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    20 November 2019, Volume 38 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspectives and Contention
    How does protectionism change the pattern of the destinations of Chinese photovoltaic export?
    ZHU Xiangdong, HE Canfei, ZHU Shengjun
    2019, 38 (11):  2565-2577.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180551
    Abstract ( 202 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (4864KB) ( 95 )   Save

    In recent years, export-oriented development strategy in China is facing serious challenges under the prevailing trend of protectionism. Focusing on the anti-dumping and countervailing (AD) policy adopted by EU and US after 2011, this article tries to explain the dynamic of photovoltaic (PV) trade between China and other countries. We apply network analysis to investigate the pattern of PV trade during 2009 to 2015. And Logit model is utilized to find out the influencing factors that affect the pattern of PV destinations of prefectural cities in China in 2009-2011 and 2011-2013, respectively. The results show that, (1) the volume of trade between China and countries with AD policy dropped sharply after 2011, while the volume of export from China to countries beyond EU and US enjoys increase. The main destinations transferred from Germany, Netherlands, Italy and US to Japan, South Korea, India and Singapore. (2) Incentives can promote the export of PV products under marketization. Moreover, when some countries apply protectionism, appropriate policies play an important role in maintaining the pattern of trade and reducing the fluctuation of export. (3) Exporting relatedness of PV products can promote the growth of exports significantly in the first period. However, the effects of relatedness reversed after 2011, which indicates that export of Chinese prefecture-level cities are following new routines in front of trade protectionism. (4) Trade type of PV products only become significant in the second period, and the more processing trade a city has the worse its export situation would be. This results indicate that common trade is more robust than processing trade. (5) The diversification of market is not able to resist the negative effects of trade protection, which suggests that there is a threshold for market diversification to reduce the effect of protectionism. At the same time countries with high centrality are conducive to the growth of PV exports in prefectural cities. Based on the results we argue that, to guarantee the effect of diversification of market, it is necessary to establish export links with countries different from each other. Although trade protectionism leads to severe damage to Chinese PV industry, it also accelerates the transition from processing trade to common trade. After a short period of pain, it will be beneficial to the rise of Chinese PV industry. Appropriate policy cannot be underestimated in the rise of PV, especially in the context of trade protectionism.

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    Reflection on China’s tourism study based on the perspective of field of place
    CHEN Xiaoliang, CAI Xiaomei, ZHU Hong
    2019, 38 (11):  2578-2594.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190317
    Abstract ( 181 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (2037KB) ( 159 )   Save

    Tourism, as a social practice, plays an important role in political and economic development as well as in social and cultural changes. The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party in 2012 has set up new goals for China's tourism. It is necessary for us to rethink current ways of tourism development and its future with the perspective of new era. In view of this, this research, based on the study of tourism development and characteristics of current tourism in the West, examined China’s tourism features. This paper proposes a theoretical framework about “field of place”. Based on the discussion of ontology of place, the article integrates tourism, encounter and place into an interrelated framework to conceptualize tourism as: the empirical, experiential, reflective and practical fields of place that are shaped by the process of encounter of human and non-human. The field of tourism is a dynamic system, and it is also a politicized practice process that constantly changes and interweaves with conflict and compromising. This research emphasizes a meaningful temporal and special process of encounter. Only through a combination of unexpected encounters and daily encounters, can the truth of tourism be reflected. Compared to the classic tourism geography model (from the perspective of spatial format, the tourism system is a spatial system in which the tourist-generating areas and the tourist-receiving areas interact through the tourist routes), the field of tourism is actually a dynamic spatial relationship of mobility shaped through the process of encountering and meeting where the absence and the presence are intertwined, both of which are composed of human and non-human. The field of tourism model breaks through the limitations of dichotomy where the tourist-generating areas and the tourist-receiving areas are separated. The version of field of tourism is more a research epistemology and research perspective than a research paradigm. Finally, with the change of tourism development and tourism research, this paper proposes five kinds of knowledge production mode and research direction based on local practice, critical reflection, technological change, participation and interdisciplinary research. This paper tries to bring a dialogue on the ontological political agenda and provide a guidance for future tourism research.

