Table of Content

    20 October 2020, Volume 39 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Industrial Transformation and Rural Developmen
    Urban and rural element mobility and allocation optimization under the background of rural priority development
    NING Zhizhong, ZHANG Qi
    2020, 39 (10):  2201-2213.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200198
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    With the further implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, China's rural areas have entered a critical stage with priority development. It is of great significance for the implementation of the strategy of agricultural and rural priority development to scientifically understand the law of urban and rural element allocation and guarantee approaches under the guidance of rural priority development. This paper is based on the regional system theory of human-land relationship and the developmental logic with "Element-Structure-Function". The scientific connotation for urban-rural relationship and element priority guarantee under the guidance of rural priority development is analyzed in this study. This paper sorts out the evolution characteristics of urban-rural relationship and element flow in China from three aspects, namely, the evolution of urban-rural relationship affecting element flow, the division of element flow stages and the overall characteristics of element flow. In addition, it builds a regulatory framework of priority guarantee of rural element from the aspects of element integration, spatial integration and mechanism coordination. The results show that rural priority development is an evolution process based on rural elements, optimizing rural structure and realizing rural functions. The development of relations between urban and rural areas in China has initially gone through the preferential development in urban areas, the coordinated development between urban and rural areas as well as the integration development for urban and rural areas. What's more, the rural element allocation generally encounters such problems as less types for flow elements, poor element outflow and inflow, as well as unsound element flow. It aggravates the imbalance of the type, direction, scale and efficiency of element flow between urban and rural areas in urgent need of external intervention and regulation. At the current stage, there is an urgent need to expand the types of mobile elements in rural areas, to enhance their mobility, to strengthen the weak links in infrastructure, to dredge the stock of elements flowing into the city, to expand the channel of elements flowing into the countryside as well as to expand the "gray space" in urban and rural areas. It aims to expand the rural flow element types, to enhance its flow property, to improve urban elements into the country and to make a long-term development environment. In the end, the priority allocation targets of rural elements should be achieved, including rural elements flow, urban elements flow and scarce elements, so as to ensure the priority of agricultural and rural development.

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    Rural settlements functional transformation and spatial restructuring in world heritage sites: Take Tangkou, Zhaixi and Shancha as examples
    YANG Xingzhu, YANG Zhou, ZHU Yue
    2020, 39 (10):  2214-2232.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190902
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    As an important development force, tourism development profoundly changes the socio-economic form and spatial pattern. On the one hand, rural settlements of world heritage sites contain traditional functions (such as residential function, production function, etc.), on the other hand, tourism consumption gives new development vitality to rural settlements. The potential functions such as cultural heritage innovation and leisure tourism are gradually explored. In the process of tourism development, the rural settlements functional transformation and human adaptability to world heritage sites is an important research content, which has important reference value for understanding the directions of rural settlements transformation and promoting the sustainable development of world heritage. Taking Tangkou, Zhaixi and Shancha villages as the research objects, we integrate the method of participatory rural assessment, GIS technology and remote sensing images, in a microscopic research perspective, apply the house function and tourism-live mixed use to analyze the characteristics and patterns of functional transformation and spatial restructuring, and adopt quantitative and qualitative methods (such as factor analysis, questionnaire interview, etc.) to explore the influencing factors and mechanisms in the three villages. The results suggest that the three villages have different characteristics and patterns in functional transformation and spatial restructuring. Tangkou is characterized by functional dissipative transformation and spatial fragmentation, Zhaixi is characterized by functional modular integration and spatial synergistic succession, and Shancha is characterized by functional self-organizational adaptation and spatial nuclear agglomeration. Accordingly, there are three transformational development models: Tangkou belongs to "in-situ growth" model, Zhaixi belongs to "original-place reconstruction" model and Shancha belongs to "Jingcun symbiosis" model. The interaction of internal and external factors is the supporting force, the initiative of multi-stakeholders is the action force and the demand of tourism market is the driving force for the rural settlement functional transformation and spatial restructuring in world heritage sites. This study could promote the coordinated development of tourism and village construction in Tangkou Town, provide a reference for the sustainable development of rural settlements of world heritage, and further enrich the content of rural transformation in tourism destinations.

