between LAI and EVI became higher consistently. Furthermore, for severely-affected regions, the correlation became stronger. Our results provide a good reference for the future assessment of insect damage on ecosystem function using remote sensing observations.

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    Spatial and temporal changes of land ecosystem service value in Dongting Lake area in 1995-2015
    Chuxiong DENG, Xiaolong ZHONG, Binggeng XIE, Yiliang WAN, Xiongwei SONG
    2019, 38 (4):  844-855.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170999
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    Based on the 5 phases remote sensing image data of Dongting Lake area in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, under the support of ArcGIS and Geoda software, this paper used the equivalent factor method, spatial autocorrelation analysis method to estimate the service value of land ecosystem in Dongting Lake area and explore the temporal and spatial changes of land ecosystem service value in the Dongting Lake. The results are shown as follows: (1) The forest area continued to decrease and unused land area increased steadily from 1995 to 2015, cultivated land area kept rising after a large scale reduction in 1995-2000, wetlands area and waters area decreased gradually after a mass increment in 1995-2000, grassland area fluctuated from 1995 to 2015; a great reduction of forest area and significant increment of unused land area dominated the land use changes in this area in recent 20 years. (2) The total service value of land ecosystem in the study area from 2000 to 2015 was declining after the steep increment in 1995-2000, and it decreased by 21.64×108 yuan, or 1.06%, in the past 20 years. The reduction of forest area was the fundamental reason for the decrease of total value of land ecosystem service in Dongting Lake area. The overall increment of wetlands area cut down the reduction margin of land ecosystem service total value. (3) In terms of the change of land ecological service value structure, the other individual ecological service value had been reduced in varying degrees apart from the slight increment of the waste treatment value, and the eco-environment conservation was always the main function of the Dongting Lake area. (4) The spatial autocorrelation of land ecosystem service value distribution was more significant in Dongting Lake area from 1995 to 2015, its high-value and low-value zones tended to be concentrated, and the agglomeration of spatial distribution of land ecosystem service value was enhancing. The spatial distribution pattern of land ecosystem service value changed obviously, the area of high-high value type zones had been reduced in the Yuanjiang River watershed of Changde, but was rapidly extending to Miluojiang River watershed, while low-low value type zones were mainly concentrated in highly concentrated town area in the north, south, west of the Dongting Lake area, and was expanding gradually to form a sheet along the town development axes and important traffic corridors.

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    Typical models of land consolidation for poverty alleviation
    Yuzhu ZANG, Yansui LIU, Yuanyuan YANG, Yongsheng WANG
    2019, 38 (4):  856-868.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180315
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    Poverty is an obstacle for rural revitalization and development. As the largest developing country in the world, China has been struggling against poverty for decades and has achieved a great success. Land consolidation is regarded as an indispensable path to poverty alleviation in rural China, where residents are suffering from agriculture recession such as fragmentation of arable land, soil impoverishment, and infrastructure damage, etc. According to the path in promoting poverty alleviation, land consolidation can be categorized as four typical models. Firstly, the key of land consolidation is to increase the amount of arable land and improve the conditions of agricultural production. And land consolidation is generally composed of exploiting uncultivated land, levelling uneven land, merging scattered land as well as constructing irrigation and drainage facilities. Then poor peasants can obtain concentrated and contiguous farmland equipped with improved infrastructures and roads, which makes contribution to agriculture mechanization and large-scale operation. This kind of project is categorized as "Elementary Land Consolidation Model". In addition, impoverished people usually live in mountainous areas or remote valleys, featured by inconvenient transportation and fragile ecology. Therefore, it is important to resettle these people and restore the fragile eco-environment so that peasants can enjoy livable residential space, convenient production space and sustainable ecological space. Considering the multifunction of land consolidation for optimizing rural production, living and ecological spaces, this kind of project is named "Reconstruction of Three Spaces Model". Although there is sufficient land space for construction in rural areas, cities are short of construction land for further expansion. Accordingly, a new scheme was innovated that peasants can reclaim rural settlements to increase arable land, and urban departments can buy these quotas to obtain more construction land. In this way, rural departments acquire additional capital for poverty alleviation and economic development. This new project is named "Mobilizing Land Assets Model" as it can turn rural land into actual property and bring revenues to farmers. Furthermore, rural areas also face another obstacle on the way to prosperity except for capital, that is the enormous labor flow from rural areas into cities. A large quantity of farmland has been abandoned due to the lack of adequate labors, resulting in agriculture decline and rural poverty. To resolve these rural issues, farmers are encouraged to transfer their land use rights to rural collective economic organization with identifying them as stockholders. Then the transferred land is leased to professional enterprises or farmers which will bring profits to local farmers. During this process, land plays a role of stock capital, so this project is named "Land Capitalization Model". In general, land consolidation integrated with land rights transaction conduces to agriculture modernization and rural revitalization. Nonetheless, there are still some problems during land consolidation which need to be addressed, including the single financing channels, the absence of supporting system and the lack of advanced planning. The governments are supposed to take measures to promote land consolidation in poor rural areas, such as expanding financing channels, establishing perfect supporting system, and enhancing advanced planning.