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    Articles
    The spatial-temporal difference of peasants' livelihood response and enlightenments to rural revitalization strategy
    LI Yuheng, SONG Chuanyao, YAN Jiayu, LIU Yansui
    2019, 38 (11):  2595-2605.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181314
    Abstract ( 137 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (3994KB) ( 130 )   Save

    As human society evolves from agrarian economy to industrial dominated urban economy and further to the knowledge economy, peasants' livelihood has shifted from mainly undertaking agriculture to more diversified employments and income sources. However, peasants' income growth depends on their capability in getting adapted to the human society evolutions. Peasants' income growth is the key index to reflect peasants' livelihood adaptability and self-development capability. The paper investigates the coupled relationship between peasants' income growth and provincial economic development of China in the period 1995-2015. The panel data is used in the research. The results show that there is clear spatial-temporal differences of peasants' livelihood response to the economic development. The year 2009 is the turning point at which the growth rate of rural per capita net income in China starts to decrease. The turning point of rural per capita net income in central and western China appears in 2005 while eastern China finds the rural per capita net income decrease in 2012. This indicates that difficulties in peasants' income growth have already appeared in China and the situation in central and western China emerged earlier than that in eastern China. This also implies that peasants' capability fails to adapt to the changing external circumstances as China's reform and opening-up goes deep, which provides both opportunities and challenges to peasants' livelihood. In this process, the study shows that both urbanization development and scientific input contribute to peasants' income growth while the peasants' low educational level has restricted peasants' livelihood and their capability in obtaining steady income. In 2017, China announced its rural revitalization strategy which aims to promote rural development in a comprehensive way. To achieve prosperous livelihood for the peasants is the core aspect of the strategy. In the aim of realizing China's rural revitalization strategy, it is necessary to help peasants to achieve steady income growth in the long run. Thus, the paper suggests to promote ruralization and rural transformation which create a platform for peasants to generate steady income. Also it is important to improve peasants' educational level so as to enhance their resilient capability against external changes and improve their livelihood.

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    The mechanism and countermeasures of solving spatial poverty based on rural population transfer and rural road construction: A case study of Guizhou province
    FENG Yingbin, LONG Hualou
    2019, 38 (11):  2606-2623.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181397
    Abstract ( 143 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (22317KB) ( 124 )   Save

    The interaction between poverty and geographical environment creates a spatial poverty trap. This paper makes an empirical study on the effect of rural population transfer on poverty reduction of 50 state-level poverty-stricken counties in Guizhou Province, and examines the spatial coupling relationship between incidence of poverty and rural road accessibility index in poverty-stricken villages in Songtao, Weining and Wangmo counties. Then this paper explains the mechanism of solving spatial poverty and constructs the corresponding policy system. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) the transfer of rural household registration population in poverty-stricken counties to towns within the county and the transfer of counties outside the county have significant poverty alleviation effects. However, the poverty reduction effect of urban transfer in the county is greater than that outside the county. (2) The poverty-stricken villages of extreme poverty and poor accessibility types (EP) and deep poverty and poor accessibility types (DP) in Songtao and Wangmo countries account for about 15% and those of Weining take up about 10%, and these types of poverty-stricken villages should be relocated and merged. For the poverty-stricken villages with natural, historical and cultural characteristics, such as deep poverty and medium accessibility types (DM), general poverty and medium accessibility types (GM), the rural road width should be further expanded, the network should be formed, and the traffic capacity should be enhanced. (3) It is necessary to adhere to the local urbanization in the county and the urbanization of the central cities and provincial capitals in developed regions. We will strengthen skills training for the transfer of the working population and continue to promote equalization of basic public services in poverty-stricken areas. This paper believes that the endogenous and exogenous industries of “lucid waters and lush mountains” in hilly and mountainous areas should be developed to guide the poor to improve their self-development capabilities. In the current and future period, we should adhere to development of the green industry, and further mobilize the enthusiasm of poor people to increase production. At the same time, we should steadily improve the basic public service level in poverty-stricken areas, enhance the self-development ability of the relatively poor people, and gradually move toward common prosperity.

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    Geographic pattern evolution of China's merchandise export and its influencing factors: Based on the analysis of merchandise export distance and the GTWR model
    LI Enkang, LU Yuqi, CHEN Yu
    2019, 38 (11):  2624-2638.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181007
    Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (9548KB) ( 112 )   Save

    By using an analysis framework based on distance of merchandise export, this paper compared two definitions of the actual and ideal distance of merchandise export, and then used the Index of Merchandise Export Offset (IMEO) to analyze the evolution of merchandise export pattern among 317 Chinese cities from 2005 to 2016, which integrated geographical factors to analyze the export trade and comprehensively discussed the changing characteristics of the export pattern relative to the economic pattern. In the meantime, the general public budget, the industrial outputs of enterprises above designated size and broadband users were adopted to depict each city’s government investment, industrial level and the development of communication technology respectively, and then their effects on the regional merchandise export were explored by using the GTWR. Finally, the study came to the following conclusions: (1) From 2005 to 2016, the IMEO shows a special sine-cosine superposed oscillation, and the evolution of merchandise export pattern is moving west, moving east, west again and east again. This indicates that the economic transformation and the international environment influence the merchandise export of the western region greatly. Obviously, the merchandise export in the central and western regions has risen twice in comparison with its weak economic strength from 2005 to 2016. However, this development momentum will soon fall back to some extent due to the background of its own development and the international environment. (2) In terms of the overall impact on the merchandise export, it can be listed as follows: government investment > industrial level > communication technology. The impact of government investment on merchandise export has weakened over time, whereas the development of communication technology plays a more significant role in promoting the export of merchandise in the west than in the southeast. Based on these, we think that the east should emphasize the export of high-tech products and then increase the ability of keeping away from trade risks in the future, and the west should focus on the infrastructure construction and its industrial production capacity. Besides, the premise setting of IMEO measurement in this paper is relatively simple, and there is still space for further expansion of the selection of influencing factors.