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    Transformation of rural border tourism destination and its sustainable development path: An ethnographic study of Daluo port area in Yunnan
    GAO Jun, WANG Ling'en, HUANG Qiao
    2020, 39 (10):  2233-2248.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191139
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    Borderlands are margins of nation-states where different social systems meet. Against the backdrop of the Belt and Road Initiative, borderlands are becoming strategic points and forefronts for China's "opening-up". With the deepening of China's opening-up, tourism industry is now considered an important driver for socio-economic development at China's border areas. Drawing on ethnographic fieldworks conducted during the period of 2014-2019, this study identifies the features of rural restructuring in Daluo port area of Yunnan on the China-Myanmar border, and unravels how tourism has affected the transformation of the area. Findings show that along with tourism development, cash crops plantation emerged, which led to significant changes in rural development factors, including the surge of land value, increase of capital, and development of human resources. This saw the decline of traditional self-reliant rice agriculture, and the formation of a market economy dominated by cash crops plantation, supplemented by non-agriculture sectors such as tourism. The border people thus turned to cash crops plantation and non-agriculture sectors for livelihood, which resulted in significant income growth, and their pursuit of modern lives. This, in turn, helped dissolve traditional ethnic boundaries in the area, where all ethnic groups integrated into China's national development. With the emergence of non-traditional security problems, the Chinese state increasingly enhanced its presence at the border, and started to involve the border people in border governance, which reflected that the socio-economic transformation, land use and its spatial pattern changed significantly, including agricultural land for non-food crops cultivation, decrease of ecological space, and conglomeration of town construction land around the port. With the structural changes related to "people-land-industry", geopolitical security function, cultural function, and ecological function of the rural border have become evident, and the rural border developed towards multifunctional countryside. Based on these findings, this study identifies sustainable development paths for rural border tourism destinations. These paths include following the "agriculture +" vision to develop agricultural produces processing sector, rural tourism, and other non-agricultural sectors, supporting border people in borderland governance and development, and protecting the agricultural land and monitoring the ecological environment. This study contributes to the understanding of rural transformation and comprehensive impacts of tourism in China's borderland.

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    Types, spatial pattern and mechanism of cultural stress of rural tourism destination: A case study of Dongshan town in Suzhou
    XU Dong, HUANG Zhenfang, HONG Xueting, LI Dongye, SHEN Weili
    2020, 39 (10):  2249-2267.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191039
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    Under the background of rapid urbanization, the culture of rural tourism destination is increasingly impacted, and the decline of rural culture has become an indisputable fact. Following the development trend of the rural revitalization strategy and integration of culture and tourism in the new era of China, taking Dongshan Town in Suzhou city as an example, we explored the types, spatial pattern and mechanism of cultural stress in rural tourism destinations by using qualitative research and spatial measurement methods. The results show that: (1) the scale of cultural stress of rural tourism destination constructed by the grounded theory and questionnaire survey contains 23 items and 5 dimensions, namely natural landscape culture stress, settlement landscape culture stress, production and living culture stress, interpersonal culture stress and spiritual ritual culture stress. (2) According to the results of GIS spatial analysis, the rural cultural stress space is mostly distributed along the street and water. Traffic jams are the most common stress symptoms in rural areas at the early stage of tourism development. With the development of tourism, the problems which are closely related to the life of local residents, such as water pollution and price rise, are becoming increasingly prominent. Otherwise, the spatial distribution characteristics of the cultural stress in each dimension are quite different. The general space of rural culture stress shows significant agglomeration, among which the production and living culture is most vulnerable to tourism development and shows symptoms of spatial stress. (3) The rural culture stress space has the core-peripheral pattern with multi-core hierarchical distribution, and its spatial agglomeration degree will be significantly improved with the development of tourism. There is a big difference among the spatial agglomeration characteristics of the cultural stress in each dimension. Among them, the settlement landscape cultural stress has the characteristic of large aggregation and small dispersion. (4) Factors affecting cultural stress of rural tourism destination can be identified into the individual and whole levels. The differences in social attributes and conceptual cognition at the individual level, as well as the basic conditions, social development and policy propaganda at the whole level, play a role in the emergence and development of cultural stress in rural tourism destinations.