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    Rank-size distribution changes and transportation network connections of the coastal container port system in Chinese mainland since 1985
    Jianke GUO, Yao HE, Shaobo WANG, Lulu WU
    2019, 38 (4):  869-883.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181050
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    Since the beginning of the 21st century, many coastal cities of Chinese mainland have been transformed into port cities, with obvious regional characteristics of ports and new competitive and cooperative relations in port development. This paper describes the regionalization characteristics of China's coastal container port system since 1985 from the aspects of scale structure and shipping network by using the rank-size rule and complex network model. The results show that: (1) The port system is becoming perfect and the scale structure is in a good order. The evolution of port system can be divided into three stages: low-level equilibrium, obvious centralization and relative decentralization. Container transport is forming regional agglomeration and intra-group diffusion around world-class hub ports. (2) The small-world characteristics of the port shipping network have been strengthened, and the network characteristics of different types of port routes have changed significantly. The hub port has declined in depth and the transfer function has been rising;The changes of large-scale ports are relatively complicated, more than half of the large-scale ports in the hinterland have obvious characteristics and weak transit function. Local ports are polarized, and most of the ports are diversified in the depth, breadth and radiation capacity of the route network. and a few of ports have shrunk in many ways. (3) The inherent characteristics of port regionalization are more evident in the logistics network with liner routes as the carrier. The hub-spoke characteristics of the network are strengthened, and the transport efficiency of the whole port network is greatly improved. From the perspective of the strongest connection of shipping network based on UCINET, the coastal container port network transformed from a structure of local networks coexisting with several ports pairs to a double-layer hub-spoke structure, which has upgrade the development of port linkage. Regional shipping network and port group have space dislocation rather than one-to-one correspondence.