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    Cohesive subgroups and underlying factors in the urban network in China
    SHENG Kerong, YANG Yu, ZHANG Hongxia
    2019, 38 (11):  2639-2652.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180729
    Abstract ( 118 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (5630KB) ( 130 )   Save

    Cohesive subgroup constitutes a bridge connecting individual cities and urban network. This paper aims to analyze the cohesive subgroups and their mechanisms in the urban network in China. First, data on headquarter and branch locations of China's top 500 public companies in 2016 are subjected to ownership linkage model to approximate the urban network, resulting in a 294×294 valued urban network. Second, four measures of cohesive subgroup analysis, i.e. cliques, k-cores, lambda sets and core-periphery techniques are employed to generalize about the link strengths between cities. Finally, the influencing factors of the cohesive subgroups in the urban network are examined by using quadratic assignment procedure, and the mechanisms are explored under a conceptual framework of urban network growth. Three main findings are concluded. First, the four measures of cliques, k-cores, lambda sets and core-periphery techniques all indicate the presence of cohesive subgroups, revealing the hierarchical structure of link strengths in the urban network in China. The cohesive subgroups are mainly composed of core cities of urban agglomerations, and the cities in the eastern and central regions have more active economic ties compared to the cities in the western region. Second, key resources possessed by cities, such as economic scale, political resources, and knowledge capital, are important factors underlying the formation of cohesive subgroups. Links are more likely to occur between cities with larger economies, richer political resources and more intensive knowledge capital. Temporal distance, geographical location and path dependence also have a profound influence on the spatial pattern of cohesive subgroups. Third, network homophily and path dependence are the dynamic mechanisms underlying the development of cohesive subgroups, and the key resources and location advantages of cities will be further translated into network competitiveness. In the network environment, China's urban governance system and urbanization policies need to be adjusted accordingly. The Chinese government needs to promote network cooperation between cities on a larger spatial scale, and actively respond to the widening economic gap between cities under the network environment.

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    Dynamic coordinated relationships and interactive effects between urban smart development and ecological efficiency: A case study of 276 cities at prefecture level and above in China
    CHEN Xiaohong, ZHOU Honghao
    2019, 38 (11):  2653-2665.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180674
    Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (4581KB) ( 111 )   Save

    There is a complex dynamic interaction process between urban development and ecological environment. Urban smart development is considered as a model of emphasizing intensive and compact development in space to promote environmental improvement and ecological restoration in the long-term growth. And ecological efficiency refers to efficient optimization and configuration through input of capital, resources and other factors while reducing pollutant emissions and maximizing regional economic output. To clarify the dynamic coordinated relationships and interactive effects between smart development and ecological efficiency is a key link in the regional sustainable development. Taking 276 cities at prefecture level and above in China from 2003 to 2015 as objects, this paper comprehensively measures dynamic coordinated and interactive response relationships between urban smart development and ecological efficiency in China by using multi-index comprehensive evaluation method, Super-SBM model, gray correlation analysis and panel VAR model. Research results are shown as follows: 1) Urban smart development presents a decreasing trend of spatial evolution from coastal areas to inland areas and the level of urban smart development gradually improves, and the trend of urban smart development year by year has obvious improvement with a higher urban smart development index in many urban agglomeration areas of China. 2) Ecological efficiency has a certain coupling characteristic with the spatial change trend of smart development, which presents a higher level of the "ecological arc" urban belt in the north and south directions of the coastal areas in China. 3) urban smart development and ecological efficiency have significant correlation characteristics, and the coordinated development relationship between urban smart development and ecological efficiency has a downward trend. 4) The test results for Granger causality demonstrate that there is a two-way interactive Granger causality between urban smart development and ecological efficiency, and the results for PVAR model show that there is a positive interactive response relationship between urban smart development and ecological efficiency, which has a certain path-dependent characteristics and inertia development trend. 5) In the long run, urban smart development has a greater impact on the change of ecological efficiency. It is recommended that cities should focus on long-term goals and formulate rational development policies by optimizing efficient allocation of elements and promoting ecological efficiency through smart development.