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    The influence of the policy adjustment on the increase of grain production and farmers' income in restricted development zones
    WANG Liangjian, LIU Zhen, ZHANG Wei, LI Han, LIU Yan
    2020, 39 (10):  2268-2280.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191097
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    Rural revitalization depends on a specific development environment, and policy adjustment has an important external impact on the development of rural areas. With the approval of the State Council, Hunan province has formally implemented the Planning of Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone since the year of 2014, in order to achieve such objectives as ensuring water and ecological security in the Yangtze River Basin, consolidating and enhancing the status of the Dongting Lake as one of the main grain producing areas in China. Making an evaluation on the impact effect of the Planning of Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone has great reference value for balancing rural revitalization and the construction of ecological civilization in restricted development zones.
    In this paper, the approval and implementation of the Planning of Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone in 2014 is taken as a quasi-natural experiment, while the panel data of 87 counties of Hunan province from 2007 to 2017 and difference-in-differences model are used to test the effect of the Rural Revitalization from two perspectives of the income increase of farmers and grain yield increase. The results show that: (1) the implementation of the Planning of Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone can increase both yield and income through generating the structural effect, allocation effect and technical effect. The grain output has increased by 3.82% and the income of farmers has increased by 10.2% after the implementation of the Planning. Moreover, the implementation of the Planning does not have a time-delay effect, which will actually be beneficial to such goals in rural revitalization as industrial prosperity and a better-off life. (2) There is an remarkable increase in production and income of county farmers;nevertheless, as a matter of fact, the effect in county-level cities is not good enough. (3) In comparison with other types of grain crops, the yield of rice has an even more marked increase. (4) The next step is to further optimize and improve the relevant policies on the construction of high standard basic farmland, the increase of agricultural subsidies and ecological compensation, and the cultivation of rural characteristic industries, so as to promote the realization of rural revitalization in restricted development zones.

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    The cluster characteristics and structural model about rural tourism in South Jiangsu
    LI Tao, ZHU He, WANG Zhao, TAO Zhuomin, TAO Hui
    2020, 39 (10):  2281-2294.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190630
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    Rural tourism plays an irreplaceable important role in promoting targeted poverty alleviation, bridging the differences between urban and rural areas, stimulating the rural vitality and solving the issues on agriculture, countryside and farmers. So it is urgent to enhance efficient and intensive development of rural tourism. Under the new background about upgraded consumption environment, rural tourism increasingly becomes sophisticated, personalized, ecological and quality-oriented. At the same time, the tendency of rural tourism is inclined to the places with abundant resources, convenient transportation, high-distinctive space. Agglomeration development of rural tourism has become a significant feature in South Jiangsu. The paper analyzes different business entities about rural tourism and draws a conclusion that rural tourism attractions have a more obvious geographical cluster than festivals, but the differences between regions have been narrowed since 2005. What's more, the regional rural tourism cluster evolution presents a characteristic of dual constraint from the natural environment and the socio-economic performance. In the perspective of natural environment, with increasing distance from the waters and altitude elevation, the scale of rural tourism rapidly decreases and performs the rule of distance attenuation. The overall size of the main business presents a "peak-like" distribution in different dimensions of elevation. In the perspective of socio-economic performance, rural tourism cluster evolution performs a clear social and economic characteristic of the threshold requirement. Specifically, the urban population density of 10,000 people per km2, grade highway density of 1000 meter per km2, tourist spending density of 100,000 yuan per km2, the disposable income density of 3 million yuan per km2 are the optional rural tourism cluster space. Economic and social development, leisure and consumption growth are the fundamental driving force of rural tourism cluster. On the other hand, the evolution of rural tourism spatial structure presents diverse characteristics in South Jiangsu: rural tourism attractions show a multi-node network structure, and rural tourism festivals present dual-core with a satellite structure, while the evolution of rural tourism shows scattered hierarchy structure. Based on the above, in particular, to understand the spatial radiation effects of rural tourism spatial cluster evolution, the paper puts forward the view that rural tourism cluster is to boost the construction of rural tourism and ability and to make breakthroughs in building the holistic tourism destination, which may arouse heated discussions in academic fields.

