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    10 November 2021, Volume 40 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Eco-economic regionalization of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor
    DONG Suocheng, BOLDANOV Tamir, LI Jingwen, YANG Yang, LI Fujia, XIA Bing, ZHENG Ji, BAZARZHAPOV Tcogto
    2021, 40 (11):  2949-2966.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210152
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    In geographic research, regionalization is an effective measure to understand the regional differentiation of geographical environment and optimize the structure and function of regional man-land system. Based on the existing research, we firstly define the concepts of regional ecological economics, which is a new interdisciplinary subject, as well as the concepts of eco-economic regionalization, and put forward five principles of eco-economic regionalization. Then, it is the first time for us to establish a two-level program to explore the eco-economic regionalization of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, one of the most important economic growth corridors in China, Mongolia, and Russia. We use systematic cluster analysis to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of physical geographical factors such as landforms, precipitation, temperature, and human economic factor such as the intensity of human activities, and firstly divide the 48 regions of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor into six types of eco-economic zones, namely, I. Eastern European Plain eco-economic zone, II. West Siberia Plain eco-economic zone, III. Central Siberia Plateau eco-economic zone, IV. Russian Far East Mountain eco-economic zone, V. Northeast China Plain eco-economic zone, and VI. Mongolian Plateau eco-economic zone. Then, we introduce specific eco-environment factors such as land use type, environmental pollutant emissions, and socio-economic factors such as industrial structure, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, GDP growth rate, and fixed capital investment per capita. We apply entropy to evaluate the eco-environment and socio-economic development of the 48 regions of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, and further divide the six eco-economic zones into 19 eco-economic sub-zones according to the spatial distribution of eco-environment and socio-economic development of the 48 regions. We comparatively analyze the characteristics and the regional differentiation of the eco-environment and socio-economic development of these 19 eco-economic sub-zones, and classify them into three development categories, namely, optimized development zone, key development zone, and conservative development zone. Finally, we put forward targeted suggestions for the green development of each category. This study will provide scientific support for the green and high-quality development of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor.

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    Spatiotemporal pattern and driving forces of typical Russian cities: Based on remote sensing decision fusion and multiple discrete regression model
    LI Yu, MENG Dan, YE Haipeng, ZHANG Ning, ZHENG Ji, LI Fei, DONG Suocheng
    2021, 40 (11):  2967-2985.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210115
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    This study is conducted based on social economic development statistics and multi-source remote sensing image data (high-resolution GF satellites and medium-resolution Landsat satellites, nighttime light), and through decision fusion remote sensing interpretation methods, multiple discrete regression models, barycenter trajectory, fan-shaped analysis methods of urban expansion patterns. It focused on the impervious surface area expansion process of Irkutsk, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018 and explored the coupling effect and driving mechanism of natural environmental changes and socio-economic development of different types of urban expansion. Firstly, there are significant spatiotemporal changes in the expansion of direction, intensity, speed, and mode of different cities. Irkutsk, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg show the development trends of “fast growth-growth-slow growth”, “growth-growth-slow growth” and “slow growth-growth-slow growth” respectively, among which Yekaterinburg has the highest intensity. The development mode of urban new impervious surface area is mainly sprawl and jump expansion, and infill expansion accounts for a small proportion; secondly, the main development directions of impervious surface area in typical cities are different, the characteristics of urban expansion in Irkutsk are from radial direction to south-north direction, Novosibirsk develops from west-east direction to west direction, and Yekaterinburg’s urban expansion features from radial direction development to the southwest direction. The urban development direction is related to its natural, geographical and social factors, among which natural and geographical conditions are the leading factors for the expansion of impervious surface area in the three types of typical cities in Russia. Finally, the article describes the development direction and potential of different types of Russian cities as well as provides a scientific basis for cities of the same type. Irkutsk could utilize abundant resources to develop tourism industry. On account of historical problems, Novosibirsk put forward a higher standard plan for the layout of the internal and external transportation networks of the city. As a relatively developed city in Russia, Yekaterinburg can strengthen its connection with surrounding cities and form a city cluster with linkage effect. This has certain enlightening significance to the development planning of similar cities in northeast China, which includes strengthening the development of compact cities, focusing on the construction of transportation facilities, strengthening the linkage of surrounding cities, and developing tourism industry.