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    Evaluating the controlling effectiveness of land-use planning on construction land expansion under the rapid urbanization: A case study of Nanjing city
    QIAO Weifeng, WU Ju, GE Dazhuan, WANG Yahua, CAO Min
    2019, 38 (11):  2666-2680.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180713
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (9806KB) ( 90 )   Save

    Scientific evaluation of land use general planning on controlling the effectiveness of construction land expansion is of great significance for the improvement of planning methods and management measures. Based on the relevant indicators of the land-use general planning, this paper constructs the urban expansion evaluation index system from the perspectives of time, space, quantity and quality, and selects the rapidly urbanized area of Nanjing City as an example. The results indicate that: 1) Land-use general planning of Nanjing has some effect on the control of the expansion of construction land, but it still needs to be strengthened. In addition to 2013, the scale of newly added urban industrial and mining land in the rest of the planning period is higher than that of the planned annual average control. By 2015, the using process of construction land planning indicators reached 78.83%, and it is difficult to meet the land demand for planning the remaining years; 2) The expansion of urban construction land in Nanjing is basically consistent with the planned spatial expansion pattern of urban land use. There are large differences in the using process of land indicators in different directions, which are fast in the northeast and northwest but slow in the south. Moreover, the concentration and compliance indicators are better; 3) The control index of land use scale during the evaluation period is -0.97, and the spatial spillover index is 0.34. The land use planning is weak under the control of new urban industrial and mining land expansion. Simultaneously, the cumulative implementation effectiveness of land-use general planning shows a deteriorating trend year by year. The comprehensive evaluation index has been 4.39 since 2010, and the cumulative execution effect of the plan shows a worsening tendency. The scientificness of the planning compilation and the binding of planning implementation need to be strengthened. 4) The index system constructed in this paper can evaluate the effectiveness of planning and control of urban expansion in all-round directions and multi-angles, and has certain reference for the evaluation of planning implementation in other regions.

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    Study on sustainable land use model in mountain towns based on ecological security: Taking Dali city of Yunnan province as an example
    ZHANG Hong, LI Zhongyuan, LI Yan
    2019, 38 (11):  2681-2694.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181341
    Abstract ( 108 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (4313KB) ( 125 )   Save

    With the advance of China’s urbanization, developing low hills and gentle slopes to build mountain towns has become an important approach to solve the contradiction of land resources brought by urbanization in mountainous areas of southern China. However, the ecological environment of mountainous areas is fragile, regarding to how to develop and construct mountain towns scientifically and reasonably on the premise of guaranteeing ecological security, there is no mature theory and method at present. This paper has carried out some preliminary discussion in this regard. With Dali City as an example, this paper takes geological hazards, water conservation, topography, soil & water conservation, biodiversity, and flood inundation as key ecological factors in the construction of mountain towns to divide and determine the ecological security level of mountain town construction; through empirical analysis and scenario simulation such as CGELUC model and DLS model, the land use and scenario mode selection in mountain towns under the constraint of ecological security are optimized. The empirical study shows that the economic development priority model and three-dimensional land use with high ecological security level are sustainable land use model for mountain towns that are most suitable with the three-dimensional characteristics of mountainous areas. The complex physical geographical conditions and ecological environment of mountain towns bring a series of influencing factors and restrictive conditions of complex changes to the land use of mountain towns. There are always different views in academic circles with respect to the ecological problems in the construction and development of mountain towns on low hills and gentle slopes. This study can be a preliminary exploration. Obviously, whether the construction and development of mountain towns on low hills and gentle slopes will lead to the instability of the ecosystem, there is still a lot of follow-up research work to be carried out.

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    Spatial pattern and contributing factors of homestay inns in the area around Mogan Mountain
    ZHANG Haizhou, LU Lin, ZHANG Dapeng, YU Hu, ZHANG Xiao
    2019, 38 (11):  2695-2715.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180918
    Abstract ( 303 )   HTML ( 41 )   PDF (15763KB) ( 200 )   Save