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    The spatial pattern and underlying factors of exited automobile ventures in China
    XU Ning, LI Xiande, LI Weijiang
    2020, 39 (10):  2295-2312.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200113
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    The global automobile industry has been going through unprecedented and once-a-century changes, which in turn has stimulated new waves of entrepreneurship within the sector. A notable feature of the Chinese automobile industry in recent years is the emergence of new ventures. However, with the decline of automobile sales, many new ventures have exited the market, which generated negative impacts on regional economies. This study uses a detailed firm-level dataset from the "The National Enterprise Credit Information Publicity System" to analyze the spatial pattern of automobile ventures. In particular, it identifies hotspots of new automobile ventures that have ceased to operate with kernel density analysis. Drawing upon the database of "China's Annual Survey of Industrial Firms", this study employs logit regressions to identify underlying factors of exited automobile ventures in China. Specifically, this study finds that: (1) Dynamic entries and exits have been taking place. Areas with more new automobile ventures such as the Yangtze River Delta tend to have more exited firms; exited firms along the coast as well as the Yangtze River tend to be larger. (2) Firms' survival rate varies across regions. "Hotspots" of exited firms include Fuzhou, Yichun, and Ji'an in Jiangxi Province, Yantai in Shandong province, as well as Chizhou and Tongling in Anhui Province. (3) Related variety, which contributes to the generation and diffusion of new "know-how", tends to lower the probability of firm exit, while unrelated variety tends to have the opposite effect. Furthermore, higher levels of relatedness within the sector and larger sizes of the complete automobile industry tend to reduce the probability of firm exit. Higher levels of globalization, which have the potential to bring in new "know-how", tend to be associated with lower probabilities of firm exit. It is also noted that higher levels of dependence on state-owned enterprises as well as lower levels of tax tend to lower the probability of firm exit. Therefore, these results provide further evidence on the importance of industrial policies on firms' survival.

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    Spatial differentiation and influencing factors of China time-honored brand
    MA Binbin, CHEN Xingpeng, CHEN Fangting, CHEN Yanbi, DINGBO Wenpeng
    2020, 39 (10):  2313-2329.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190799
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    The study chooses 1128 China time-honored brand (CTHB) as the research object, and applies the average nearest neighbor index, nuclear density analysis, unbalanced index, spatial auto-correlation analysis and hot spot analysis model. With the help of ArcGIS software, the spatial distribution density, regional differentiation characteristics, equilibrium situation and spatial auto-correlation of time-honored Chinese brand are analyzed. On this basis, the industrial structure characteristics of CTHB are systematically sorted out, and the patterns and characteristics of spatial differentiation are revealed. Finally, the paper reveals the inner influence mechanism by using the methods of geographic contact rate, vector data buffer analysis and correlation analysis. Results showed that: (1) CTHB space differentiation presents an obvious core-edge structure, namely, one high density area, one sub-high density area and multiple high concentrated areas. CTHB has mainly concentrated in the developed economy since modern times, which has a high degree of market opening in northern China, eastern coastal areas, open seaports, provincial capitals, arterial road network cores, and parasitic shaped agglomeration. (2) CTHB is not randomly distributed in space, but presents significant spatial auto-correlation. The distribution of CTHB shows a pattern of "agglomeration and spindle", and the polarization phenomenon is prominent. (3) The cold and hot spots of CTHB show a gradient pattern of "hotspots - sub-hotspots - sub-coldspots - cold spots" from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river plain to the northern and southern China. (4) The distribution of CTHB in wine, medicine and catering services shows a pattern of "regional agglomeration and industrial clustering". The distribution of other CTHB in different regions of the country is characterized by "regional balance and industrial diversification". (5) The spatial differentiation pattern and type structure characteristics of CTHB are the result of the combined effect and interaction of multiple production and consumption factors such as resource endowment and development foundation, regional tradition and social change, economic development and consumption market, as well as cultural tourism and consumption demand. Based on this, this paper puts forward suggestions from the aspects of space management, overall development, optimal allocation of resource elements, inheritance and innovation.