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    Spatial evolution of chemical industry and its influencing factors in the regions along the Yangtze River
    Hui ZOU, Xuejun DUAN
    2019, 38 (4):  884-897.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180027
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    Layout of industrial activity has always been the hot topic in research field of economic geography. With environmental problems arousing people's more and more attention and the concept of environmental economic geography being proposed in recent years, industrial layout especially pollution intensive industrial layout from the perspective of environmental regulation is of great significance. Chemical industry including petrochemical industry (hereinafter referred to as chemical industry) is not only an important basic industry sector to support economic development and national defense construction, but also the typical pollution intensive industries which are sensitive to environmental regulation. The regions along the Yangtze River (including 27 cities, from Yibin to Shanghai) are considered as the study area of this paper, where typical cities and manufacturing industry belt in China are located. Based on the chemical enterprises data and spacial measurement methods, chemical industrial spatial evolution and its influencing factors in the study area from 2000 to 2013 are discussed. The results show that the main chemical industries in the regions along the Yangtze River are located in the Yangtze River Delta especially in the regions surrounding the Taihu Lake. Chemical industry production share of urban counties was greatly reduced and that of its suburban counties along the Yangtze River was raised which reflects the suburbanization process of chemical industry from urban areas to suburbs. Main foci of enterprises are located in Shanghai and cities along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu province where enterprise hot spots are concentrated. Enterprise hot-spots in middle and upper regions along the Yangtze River developed from three regions (i.e. Wuhan urban area, Chongqing urban area and Changshou) in 2000 to more than 20 regions with different sizes including Yunxi and Dongzhi in 2010 and 2013, which are new growth poles of chemical industry. The sectors of relatively low technology dependence, low value-added products and intensive environmental pollution tend to be concentrated (e.g. fertilizer sector), whereas relatively high-end and fine sectors show a trend of diffusion (e.g. synthetic material). Chemical industrial spatial layout and evolution are affected by factors of environmental regulation, foreign direct investment and traffic location, among which environmental regulation shows significant inhibition effect on growth of chemical industry, and foreign investment and traffic location present significant promoting effect.

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    Spatial organization characteristics of urban network in China:An analysis based on linkages between China's national-level development zones
    Xinzheng ZHAO, Changan FENG, Tongsheng LI, Xiaoqiong LIU, Yang RUI
    2019, 38 (4):  898-910.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170982
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    Urban network research has been an important frontier in urban research area with globalization and informatization. This paper constructed the inter-city linkages at prefecture level in China based on national-level development zones data and gravity model. Social network analysis methods were employed to analyze the urban network characteristics. The results indicate that: (1) The centrality of cities featured by a pyramid structure dominated a small number of cities including political center cities, coastal cities and resource-based cities. Both YRD and PRD cities occupied an important and outstanding position in HTIDZ-based urban network. YRD cities occupied an important and outstanding position in ETDZ-based urban network. (2) Urban network rooted in urban agglomeration and expanded from east to middle, west and northeast of China. The urban network structure transfered from clusters structure to nest structure. Both HTIDZ- and ETDZ-based urban networks present an asymmetric density pattern in the enclosure area surrounded by Harbin-Chengdu-Shenzhen (Guangzhou)-Fuzhou-Shanghai. The density of the north part was higher than that of the south part of the enclosure area of HTIDZ-based urban network. The density of the east part was higher than that of the west part of the enclosure area of ETDZ-based urban network. (3) Obvious concentration characteristics were concluded by the low polycentric index and the multi-center trend is increasing over time. (4) Both urban agglomeration strategy and domain economy have positive effects on urban network connection according to the regional clique analysis. The research results indicate that industry zones policy played and will play an important role in urban network reconfiguration, which provides a new data source and a unique perspective for understanding the urban network evolution of China.