    Homestay inn is an emerging form of commercial format and space utilization in the process of rural vitalization and tourism transformation and upgrading in China, but academic attention is lagging behind. The area around Mogan Mountain (AAMM) is one of the most typical homestay inn clusters in China and has becoming a world well-known regional brand in the tourism of homestay inn. In this study, with official government statistics and field research data, spatio-temporal pattern and contributing factors of homestay inns in AAMM was systematically analyzed based on the micro-scale of the tourism destination using the spatial process analysis method of the combination of ArcGIS and Geodetector. The results show: (1) From 2011 to 2017, the total number and spatial distribution range of homestay inns in the AAMM had been expanding. The direction of spatial development changed greatly, gradually tending to the balanced spatial development of the whole town field. The spatial pattern of homestay inns in the AAMM is a cluster area centered on villages of “Houwu-Xiantan-Liaoyuan-Laoling-Lanshukeng” bordering Mogan Mountain Scenic Area, and aggregation point in edge villages of the AAMM. Spatio-temporal patterns of different grades of homestay inns are significantly different. (2) The spatial process of homestay inns in AAMM has been changing from agglomeration to a strong agglomeration, and the agglomeration degrees of different grades of homestay inns in AAMM have increased rapidly. The diffusion effect of the early aggregation points were significant. The spatial agglomeration process is closely related to the terrain topography, core scenic spot, traffic trunks and residential areas. (3) Scenery, development foundations, social factors and location are all contributing factors of the spatial heterogeneity of homestay inns in the AAMM. And the influence of the interaction between two determinants of dimensions appeared to be larger. The spacial law of the homestay inn in mountain areas can be concluded that “natural-scenery-traffic-social” multi-factors have a comprehensive and interactive effect on the spatial agglomeration. Significant differences exist in spatial determinants of dimensions and indicators of different grades with the rule that the spatial location selections for the high, mid- and low grades are physical geographical landscape oriented, industrial landscape oriented and social landscape oriented, respectively. It is of great theoretical significance to extend the study types of the location in the hospitality industry and to summarize the spatial development model of typical homestay inn cluster in China. At the same time, it has the practical values for the site location selection of homestay inn and the development planning of the homestay inn cluster.

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    Research on congestion spillover effects of international transfer traffic on hub airports
    ZHANG Shengrun, ZHENG Hailong, LI Tao, TANG Xiaowei, WANG Jiaoe
    2019, 38 (11):  2716-2729.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190151
    Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (3411KB) ( 68 )   Save

    Based upon the strategy of developing civil aviation to drive the prosperity of China, it is fundamental and significant to enhance the transfer level of international hub airports in China. This is particularly urgent during the process of enlarging the international air transport market. As hub competition becomes a worldwide phenomenon, attracting more transfer passengers has been challenging for both hub airports and their dominant full-service carriers when we design a complex hub-and-spoke network configuration. The capacity constraints at big hub airports, however, lead to severe congestion, which limits their accommodation of the increasing number of transfer passengers. In this way, there is a larger probability that transfers passengers to other hub airports located in other regions, i.e., the so-called “congestion spillover effects”. This paper examines the congestion spillover effects of the three biggest Chinese hub airports (i.e., Beijing Capital International Airport, Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport) by exploring a two-stage panel data modeling framework. Using OAG traffic analyser data between 2010 and 2017, the models are estimated by fixed-effects and systems of regression panel data methods. The results show that the spillovers of international transfer traffic at the “Big Three (B3)” have been mainly taken by the hub airports located outside China that have larger overlap rates with the B3. The secondary hub airports in China show limited capability to capture the spillovers of the B3. The spillover transfer traffic of the B3 spreads to different branches of geography. In specific: from Beijing Capital to Xiamen, Bangkok, and Dubai; from Shanghai Pudong to Kuala Lumpur, Seoul and Urumqi; from Guangzhou Baiyun to Hong Kong, Wuhan, Xi’an, Seoul, Kuala Lumpur, Istanbul, Singapore and Helsinki. This paper further discusses the necessity of China to develop its secondary hub airports to overtake the spillovers of the B3. If the overlap rates between the primary and secondary hub airports are large, the latter can play a role as complementary airports. Otherwise, the secondary hub airports can develop towards specialization to cover the regions that cannot be served by their primary counterparts. In the case of the spillovers of the B3 being captured by hubs located in other countries, the dominant carriers at the B3 can consider to establish strategic alliance cooperation with their dominant carriers.

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    Analyzing intercity railways network in the Pearl River Delta: A comparative study based on connections, capacity and actual flow
    LI Tao, ZHANG Weiyang, CAO Xiaoshu, WANG Li, ZHANG Long
    2019, 38 (11):  2730-2744.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190132
    Abstract ( 121 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (10863KB) ( 82 )   Save