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    Spatial organization evolution of railway passenger transportation in the perspective of "space of flow": A case study of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration
    CHEN Weixiao, LIU Weichen, DUAN Xuejun
    2020, 39 (10):  2330-2344.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190573
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    Explaining the role of modern transport in realizing regional integration from the perspective of "space of flow" can provide scientific support for the interactive development of transport and urban system. Based on this, this paper uses the railway passenger data since 2000, and applies community detection algorithm to analyze the spatial organization of railway passenger transportation of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, in order to provide a new perspective for regional studies represented by transportation, and a guarantee for the study of regional integration through the rational use of railway passenger service. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) We use combo community detection algorithm to divide the railway links of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration into sub-groups, such as the Jinghu Community, the Zhejiang Community, the Wanjiang Community, and the Suzhongbei Community. These communities present different spatial linkage patterns and the main scope and direction of urban passenger rail links are concentrated within the community. (2) In general, the inter-community linkage is lower than the internal linkage of the community. The high internal contact community has a high degree of connection between the external communities. There is a high cross-community relationship between the railway hub cities, which forms a "core-edge" structure that does not depend on the accessibility of the railway. (3) According to the spatial characteristics, communities are divided into the single-core community, dual-core community, multi-core community, and non-core community. Different types of associations may be derived from the same type of community. During the study period, the core continued to decrease, while the higher communication channels continued to develop, connecting the main cities in each community and expanding continuously, but the channels did not match the core cities, and the transfer of core cities may occur. (4) There is a high connection between the cross-community hub cities, and the contact network is transformed from a channel point to a hub point. High-speed rails play an important role in enhancing cross-community communication and its spatial pattern changes from channel orientation to hub orientation. In the future study, it is necessary to analyze the role of different types of trains and trains in different operations. And we should combine the time cost with the number of trains, so as to more truly reflect the spatial process of urban agglomeration railway passenger transport organization.

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    Financial markets and regional industrial evolution
    YANG Bofei, ZHU Shengjun
    2020, 39 (10):  2345-2360.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190267
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    Drawing on the data of Chinese manufacturing firms during 2004-2016 compiled by the Chinese Customs Trade Statistics, this paper explores that how different financial markets improve the development of manufacturing industries through influencing their industrial evolution. Empirical results indicate that the roles of credit markets and equity markets in influencing regional industrial evolution are different. Overall, credit markets can enhance path dependence trend of industrial evolution, while equity markets have a significant effect on enhancing industrial path-breaking development. Moreover, due to the spillover effects of financial markets, not only the local financial markets but also the financial markets in regional central cities can affect local industrial evolution. In eastern China, local financial markets play a more important role in promoting local industrial evolution than financial markets in regional central cities, while in central and western China, local industrial evolution is more affected by financial markets in regional central cities.