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    The characteristics of urban spatial expansion in Nanjing since 1936
    Lisha HAO, Xiaoge WANG, Wenyi QIAO, Li ZHANG
    2019, 38 (4):  911-925.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171052
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    The development of urban road network is one of the main driving forces of urban spatial expansion. Based on the urban traffic maps in 1936, 1949, 1971, 1982, 2001 and 2015, the urban axis maps of Nanjing were extracted for the corresponding years. With the Integration Index, Urban Expansion Intensity Index (SS-EII) and the Intelligence Index, which are all based on spatial syntactic analysis, the trends, characteristics and evolution stages of urban spatial expansion in Nanjing from 1936 to 2015 were analyzed, and the spatial expansion quality at the accelerated expansion stage was discussed. The results are as follows: (1) In the 80 years, the urban road network of Nanjing has been integrated into a whole from the original regional isolation, and the primary and secondary roads tend to be clear and neat. The early urban area was composed of Xinjiekou as the single center, and along the north-south, east-west and northwest major roads respectively, the urban area gradually expanded, forming a multi-center spatial structure. (2) The urban spatial expansion in Nanjing experienced three stages, that is stagnation (1936-1971), revival (1971-1982) and acceleration (1982-2015), and achieved an all-round expansion to the southwest, northeast, south and northwest. At the stagnation stage, the urban space maintained one single center, mainly along the northwest, southeast and northeast axes, there was slow infilling within the old urban area. At the revival stage, the urban space broke through the boundary of the Ming City Wall to expand in four directions, and some small-scaled regional centers gradually appeared in the northwest and south of city. At the acceleration stage, the urban space greatly expanded along the northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast axes, resulting in the urban multi-center structure. (3) At the acceleration stage, the quality of spatial expansion was generally high. The construction of transportation network followed the expansion of urban land use, and gradually caught up and matched with it, even begun to lead the directions of multi-center diffusion in the city. However, due to the lack of traffic links among the multi-centers, the integrity and spatial efficiency of the urban space generally declined. In summary, the general trends and characteristics of long-range and large-scaled urban spatial expansion can be reflected by analyzing the evolution of road network and SS-EII, and the urban multi-centers and their evolution can also also accurately extracted. Compared with L-EII, R-EII and the Intelligence Index, the quality of urban spatial expansion can be also evaluated. In view of the current lack of links between urban multi-centers, in the future, the traffic links between the urban centers and the sub-centers, as well as between the sub-centers, should be further strengthened, so as to improve urban traffic efficiency, organically decentralize the urban economy and population, as well as improve the organization integrity of urban multi-centers. In the future study, further considerations should be given to the impact of road attributes and subway networks on the topological relationship of the axis map and the accessibility of urban space.

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    Spatial distribution, flowing rules and forming mechanism of inter-cities floating population in China
    Zhifei MA, Shanggang YIN, Yu ZHANG, Zaijun LI, Qiyan WU
    2019, 38 (4):  926-936.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180280
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    The population flow between cities not only reflects the choice of the urban population who voted with their feet based on different development levels of urban economy, society, and public services, but also exerts a direct bearing on the success of rational and orderly movement of population, coordinated development of large, medium and small cities and the new-type urbanization strategies. Therefore, it is of practical significance to explore the spatial flowing laws and driving mechanism of urban-to-urban population flows in China for realizing rational and orderly distribution of population and the new-type urbanization strategy. In the context of the increasing amounts of urban-to-urban floating population in China, this paper discusses the results, processes, and causes of the spatial mobility of floating population in urban areas based on data of population census and dynamic monitoring of floating population. In addition, it studies the spatial distribution, flow trajectory and forming mechanism of urban-to-urban floating population. This paper uses Arcgis to visualize the spatial distribution and main flow trajectories of inter-cities floating population, then uses regression equations to analyze the main factors driving population movement between cities. The results of this paper indicate that the urban-to-urban floating population tends to flow to developed regions and metropolises, during the process of which the proximity of destination is considered; gaps among regions in terms of economic development, employment opportunities, and high levels of education and medical facilities are the internal impetus to the flow of urban-to-urban floating population, while comprehensive consideration will be given to obstacles such as money costs and psychological pressure generated by space friction; at the same time, the existing urban-to-urban floating population will reduce the flow costs, and stimulate the flow of urban-to-urban floating population according to existing routes by reducing the cost of inflows, and providing living and employment information. According to the stage division of population flow in the developed countries, it is discovered that the population movement in China is still transforming from the stage where people move from small cities and towns to metropolises. At this time point, the government should encourage the flow of population to large cities according to the natural law of population movement, decentralize the functions of the central area through the development of sub-centers and satellite cities, and promote the development of urban suburbanization, which are in line with the natural logic of urban development.