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    Study on the spatial economic linkage and pattern characteristics of the capitals in Siberian and Far East Federal Districts in Russia
    CHU Nanchen, ZHANG Pingyu, WU Xiangli, LI He, YANG Qifeng
    2021, 40 (11):  2986-3001.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210104
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    This paper studied the spatial economic linkage and its pattern characteristics of the Russian Siberian and Far East Federal Districts during 2010-2018. Firstly, the urban economic grade of capitals was evaluated by the economic grade index. Then based on the economic linkage intensity and the economic membership degree, this paper analyzed the economic interaction between any given Russian capitals, any given Russian federal subjects, Siberian-Far East Federal subjects of Russia and provinces of Northeast China. Finally, the spatial patterns of economic grade and economic linkage intensity were performed by using ArcGIS. The results are as follows. First, the growth speed of the capitals′ economic grade from 2010 to 2015 is higher than that from 2015 to 2018. There has been a "fracture" phenomenon in the economic hierarchy of the capitals in Siberian and Far East Federal Districts. Different development levels of the capitals lead to the polarization. Second, the external economic linkage intensity of the capitals had been increasing from 2010 to 2018. The economic linkage intensity of the capitals in Siberian Federal District is stronger than that of Far East Federal District. Spatially, the urban economic grade and urban external linkage intensity show the "High West, but Low East" spatial patterns. The capitals with high economic grade and economic linkage intensity are concentrated in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk and Tomsk in the Siberian Federal District. The capitals with high economic grade and economic linkage intensity are concentrated in Khabarovsk and Vladivostok in the Far East Federal District. Third, as the main economic linkage capitals in Siberian and Far East Federal Districts, Novosibirsk's important economic linkage capitals are Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk, and Khabarovsk's important economic linkage capitals are Vladivostok and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. According to the economic linkage intensity, economic subordination degree, highway traffic distance, and the shortest time distance, this paper respectively proposes the close capitals, sub-close capitals, competitive capitals, and marginal capitals of Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk. Finally, the economic linkage between Russian Siberian-Far East Federal subjects and Chinese northeastern provinces had been increasing from 2010 to 2018. Among them, Primorsky Territory, Khabarovsk Territory and Amur Region had the strongest economic linkage with Chinese provinces. And their economic linkage with Heilongjiang Province is higher than that with Jilin and Liaoning provinces.

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    Regional spatial and temporal variation characteristics of dust in East Asia
    BAO Chunling, YONG Mei, JIN Eerdemutu, BAO Yulong, Tubuxin Bayaer, BAO Yuhai
    2021, 40 (11):  3002-3015.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210335
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    Dusty weather is one of the most common disasters in East Asia. Severe dust storm can not only lead to building collapses, the destruction of vegetation, and human and animal casualties, but also cause fires, air pollution, and other environmental problems, which has a great impact on social and economic activities and the global dust cycle. In recent years, the severe dust storm in the study area has been increasing, which seriously threatens the ecological security and socio-economic development of China and its surrounding areas. In the spring of 2021, the strongest dust event seen in the past decade occurred in northern China, which attracted wide attention from the departments concerned. However, there is relatively little research on dusty weather in East Asia from the perspective of the regional characteristics of long time series. In this paper, using data from 697 meteorological stations that recorded dusty weather in East Asia for the period from 1981 to 2019, we examined the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of dust frequency in East Asian. The results indicate that (1) spatially, East Asian dust is concentrated in the inland arid area, such as Mongolia and Northwest China. The weak dust weather is frequent in three regions— Mongolia Gobi Desert, Taklimakan Desert, and Badan Jaran Desert; while severe dust storms are frequent in two regions—northwest Mongolia and Mongolia Gobi Desert. (2) Temporally, East Asian dusty weather is concentrated in spring (March to May). Dusty weather is most frequent in March in the north of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at lower latitudes, in April in most parts of northern China at middle latitudes, and in May in eastern Kazakhstan and Mongolia at higher latitudes. (3) In the past 40 years, the dusty weather in East Asia showed a decreasing trend, especially since the effective implementation of many ecological projects after 2000, the number of dusty weather events in most parts of northern China has decreased significantly, but in the central and western parts of Inner Mongolia severe dust storm showed an increasing rend in recent years. In areas with fragile ecological environment, such as Mongolia and Taklimakan Desert, both weak and severe dust storms showed an increasing trend. This study is of great significance for understanding characteristics of dust distribution and preventing dust disasters in East Asia.