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    The spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of economic difference at county level in Fenhe River Basin
    SHI Lijiang, LIU Min, LI Yanping, ZHANG Xiaolong, GAO Feng, LI Wengang
    2020, 39 (10):  2361-2378.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190785
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    Exploring spatio-temporal evolution and the laws of economic differences of river basin can provide a scientific basis for promoting the adjustment and optimization of the spatial structure of river basin economy, making regional coordinated development policies, and promoting the sustainable stability and high-quality development of river basin economy. Based on the combination of mathematical statistics analysis and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), this paper takes county as the basic unit and GDP per capita as the measurement index to study spatial pattern evolution and the influencing factors of county economic differences in the Fenhe River Basin from 1995 to 2016. The results show that the absolute difference of county economy in the basin has shown a trend of rapid rise and then gradual decline, while the relative difference is characterized by the decline of fluctuation after the rise of fluctuation since 1995. The spatial differentiation characteristics of county economy is obvious, and there are distinct spatial and temporal evolutions, which forms the core area of basin economy centered on cities of Taiyuan and Xiaoyi, and the economic edge area is composed of Ningwu, Jingle, Loufan, Lanxian, Fenxi, Wanrong, etc. The "Core-Edge" characteristics of economic spatial structure is significant, and the difference of the economic development level between the core area and the edge area is obvious. From the perspective of spatial correlation, the county economy in the study area has obvious spatial positive correlation, which fluctuates with time. The hot and sub-hot areas of the county economy are mainly concentrated in the middle reaches of the river basin with Taiyuan and Xiaoyi as the center, while the upstream of the basin and the southern part of the downstream become cold and sub-cold areas. The center of gravity of the basin's economic space moves toward the southwest in the direction of the main axis, which is more obvious, and there is a certain degree of expansion in both the main axis and the auxiliary axis. But the expansion process is not the same, which is consistent with the strategy of actively promoting the urban spatial planning system of "One Core, One Circle and Three Groups" in Shanxi Province. Natural conditions and geographical location, regional resource endowment and industrial structure, population and urbanization level, as well as national policies and market environment are important factors that affect the evolution of county economic spatial pattern in the study basin. Among them, the agglomeration of population, the development of urbanization, the improvement of industrialization level and the expansion of market scale play a significant role in promoting the development of county economy, while limitation of terrain and the lack of regional market vitality will restrict and hinder the development of county economy in this region. The analysis results of multiple linear regression model show that the imbalance of population agglomeration and industrial development level are the main factors leading to the expansion of economic differences of county in the Fenhe River Basin.

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    Analyzing geographical characteristics of straw burning in China during 2014-2019
    TU Xinmeng, YANG Xuhong, ZHANG Jingyuan, LUAN Xinchen, NING Kexin
    2020, 39 (10):  2379-2390.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190189
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    Objectively and precisely depicting the spatial distribution characteristics of straw burning is of great significance to scientifically guide the prohibition of straw burning and improve the efficiency of administrative supervision. Based on Satsee-Fire point datasets in China during 2014-2019, natural environment and population-economy data, China's straw fire points database and nature-population-economics database established by terrain, social and economic data, this study used GIS analysis tools and mathematical statistics methods to examine the distribution characteristics of straw burning fire points in China during the 6 years under the influences of 7 factors in 3 aspects including terrain, public transport and the population-economy. The results showed that: (1) straw burning phenomenon concentrated in areas whose elevation was less than 250 m and gradient was less than 8°. And the number of fire points which are located on the north slope or the south slope accounted for 42.65% and 37.36% of the total, respectively. (2) Straw burning presented different spatial characteristics in the forbidden area of airports and railways. The farther away from the airport, the more common the straw burning was. Approximately 60% of the straw burning in the forbidden area of the airports took place 11-15 km away from the airport. However, the distribution of straw burning fire points in the forbidden area of railways were more balanced, and the internal circle was slightly more dense than the external region on the whole. In terms of space, the fire point density increased gradually with the increase of latitude. The number of fire points in the forbidden area of railways in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and the three provinces of Northeast China accounts for 76.88% of the total. (3) Nearly 70% of straw burning occurred in countied with a population density of less than 250 people /km2, while 58.17% occurred in counties with annual GDP less than 10 billion yuan. There was a negative correlation between the phenomenon of straw burning and the population density and GDP level of the county, that is, the larger the population density and the more developed the county economy was, the rarer the phenomenon of straw burning was.

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    Characteristics of human activities and the spatio-temporal changes of national nature reserves in China
    LIU Xiaoman, FU Zhuo, WEN Ruihong, JIN Chuanping, WANG Xuefeng, WANG Chao, XIAO Rulin, HOU Peng
    2020, 39 (10):  2391-2402.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200458
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    Nature reserves are the core area for biodiversity conservation. National nature reserves are the main body of nature reserves in China. According to characteristic of each type of human activity, the patches of different human activities of 446 national nature reserves in 2015 and their change from 2013 to 2015 were interpreted with the aid of GIS and RS. Status of the distribution of human activities and their change are generally analyzed in different functional zones and different regions in China. Also according to different types of human activities, the intensity and characteristics of dynamic change of human activities are evaluated from 2013 to 2015. The results showed that in 2015, there were different kinds of human activities in 446 national nature reserves. Human activities were widely distributed, and agricultural land and residential areas were dominant. The area of the two types covered more than 88.94% of the total of human activities. And the number exceeded 77.67% of the total. In China, 66.59% of national nature reserves had new or expanded human activities from 2013 to 2015, and the amount of human activities increased by 2.45%. Compared with agricultural land and residential areas, the increase trend is more pronounced of the development or construction activities. From 2013 to 2015, the number of national nature reserves where human activities had no change covered 33.41% of the total number of national nature reserves in China, those with little change covered 45.06%, and those with and significant change covered only 21.53%. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the overall human activity in the national nature reserves of eastern China is greater than that of central and western parts of the country. The intensity of human activities in coastal and riverside national nature reserves is relatively strong.