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    The network structure of urban tourist destination and its evolution mode based on big data analysis:Taking the data of Sina weibo sign-in as an example
    Min XU, Zhenfang HUANG, Fangdong CAO, Chen ZHANG
    2019, 38 (4):  937-949.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180236
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    The movement demonstrates the internal association among the elements of the tourism regional system, and profoundly influences the course of evolution and the direction of the network structure in tourism zones. Using the data from the Sina weibo sign-in together with the perception of the city tourism destination node, this study examines how diverse levels of network nodes disseminate in the space-dimension and its hierarchical structure characteristics in the network. Then, through measurement of the external connection intensity of the nodes and its degree of association within various cities, the study discloses and extracts the evolution process of the network configuration in tourism areas. Results are as follows: (1) From the point of the city's hierarchical configuration, it creates several national center cities that consider Beijing and Shanghai as the core. Depending on the strength of tourism collection and tourist attraction in core cities, the adjacent towns develop their tourist market. Slowly, the nodes are enclosed in an increasing number of cities. Thus, the complexity level of the system deepened. (2) From the assessment of node hierarchy of the entire system, most nodes exhibit dotted distribution situation. The major cities play a major part in the core of the network system, which creates the tourism network space organization with cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou as the core. Hence, these cities become an essential growth ladder of tourism improvement in China. (3) The comparison of network structure course of evolution in two distinct years demonstrates that the sole center development pattern prevails in a period, which slowly turns into the development mode of multiregional and multi-center with the cities of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou as the core, wherein the principal position of the core cities is further emphasized. Meanwhile, the development mode of dual-core space structure, with Chengdu and Chongqing as the core cities, dominates. Thereby, it presents the synchronized condition of multi-center development mode and dual-core structure mode. This research offers a theoretical struggle for rediscovering and revealing the extent and profoundness of tourism activities and deep analysis of interactive relations among the node, network, structure, and space under the new flow model.

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    Spatial distribution of homestay and its influencing factors in the Yangtze River Delta of China
    Fei LONG, Jiaming LIU, He ZHU, Tao LI
    2019, 38 (4):  950-960.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180308
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    The rapid development of urban economy has accelerated the process of population migration from rural areas to cities and towns. Rural hollowing becomes a common phenomenon in the decaying traditional villages, which causes a series of problems, such as the idle and abandoned rural courtyards, the increasing empty nesters and left-behind women and children, the destroyed traditional buildings, the neglected and forgotten lack of local culture and so on. It is the urban middle class that has gradually become the main body of tourism consumption market, and advocate the necessity and importance of protecting traditional local culture and inheriting rural buildings. As essential tourism resource and reception facilities, homestay has become a new growth point of rural leisure tourism and a major breakthrough in rural activation and regional tourism development.

    In recent years, China's homestay industry has developed rapidly, and it has increasingly became an advanced development mode of tourism accommodation. Taking homestay in Yangtze River Delta as an example, which is the most developed agglomeration in the region, this paper based on the network crawler data of homestay and inn channel on 'qunar.com', uses nearest neighbor analysis and kernel density estimation to study its spatial distribution. And through stepwise regression analysis, it finds out: (1) homestay is characterized by high agglomeration in space, showing the multi-core cluster distribution, and the density of the homestay decreases from center to outer areas; (2) homestay is especially located around the periphery of developed cities, forming density centers; (3) taking 15 factors into account, such as economic environment, traffic condition, population condition, spending capacity, tourism market condition, tourism resources condition and environmental condition, we conclude that tourism revenue per unit area, number of A-level scenic spots, population density and regional GDP have significant positive impact on the density of homestay. In terms of influence, the tourism revenue per unit area > number of A-level scenic spots > population density > regional GDP.