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    Sensitivity of vegetation responses to drought in Mongolia
    LV Zhentao, LI Shengyu, PENG Zhongmin, FAN Jinglong, LIU Guojun, WANG Haifeng, MENG Xiaoyu
    2021, 40 (11):  3016-3028.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210105
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    The lack of precipitation can affect vegetation growth, human’s lives and the economic and social development. In arid areas, drought is one of the natural conditions that affect the eco-environment and socio-economy. Based on the correlation between Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the vegetation indexes, the sensitivity of vegetation in different regions and land cover types to drought in Mongolia was studied, and the causes were discussed. The results show that (1) Although there had been three drought events in Mongolia from 2001 to 2019, the overall drought degree showed a slight decreasing trend, and SPEI slightly increased, with an overall growth rate of 0.001%/a. Vegetation growth improved, and vegetation index also showed an upward trend, with an overall growth rate of 0.15%/a. (2) In most parts of Mongolia, the vegetation indexes were significantly positively correlated with SPEI. However, in the regions with abundant precipitation such as the north of the Khangai Mountains and Kent Mountains and the regions with very little precipitation such as the south of the Altay Mountains, the correlation between vegetation indexes and SPEI was small. This means that drought has less impact on vegetation in these areas. (3) The sensitivity of different vegetations to drought is also different. And the sensitivity of grassland was the strongest, while that of forest was the weakest. In terms of season, steppe and desert-steppe transition zone are most sensitive to spring and autumn drought, meadow steppe and mid-latitude forest are most sensitive to summer drought, and high-latitude forest is most sensitive to spring and winter drought. (4) In essence, the sensitivity of vegetation to drought represents the regional water balance. The higher the annual mean temperature or the lower the precipitation, the sensitivity and response of vegetation to drought, and vice versa. Water balance is the key condition that affects the sensitivity of vegetation to drought response. Annual mean temperature has positive effects on on the sensitivity of vegetation to drought response, while precipitation has negative ones. Vegetation types have different sensitivity to drought at different time scales and in different months. The results have an important reference value for desertification control in Mongolia according to local conditions.

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    The phenological characteristics of Mongolian vegetation and its response to geographical elements
    SHAO Yating, WANG Juanle, YAN Xinrong
    2021, 40 (11):  3029-3043.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210139
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    The Mongolian Plateau is an important ecological barrier in northern China. Under the background of global climate change, the study of vegetation phenological change characteristics in Mongolia is not only the requirement of healthy development of grassland ecosystem in the country, but also the strategic need of sustainable development of local animal husbandry. In this study, asymmetric Gaussian fitting method was used to suit the MOD13Q1-NDVI data of Mongolia from 2001 to 2019, and obtain relatively smooth NDVI time series data. Based on TIMESAT platform, dynamic threshold method was used to analyze NDVI time series to obtain results of start of growing season (SOS), end of growing season (EOS) and length of growing season (LOS). The study analyzed the spatial distribution of vegetation phenology in Mongolia and the inter-annual variation trend, and the result shows that the SOS was mainly concentrated in 110-150 d, with a weak delay trend, and the EOS was mainly found in 270-310 d, with an advance trend, which leads to a shortening trend of LOS, and the shortening time can be up to more than 2 d. Finally, partial correlation analysis was used to examine the response of vegetation phenology to topography, precipitation, surface temperature and other geographical factors. The results show that the vegetation phenology in Mongolia has obvious spatial heterogeneity and altitude dependence. The SOS of Mongolian vegetation as a whole was mainly advanced with the increase of altitude, while the EOS was firstly delayed, then advanced, and then delayed with the increase of altitude. The correlation between vegetation phenology of different types and land surface temperature (LST) is different in Mongolia. The EOS of Mongolian vegetation is influenced more by nighttime surface temperature (NLST) than by daytime surface temperature (DLST). There was no significant negative correlation between LOS and average ground temperature from March to October, that is, with the increase of temperature, the length of vegetation growing season was shortened. The SOS of Mongolian vegetation is positively correlated with the average precipitation in March and the EOS is positively correlated with the average precipitation in September. Vegetation LOS was negatively correlated with average annual precipitation and average precipitation from March to October. The research shows that the SOS and EOS of desert steppe are sensitive to the changes of precipitation and surface temperature, and the growth season of desert steppe is the longest.