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    Glacier variations in the Himalayas during 1990-2015
    JI Qin, LIU Rui, YANG Taibao
    2020, 39 (10):  2403-2414.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190283
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    Based on the Landsat remote sensing information, visual interpretation and ratio threshold method are adopted to analyze the specific characteristics of the glacier area and changes in the Himalayas from the beginning of 1990 to 2015. The results demonstrated that the glacier area in the study area decreased by 2,553.10 km2 for the past 25 years, with an average annual retreat rate of 0.44%/a. During the study period, the rate of glacier retreat accelerated; some of its glaciers were distributed in the western section, followed by the middle section; the least is the eastern section; the eastern, central, and western sections of the glaciers showed a trend of retreat. The eastern section had the fastest retreat speed, while the central section had the slowest. In terms of the distribution of terrain and the characteristics of changes, most of the glaciers are distributed in the range of 5° to 25°. In recent 25 years, glaciers of all slope grades had shrunk, and the glacier area retreated faster between 25° and 30°, and more slowly in extremely gentle/steep regions. Although all the 8 slopes showed a retreat trend, the extents of retreat were different. The glaciers on the north and northwest slopes retreated relatively slowly, while in the other slope directions, the glaciers shrank relatively quickly. In recent 25 years, both debris-covered and non-covered glaciers retreated, but the latter had retreated greatly, suggesting that the surface debris inhibited the glacier melting in the study area.

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    Spatial and temporal patterns of daytime and nighttime precipitation in China during 1961-2016
    DENG Haijun, GUO Bin, CAO Yongqiang, CHEN Zhongsheng, ZHANG Yuqing, CHEN Xingwei, GAO Lu, CHEN Ying, LIU Meibing
    2020, 39 (10):  2415-2426.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200100
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    There are significant regional differences in precipitation changes in China under global warming during the past half-century. In this study, based on 763 observation stations daytime and nighttime precipitation data to examine the precipitation amounts, precipitation frequency, precipitation intensity, and contribution of daytime and nighttime precipitation to the total precipitation, then to appreciate the spatial and temporal patterns of daytime and nighttime precipitation in China from 1961 to 2016. Results indicated that: (1) There are significant differences between nine river basins of daytime and nighttime precipitation. And the changes patterns can be summarized into four types: daytime and nighttime co-increasing, daytime and nighttime co-decreasing, daytime increasing and nighttime decreasing, and daytime decreasing and nighttime increasing. (2) The change of the total precipitation is closely related to the day and night precipitation. The decrease in daily precipitation in the Huaihe River Basin is due to daytime precipitation decrease (-0.72 mm/a), while the decrease in precipitation in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River Basin is due to the nighttime precipitation decrease (-0.21 mm/a). (3) Daytime and nighttime heavy rain amount is higher than torrential rain in the arid, semi-arid, and semi-humid regions, but in the humid river basin, the torrential rain amount is higher than heavy rain, especially the Pearl River Basin and Southeast River Basins. (4) The contribution of daytime heavy rain, nighttime heavy rain and torrential rain to annual total precipitation exceeds 10%, while the contribution of daytime torrential rain to annual total precipitation is roughly 10%. At the same time, the contribution of daytime and nighttime torrential rain to the annual precipitation is higher than that of daytime and nighttime heavy rain in the humid river basins, while the arid and semi-arid regions demonstrate the opposite. Therefore, the results are helpful to understanding of the impacts of global warming on regional daily precipitation cycles in China.

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