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    Tourism crowding characteristics and adjusting patterns of mountain scenic spots during special periods: A case study of Huangshan Mountain
    Xiaozhong YANG, Xing WANG
    2019, 38 (4):  961-970.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180139
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    The tidal crowding of tourists at world heritage sites, which is quite common and increasingly prominent, carries itself at the research frontier of tourism geography. Taking Mount Huangshan Scenic Spot as an example, the dimensional indicators of physical and psychological crowding were established on the basis of the multi-dimensional connotations behind the crowding of tourists to analyze, with the help of tourist interviews, the characteristics and the influencing factors of crowding in scenic spots. The study revealed that: (1) the correlation between physical crowding and psychological crowding varies with the tourist site; (2) due to the differences in the tourists’ goal and demand, the higher mountains are more crowded than the lower ones, and linear space seems to be more crowded than a “dot-resembling space” as triggered by a variety of factors such as resource attractiveness, service facilities, and spatial features, which is a manifestation of the development imbalance among different scenic spots and the lack of dynamism, initiative, and creativity seen in the interactions between tourists. Finally, based on the spatial-behavior interaction mode featuring diversity and dynamism in special periodical and spatial backgrounds, four regulatory modes are proposed, namely the "cheese-type", the "clown-type", the "floor-discharge-type" and the "vase-type" regulatory modes.

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    The influence of multidimensional deconstruction of stressors on enhancing urban residents' well-being: From the perspective of rural tourism and leisure involvement
    Yuangang ZHANG, IpKin Anthony WONG, Jingjing CHENG, Xiangyang YU, Xi CHEN
    2019, 38 (4):  971-987.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180660
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    In recent years, the well-being of residents has attracted increasing attention from the public. Previous studies have focused on the impact of large-scale space environment on urban residents' well-being by analyzing the natural environment, social and humanistic environment and the process of urbanization. Few studies have conducted research on the mechanism of urban residents' well-being from the perspective of rural tourism. Based on SEM, this study explores how rural tourism and leisure involvement enhance well-being of urban residents who are under multidimensional stress. SEM shows that: (1) Stressor has a significant positive impact on the adjustment strategy, but not significant to leisure involvement. The impact on different groups is significant. Stress adjustment has a significant positive effect on leisure involvement. (2) Leisure involvement has a significant positive relationship with flow experience and well-being. Flow experience has a significant positive impact on wellbeing. (3) Flow experience has a significant positive impact on leisure benefits, which then have a positive impact on well-being. (4) Flow experience has a significant mediating effect on leisure involvement and well-being. Leisure benefits have a significant mediating effect on flow experience and well-being. (5) There are significant differences in stress adjustment, leisure involvement and well-being among different tourist groups.

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    The relationships among post-disaster collective memory, place identity and place protection intention of local residents: A case study of Wenchuan earthquake ruined town of Beichuan
    Lili QIAN, Jie ZHANG, Chunhui ZHENG, Honglei ZHANG, Yongrui GUO
    2019, 38 (4):  988-1002.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180016
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    This paper proceeds from the perceptive of memory geography and sense of place to explore the post-disaster human-place relationship in old Beichuan county town which was the worst-affected area of Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. Using means of qualitative and quantitative methods, it discovers the dimensions of post-disaster memory from the vernacular perspective, and finds the extent of dimensions of post-disaster collective memories, place identity and place protection intention of local survivors. Meanwhile, via using the structural equation modeling, it explores the relationship among collective memory, place identity and place protection intention in post-disaster period. The results show that local survivors' collective memory is multi-dimensions, mainly including disaster memory, traumatic emotion, memory of fighting against disasters, enlightenment learned from disaster, and nostalgic memory of home town. It also uncovers that the positive aspects of collective memory (memory of fighting disasters, enlightenment learned from disaster, nostalgic memory of home town) have significant impacts on improving place identity, and place identity has a significant positive impact on place protection intentions while, the negative aspects of collective memory (disaster memory and traumatic emotions) do not have significant impacts on reducing local place identity. This paper discusses the dimensions of post-disaster collective memory and reveals the effect of factor contributing to place identity and the mechanism of post-disaster collective memories on place identity. It also proves that collective memory-place identity-place protection intention is an effective new approach to understanding the local survivors' psychological experiences and the contradiction and complex aspect of post-disaster human-place relationship. This makes up the shortage in the field of sense of disaster and post-disaster experiences in human geography in China. The results are of some help in understanding the disaster psychology and post-disaster recovery of local residents, and can be referred in the field of quake ruin planning and protection projects.

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