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    Investment environment assessment and investment strategy for provincial administrative units in Mongolia
    LIU Qian, LI Fujia, ZHUANG Yan, CHENG Hao, QI Xiaoming, YANG Yang, JI Mengchen
    2021, 40 (11):  3046-3062.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210157
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    Mongolia is one of China's neighboring countries. The trade offers the potential for greater cooperation between the two countries. Chinese investors should choose the best location and industry for Mongolian investment, which has great strategic significance to promote the construction of China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor. However, there have been relatively few studies on the investment environment and risk in Mongolia, which restricts investment and trade cooperation between China and Mongolia. This research used Mongolia’s 22 provincial-level administrative units as the research area. Based on the data obtained from field investigations in the country, the investment environment evaluation index system was established to evaluate the investment environment at the provincial level and conduct investment environment zoning. It is divided into priority investment zone, potential investment zone, general investment zone and venture investment zone. Among them, Ulaanbaatar City, East Gobi, and Selenga belong to the priority investment areas. These areas have a good economic and social environment, abundant resource endowments, and an open investment environment, making them the most attractive areas for investment. On this basis, this research has identified the key industries and the risks for China's investment in Mongolia. For all investment areas in Mongolia, protecting the ecological environment is the primary condition for investment. It is important to prevent vegetation degradation, desertification, dust storms and tundra disasters in the investment process. After evaluating the investment environment of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, this research puts forward countermeasures and suggestions for optimizing the investment environment of Mongolia, including orderly advancement in regions, focusing on investment in priority investment areas in the near future; optimizing investment industries, focusing on strategic investment; government promotion, enterprise operation, establishing a national-level investment cooperation promotion mechanism, expanding consensus, and reducing social risks. The results of this study will provide scientific support for Mongolia's key investment location selection, overseas deployment of Chinese-funded enterprises, and China-Mongolia bilateral economic and trade cooperation, and will have practical significance for the construction of the Economic Corridor.

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    Distribution of arable land resources and cooperation policies in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor
    LI Fei, ZHANG Ke, DONG Suocheng, LI Zehong
    2021, 40 (11):  3063-3072.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210118
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    The cooperation of arable land resources in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor is of great significance to the joint construction of “the Belt and Road” and the promotion of the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era. Based on remote sensing, field surveys, statistical analyses and other methods, this study comprehensively revealed the distribution pattern of arable land resources in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, analyzed the main constraints on the development and utilization of arable land resources in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, explored the main problems of China's cooperative development of foreign arable land, and proposed measures and suggestions for the cooperation of arable land resources in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor. It is shown that arable land resources are abundant in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, mainly concentrated in the basins of the Moskva river, the Volga river, the Ob River, the Yenisei river, the Amur river, and the Baikal basin in Russia. The key pilot demonstration areas include Altai Krai, Amur Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Primorye Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Republic of Buryatia, and so on. The proportion of high-yield arable land in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor is not high. The arable land area and high-yield arable land area in the Russian part of the China- Mongolia- Russia economic corridor account for about 60% and 74% of that in the whole economic corridor, respectively. The unused arable land area in the Russian part of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor accounts for nearly one-half of that in Russia, with huge land development potential, which is about 95% of the unused arable land area of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor. China-Russia agricultural cooperation is a mutually significant win-win move between both sides. In the future, great attention should be paid to the cooperation of cultivated land resources in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, and the experiences of Japan, South Korea and other countries should be used to promote the development of China-Mongolia-Russia cooperation in arable land resources and agriculture. China and Russia could innovate the cooperation models of arable land resources, strengthen the construction of the China-Russia agricultural free trade zone, and try to build a China-Russia cooperation innovation demonstration zone. Moreover, both sides could strengthen and upgrade the agricultural product logistics and trade channels of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, and improve the facilitation level of international cooperation in arable land resources. These would be used as the key direction of China-Russia comprehensive cooperation.

