Poverty is a social phenomenon characterized by welfare dependence and passes down over generations. Poverty is one of the problems that are currently plaguing the countries of the world, especially the developing countries. As the largest developing country in the world, China has a large rural population. Due to many factors such as natural resources shortage, urban-rural duality and weak regional economic development, China's rural social and economic development has lagged behind the world's rural economy for a long time. It is a challenging task to achieve poverty alleviation and elimination for the wide distribution of impoverished rural population and conspicuous poverty issues in China. In 2013, China put forward the concept of “targeted poverty alleviation”, which opened a new period of the poverty reduction campaign. Different policies and strategies for different types of poverty and poverty-stricken areas should be made so as to promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas, which has become a major urban-rural regional development strategy. And it is also an important strategy to achieve rural revitalization. The studies on poverty are of great significance to improve people's livelihood and promote the social and economic development in poor areas. Taking 51 poverty-stricken counties in Hunan province as examples, entropy method, spatial regression analysis and other methods were comprehensively employed in this research to construct a poverty measurement index system from four aspects of population structure, living conditions, income status and family expenditure. Meanwhile, the spatial differentiation, influencing factors, type division and regulation path of rural poverty were investigated. The results showed that: (1) The spatial distribution of rural poverty in Hunan presents a significant difference. Generally speaking, people with moderate poverty and general poverty are widely distributed, with a small proportion of relative poverty. The poor counties are mainly located in contiguous poverty-stricken areas of Wulin mountain, including Huaihua and Xiangxi. (2) Rural poverty in Hunan results from the interaction between regional natural conditions and external socio-economic factors, which is positively correlated with the average altitude of the county, the area of natural disasters, the total output value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, the rural industrial structure and the income ratio of urban and rural residents, however, it has a negative correlation with the total power of agricultural mechanization and the arable land per capita. (3) The 51 poverty-stricken counties were classified into three major types based on poverty measurement, including single factor leading, double factors driving and multi-factor comprehensive driving. The three major types encompass 14 secondary categories such as P factor leading, P-E factors driving, and P-H-E factors comprehensive driving. Based on this study, different strategies have been put forward to fight against the poverty with regard to different poverty-stricken counties from the aspect of infrastructure construction, culture, education and vocational skills training.