    Intercity transportation network can be manifested as infrastructure connection network, connection capacity network, and actual flow network. The layer of infrastructure connection (rail, etc.) enables the occurring of intercity transportation, and thus providing the possibility of contact. The layer of connection capacity reflects the volume of connection, in which the number of trains can be deemed as a concrete index of connection capacity, while the layer of actual flows reflect the tangible moving of goods or passengers. These different layers project different characteristics of networks from the lenses of possibility, potentiality, and actual flow, respectively. As a result, clarifying different positions of cities in the three networks could help to carefully distinguish urban system structure and cities’ node position. Taking the intercity rail network of the Pearl River Delta metropolitan area as an example, this paper empirically investigates the differences between connections, capacity and actual flow. To be specific, differences of the overall structure, node position of cities and intercity connectivity are systematically analyzed. The results show that the hierarchical structure of local centrality of nodes in the three networks presents a clear rank-size distribution, while the flattening characteristics of connection network and capacity network are more significant when compared with the flow network. In both the capacity network and the flow network, Guangzhou and Shenzhen are the core nodes, and Guangzhou-Shenzhen, Guangzhou-Zhuhai, and Guangzhou-Foshan are the core links. The connection network shows a clear feature of backbone along main railway lines, highlighting the key position of Guangzhou-Zhuhai railway in the west coast of the Pearl River estuary. The flow network highlights the importance of Zhaoqing, Jiangmen and other prefecture-level cities, while the advantages of position of small and medium-sized towns along the railway is gradually shrinking. This study emphasizes the importance of clarifying the definition of ‘network’ in urban network research on the one hand, while on the other hand it identifies the difference between possibility, utilization potentiality and actual flow in railway transportation networks. Furthermore, this research provides potential references for making transportation planning and regional allocation policies. For instance, for the central cities such as Guangzhou and Shenzhen, more attention should be paid to improving their connections in infrastructure and capacity networks, while surpluses of infrastructure and capacity should be fully utilized to attract more tangible flows of goods and passengers.

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    A comparative research of the spatial-temporal evolution track and influence mechanism of green development in China
    CHENG Yu, WANG Jingjing, WANG Yaping, REN Jianlan
    2019, 38 (11):  2745-2765.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190057
    Abstract ( 135 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (9382KB) ( 112 )   Save

    The green development strategy is not only an important part of realizing the coupling and coordination of regional economy-society and resource environment, but also an important path to promote regional man-earth coordination. British economist David Pierce's book "Green Economy Blueprint" first introduced the concept of "green economy" in 1989. Since the financial crisis, green development has become an important consensus for improving economic competitiveness, coping with financial crisis and solving resource and environmental problems. Many developed countries and regions such as the European Union, the United States and Japan have begun to formulate a series of strategic plans centered on green energy technologies and green manufacturing industries. These plans actively promote the green new policy and open a new era of the green industrial revolution, with a view to achieving a green economy. The economy is recovering and is in a dominant position in the new round of global fierce competition. China faces more severe resource and environmental pressures than other countries. The special national conditions determine that China must implement sustainable development strategy. The “13th Five-Year Plan” (2016-2020) also clearly stated that “green is a necessary precondition for sustainable development and an important manifestation of the people’s pursuit of a better life”. After more than half a century of theoretical and practical evolution, green development is moving from one-dimensional to multi-dimensional, from simple to complex, and is a useful exploration of the sustainable development model. The study uses the projection pursuit evaluation model (PPM) and Gini coefficient, coefficient of variation, spatial autocorrelation and spatial measurement to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution trajectories and impact mechanisms of green development in 30 provincial areas of China, and draws the following conclusions: (1) Green development includes the three dimensions of “green growth-green welfare -green wealth”. Synergistic and balanced development of the three dimensions is the essential feature and inherent requirement of green development; (2) China's green development index is on the rise year by year, but the growth rate is low. Although the green development has achieved remarkable results, problems and pressures still exist. Both the green growth and the green welfare index showed an increasing trend, with an average annual growth rate of 5.77% and 11.74% respectively. The overall green wealth index is relatively low and slowly grows. To a certain extent, it reflects that the growth of the green wealth index is an arduous and long-term task; (3) The regional differences in green development and its composition index are gradually shrinking, but regional differences are still large, featured by eastern region > northeast region > western region > central region. The spatial distribution of green wealth and green development and other branch index is misplaced, and the characteristics of high-high and low-low spatial agglomeration are obvious; (4) Urbanizational level, industrial structure, population density, technological innovation, marketization, and international trade are the main factors affecting China's green development. The research proposes countermeasures from the aspects of ecological culture value, ecological economic construction, ecological environmental protection, resource and environmental carrying capacity and space governance system. It has certain reference value for China's ecological civilization construction and green development.