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    The pattern and driving factors of land use change in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor
    LI Jingwen, DONG Suocheng, LI Yu, YANG Yang, BOLDANOV Tamir
    2021, 40 (11):  3073-3091.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210860
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    The China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor has a significant strategic position. Based on global land cover remote sensing data and field investigations, this paper studied the land use pattern, driving factors and spatio-temporal changes of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor from 1992 to 2019 since the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the privatization policy of Mongolia. The results showed that: (1) From 1992 to 2019, the land use change of China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor was active, and the converted land area was 361953 km2, which was mainly manifested by the continuous decline of forest land and the rapid expansion of construction land and cultivated land. (2) The forest land in China decreased at first and then increased. After 2000, the forest in the north part of Northeast China Plain increased significantly. The area of shrubland and grassland, and bare land in China decreased by 13325 km2 and 16632 km2, respectively. The shrubland and grassland in Mongolia decreased at first and then increased, and the bare land increased at first and then decreased. The turning point was the year 2000. And the bare land in the border area of provinces of Sukhbaatar, Khentii, Dornogovi and Govi-Altai increased significantly. The area of forest land in Russia continued to decline, with a total decrease of 46742 km2 and the cultivated land increased by 8478 km2, and the bare land around Lake Baikal increased by 41417 km2. There was a risk of desertification in the Russian-Mongolian border, Selenge River Basin and areas along the China-Mongolia-Russia railway. (3) Population, economy, industrial structure and policy were the main factors of land use change in China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor. From 2010 to 2018, the population density had the greatest influence on the land converted to forest land, and the explanatory power of q value was 0.2597. The total GDP had the greatest influence on the conversion to construction land, bare land and cultivated land, and their explanatory power of q value was 0.9094, 0.2234 and 0.5518, respectively. China was mainly affected by demographic and economic factors and the policy of returning farmland to forest land. Mongolia was affected by overgrazing and cultivated land expansion after privatization. Russia was mainly affected by deforestation and cultivated land reclamation. The results can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization and management of land resources in the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor.

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    Characteristics of wind and sand flows in the Mongolian section of the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor
    CUI Kejun, LI Shengyu, FAN Jinglong, WANG Haifeng, MENG Xiaoyu, MIAO Jiamin, LV Zhentao
    2021, 40 (11):  3092-3102.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210416
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    Mongolia is the main route area of China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor. Since 1990, the degradation of ecosystems has posed a severe challenge to Mongolia, especially the grasslands are seriously degraded, and the desertified grasslands reach one third of the total area of the country. Mongolia will have more economic construction activities in its desertified grassland area in the future, and wind and sand disaster control will be one of the major tasks. The China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor crosses the main substratum ecotype landscape areas of Mongolia. In this paper, the wind erosion desertification area along the north-south longitudinal railroad in Mongolia is used as the target area for the study of wind and sand flow in four observation areas along the line, namely, Darkhan, Choir, Sayinshanda and Zamyn-Uud. Results show that: (1) The horizontal sand transport of wind and sand flow both decrease with increasing height, and the most suitable fitting functions for both vary with the subsurface, with Darkhan and Choir being exponential functions, while Sayinshanda and Zamyn-Uud are power function. (2) The spatial distribution of annual sand transport flux is not the same for each observation area, with the largest in Choir, followed by Darkhan, Zamyn-Uud, and the smallest in Sainshanda, which is different from the traditional perception. (3) The spatial distribution of sand transport fluxes from wind and sand streams is related to a variety of influencing factors. Choir has a high frequency of spring droughts because of the influence of the tail-end ocean currents, which coincides with the season of frequent strong winds, high wind speeds and severe wind erosion; other areas have relatively low frequency of spring droughts, among which, Darkhan is located in the northern valley area with better natural conditions, but wind erosion is stronger due to agricultural land reclamation and overgrazing, while in Zamyn-Uud and Sayinshanda, the winds in the windy season are relatively weak and the grazing intensity is low, so the wind erosion is light. The findings of this paper have important reference value for Mongolia to take targeted measures in wind and sand disaster and desertification control according to local conditions, and may also provide supporting evidence for the drastic changes of desertification.

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    Theoretical contexts and a methodological framework for understanding global cultural shift: Implications for China′s transnational cultural practices
    QIAN Junxi, AN Ning
    2021, 40 (11):  3103-3117.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201235
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    Nowadays profound changes unseen in a century are evolving rapidly in the world. Accordingly, the socio-spatial patterns of cultural processes at global scales have also been radically altered. This paper outlines the spatial processes and patterns of what we call the “global cultural shift”. We use this term to refer to a spatial dialectic, namely the ways in which uneven, heterogeneous spatial outcomes have been produced under a total, universal process of intensifying mobilities and spatial connections at the global scale. We argue that amidst these uneven spatialities the visions and assumptions of a global culture based on capitalist modernity, individualism and consumerism originating from the West are being cast into doubt and challenged by emerging cultural trends that are at odds with the once celebrated cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism. This study delineates the emerging spatialities of cultural changes and contestations by drawing on the world system theory developed by Wallerstein. In the center of the world system, the global division of labor has effectuated cultural backlashes, as the pursuit for the spatial fix of capital has resulted in the disempowerment of the working class within the West. Uneven development has also catalyzed flows of transnational immigration, which has fueled rampant aversion to immigrants. Emerging economies on the semi-periphery, in a different vein, not only compete with the West in terms of political and economic interests but also the need to defend the alternative modernities that they envisage and the sociopolitical models that they aspire to uphold. This trend relativises the universalism of Western modernity but also leads to heightened ideological and political competition between emerging power and the Western bloc. In the periphery of the world system, there is rampant pessimism with capitalist development, advocacy for post-development politics, and increasing suspicion both with established and the emerging powers. Based on the Actor Network Theory, this paper proposes a translation model of cultural practices to illustrate a methodological approach for understanding the ways in which cultures are dis-embedded from their original actor networks, “travel” to other contexts, and become re-embedded in the actor networks in the destinations. Finally, we draw on the theoretical contexts outlined and the methodological model to reflect on a series of opportunities and challenged faced by China’s transnational cultural practices.

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    The evolution of geo-relation network in countries around the Asian Water Tower based on cooperation and conflict perspectives
    ZHAI Chenyang, DU Debin, HOU Chunguang, DUAN Dezhong, GUI Qinchang
    2021, 40 (11):  3118-3136.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201159
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    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas are the birthplaces of many international rivers in Asia, so it is also known as the Asian Water Tower. As a result of global warming, the hydrologic characteristics of international rivers within this area have changed. This change intensified the tension of regional geo-relation, and the development of geo-relation in countries around the Asian Water Tower arouses more and more attention. Based on the GDELT database, this paper examines the evolution of the geo-relation network in the countries around the Asian Water Tower from 1992 to 2018 based on cooperation and conflict perspectives. The results show that: (1) In the study period, the level of cooperation and conflict of countries around the Asian Water Tower increased dramatically, and the situation in the study area is characterized by cooperation rather than by conflict. The density of the geo-relation network increased obviously and the network structure tended to be balanced. (2) From the characteristics of the network of geo-relation, China tends to have more cooperation with its surrounding countries, and it works as a radial center in the connection. Pakistan is at the heart of the conflict network. The key areas of conflict are shifting from Indo-China Peninsula to South Asia. And the polarization of cooperation and conflict in the region is prominent. (3) From the perspective of cooperation and conflict, most of the relations among the countries are symmetrical in the geo-relation model, which means that the reciprocal response among the countries is obvious. And the evolution of the geo-relation model also shows certain space-time inertia. China has long been closely cooperated with many countries around the Asian Water Tower and plays an important role in promoting the development of a regional geo-relation cooperation network. (4) The evolution of the geo-relation network of the countries in the Asian Water Tower is affected by many factors. The changes of international trade pattern and geopolitical environment, the increasing strategic importance of water resources, and the potential role of geo-cultural factors have jointly promoted the evolution of the geo-relation network of countries in the Asian Water Tower.