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    Research on the agricultural labor force and aging of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    HAO Wei, WANG Pengfei
    2019, 38 (11):  2766-2777.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180639
    Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (11216KB) ( 104 )   Save

    The Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei region is one of the important areas of China's economic development. The agricultural labor force reduction and aging in its rural areas have become an important issue related to agriculture, rural areas and farmers’benefits. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of agricultural labor force and its aging in each county of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, discuss the coupling relationship between the agricultural labor force and its aging, and analyze the agricultural labor force and the characteristics of its aging in different counties in the study area under the background of rural revitalization. And we also present the development direction about different types of agricultural labor in the future. The results show that: 1) the agricultural labor force in the study area is declining, particularly in the coastal areas and the eastern part of the region and around Beijing. 2) The proportion of aging agricultural labor in these areas is increasing, and the proportion of agricultural labor force over 60 years old to the total agricultural population increased by 3.93% from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the number of young and middle-aged people in rural areas is declining. The spatial difference between high and low aging population is obvious. The proportion of agricultural labor force in the counties near the city of Beijing is high. The proportion of the agricultural labor population is decreasing with the increase of distance to the downtown area. 3) The change rate of agricultural labor force and the change rate of the proportion of agricultural laborers over 60 years old to the total agricultural population in the areas are generally the same, indicating that the rate of change of agricultural labor force in the areas and its rate of aging have correlation to a certain degree. 4) Based on the analysis of labor-age elasticity index, the coupling characteristics of agricultural labor force and aging between 2000 and 2010 can be divided into four types: a) the slow-slight aging dominated by traditional agriculture, b) the slow-severe aging dominated by early-stage migrant workers, c)the rapid-deep aging dominated by dual economy between urban and rural areas, d) the rapid-moderate aging dominated by part-time workers. Through the analysis, it is sure that we can get a better understanding of the distribution and division of agricultural labor force, and rationally formulate policies and measures, and correctly guide the flow of agricultural labor in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in the future. At the same time, the results will further our knowledge about agricultural labor force in the study of rural geography.

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    Spatio-temporal variations of soil organic matter and nutrient losses resulted from wind erosion in northern China from 1980 to 2015
    ZHAO Haipeng, SONG Hongquan, LIU Pengfei, LI Xiaoyang, WANG Tuanhui
    2019, 38 (11):  2778-2789.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181424
    Abstract ( 101 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (8170KB) ( 92 )   Save

    The arid and semi-arid region in northern China is one of the major dust source areas and a major contributor to global dust emissions in the world. The area affected by wind erosion in China accounts for approximately 30% of the national territory, which is a primary contributor to atmospheric dust aerosols in East Asia and frequently transported over long distances to North Pacific Ocean, North America, and even Europe. Dust emissions resulted from wind erosion could generate a large amount of soil organic matter (SOM) and cause nutrient losses. Dust transportation and deposition processes of the wind erosion can redistribute the losses of SOM and nutrient, which can profoundly impact air quality, climate change, plant growth and productivity as well as ecosystem carbon (C) cycling and sequestration in China. However, how dust emissions affect SOM and nutrient losses in this region are poorly understood. In this paper, the WRF/Chem (Weather Research Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) v3.7.1 atmospheric chemical transport model was adopted to simulate the spatio-temporal variations of dust emissions in northern China from 1980 to 2015. The spatio-temporal variations of losses of SOM, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) resulted from wind erosion were calculated by the combination of simulated dust emissions and the spatial distribution of SOM, TN, and TP in the research region. Results showed that: (1) the annual dust emission was around 66.59 Tg (< 20 μm) over the past 40 years in northern China; (2) dust emissions showed large spatial and temporal disparities, and the dust source areas are mainly concentrated in regions such as eastern Xinjiang, the Badain Jaran Desert, and the Tengger Desert; (3) spatial patterns of SOM, TN, and TP losses were consistent with those of dust emission rates over the research region; (4) the annual losses of SOM, TN, and TP due to wind erosion are around 0.07 Tg, 0.004 Tg, and 0.005 Tg, respectively; (5) there were no obvious trends but large inter-annual fluctuations in dust emissions and the losses of SOM, TN, and TP resulted from wind erosion during 1980-2015 at the regional scale. Although numerous impacting factors can cause potential uncertainty in the estimation of SOM and nutrient losses by wind erosion, very little is known concerning the linkages between dust processes and the productivity and biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. Losses of SOM and nutrients by wind erosion should be included in projecting plant growth and ecosystem productivity, especially in dust storm-prone areas. It is critical to reduce the uncertainties in simulating regional biogeochemical cycling. This study is of great significance for the impacts of wind erosion on carbon cycle and nutrient cycling, as well as a deep understanding of the mechanism of land degradation in northern China.

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    Spatial differentiation of ecosystem service values and its geographical detection in Chaohu Basin during 1995-2017
    HUANG Muyi, FANG Bin, YUE Wenze, FENG Shaoru
    2019, 38 (11):  2790-2803.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181075
    Abstract ( 134 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (6258KB) ( 129 )   Save

    Ecosystem service function refers to the natural environment condition and function in the formation and maintenance of the ecosystem and ecological process. In this study, landscape classification maps were acquired from Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI remote sensing images for years of 1995, 2005 and 2017 respectively in the Chaohu Basin. Based on township administrative units in the study area, and the study area was meshed into 2019 quadrates by a range of 3 km by 3 km, and the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of the ecosystem service value (ESV) in the Chaohu Basin were analyzed by using spatial statistics and buffer zone tools. Finally, based on the geographical detector tool, the interaction mechanism of natural, humanistic and socio-economic factors of the temporal-spatial changes of the ESV in the Chaohu Basin was analyzed, and the strategies for the spatial optimization of ESV were proposed in the paper. The major results were shown as follows. Firstly, the ESV of the Chaohu Basin decreased from 30.317 billion yuan in 1995 to 30.095 billion yuan in 2005 and 28.770 billion yuan in 2017, respectively. During the last 20 years, the ESV decreased by 5.11%, with an average annual decline rate of 0.23%. Secondly, the analysis of spatial transfer of ESV in the Chaohu Basin showed that the region of low level ESV was expanding and the regions of medium and high level were shrinking. The buffer zone analysis with the Chaohu Lake as the core showed that when it is far from the Chaohu Lake, the decline trend of ESV decreases, and the ESV in the core buffer zone during the past almost 20 years decreased by 18.55%. The change of ecosystem function in the core area of water environment protection zone of the Chaohu Basin deserves attention. Thirdly, the analysis of geographical detection showed that the human active index(HAI) was the leading factor of spatial differentiation of ESV; the terrain and meteorological factors were the important factors; the interaction of human impact factors, natural factors and social and economic factors jointly affected the spatial differentiation characteristics of ESV in the Chaohu Basin. Under the background of ecological civilization construction, the results of spatial- temporal evolution characteristics and spatial differentiation driving research of ESV can provide theoretical basis for the regulation and optimization of ecosystem in the Chaohu Basin.

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    Research on influencing factors and regulating paths of rural poverty in Hunan province
    TAN Xuelan, AN Yue, WANG Zhenkai, JIANG Lingxiao, CHEN Xiaohong
    2019, 38 (11):  2804-2815.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190274
    Abstract ( 131 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (5874KB) ( 167 )   Save

    Poverty is a social phenomenon characterized by welfare dependence and passes down over generations. Poverty is one of the problems that are currently plaguing the countries of the world, especially the developing countries. As the largest developing country in the world, China has a large rural population. Due to many factors such as natural resources shortage, urban-rural duality and weak regional economic development, China's rural social and economic development has lagged behind the world's rural economy for a long time. It is a challenging task to achieve poverty alleviation and elimination for the wide distribution of impoverished rural population and conspicuous poverty issues in China. In 2013, China put forward the concept of “targeted poverty alleviation”, which opened a new period of the poverty reduction campaign. Different policies and strategies for different types of poverty and poverty-stricken areas should be made so as to promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas, which has become a major urban-rural regional development strategy. And it is also an important strategy to achieve rural revitalization. The studies on poverty are of great significance to improve people's livelihood and promote the social and economic development in poor areas. Taking 51 poverty-stricken counties in Hunan province as examples, entropy method, spatial regression analysis and other methods were comprehensively employed in this research to construct a poverty measurement index system from four aspects of population structure, living conditions, income status and family expenditure. Meanwhile, the spatial differentiation, influencing factors, type division and regulation path of rural poverty were investigated. The results showed that: (1) The spatial distribution of rural poverty in Hunan presents a significant difference. Generally speaking, people with moderate poverty and general poverty are widely distributed, with a small proportion of relative poverty. The poor counties are mainly located in contiguous poverty-stricken areas of Wulin mountain, including Huaihua and Xiangxi. (2) Rural poverty in Hunan results from the interaction between regional natural conditions and external socio-economic factors, which is positively correlated with the average altitude of the county, the area of natural disasters, the total output value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, the rural industrial structure and the income ratio of urban and rural residents, however, it has a negative correlation with the total power of agricultural mechanization and the arable land per capita. (3) The 51 poverty-stricken counties were classified into three major types based on poverty measurement, including single factor leading, double factors driving and multi-factor comprehensive driving. The three major types encompass 14 secondary categories such as P factor leading, P-E factors driving, and P-H-E factors comprehensive driving. Based on this study, different strategies have been put forward to fight against the poverty with regard to different poverty-stricken counties from the aspect of infrastructure construction, culture, education and vocational skills training.

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