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    A comparative study on the driving factors and spatial spillover effects of economic growth across different regions of China
    YAN Dongsheng, WANG Yue, SUN Wei, LI Pingxing
    2021, 40 (11):  3137-3153.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200740
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    During the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025), enhancing the radiation role of central cities and urban clusters will be an important measure to promote coordinated regional development. In this context, accurately exploring the driving factors of economic growth and spatial spillover effects is significantly important to understand relationships among cities and promote balanced regional development. Taking the Yangtze River Delta and Guangdong province as examples, we utilized the imbalance index and geographic concentration to explore the spatio-temporal evolution of the economic pattern, and compared the driving factors and spatial spillover effects of economic growth based on the spatial econometric model. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the steady economic growth, the evolutions of the economic pattern of both study areas have presented differentiated characteristics, but the “core-edge” pattern of economic distribution showed strong stability. (2) The spatial econometric model results showed that there were significant differences in the driving factors of economic growth across different regions. Both study areas had significant positive spatial spillover effects of economic growth, but the spatial spillover effect in the Yangtze River Delta was stronger. (3) Further decomposition and comparison showed that there were differences in the driving factors of economic growth across different regions and periods in the study areas. The spatial spillover effects of both study areas’ economic growth were higher in 2009-2017 compared with 2000-2008, and the spatial spillover effects of the core area were higher than those of the marginal area. The spatial spillover effects based on the change of geographic distance presented an “inverted U” trend, and the distance with the strongest spatial spillover effect in the Yangtze River Delta was significantly greater than that in Guangdong province, but the latter had a higher maximum spillover effect. This research provides an empirical reference for understanding the relationship of cities. It also tries to provide a theoretical basis for formulating scientific policies in order to promote integrated development and narrow regional development gaps. The results in this paper may offer a forward-looking reference for the integrated development of other urban agglomerations, and reasonably guide the expansion of urban agglomerations.

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    Comparison of the spatial distribution and location selection of producer services and manufacturing in Lanzhou from the perspective of relevance
    GONG Weimin, ZHANG Zhibin, GAO Feng, LI Ruihong, MA Xiaomei
    2021, 40 (11):  3154-3172.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201119
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    In this study, the spatial distribution and patterns associated with the producer services and manufacturing in Lanzhou were examined based on the microbusiness data from the perspective of relevance. Subsequently, the differences were discussed in terms of the factors that affect the selection of location. The findings are as follows. The spatial distribution of the producer services and manufacturing exhibits a ‘downtown periphery’ pattern; the former is concentrated in the downtown valley, whereas the latter is concentrated in the suburban areas. They are spatially connected yet separated. The factors that affect the location selection of the producer services and manufacturing sub-sectors conform to the overall characteristics of the two types of industries, but there are also certain differences between industries. The producer services distributed in the downtown area, national new districts in the suburban area and satellite towns indicate a ‘compact downtown’ pattern, whereas the manufacturing distributed in the national new districts and industrial parks exhibits a ‘discrete suburb’ pattern. The locations of the enterprises in the producer services and manufacturing are decided by weighing the industrial environment and investment factors. The companies that provide producer services have a stronger preference for spatial agglomeration than the companies in the manufacturing. They attach greater importance to the economic benefits generated owing to economic conglomeration. In contrast, manufacturing enterprises focus more on the terrain conditions, resources, suburban space distribution and favourable policies for development zones as well as new national districts. Generally, the producer service providers focus more on the overall development of the region, whereas the manufacturers place high value on industrial policies and infrastructural facilities. The factors that affect the locations of the companies in the producer services and manufacturing are dependent on the general features of these industries. Within the producer services, traditional enterprises are more subject to the local economy and resources when selecting locations. However, modern and high-end enterprises focus more on local economic conditions and policies. In the manufacturing industry, the labour-intensive businesses prefer locations with favourable geographical conditions, abundant labour resources and convenient transportation conditions, the capital-intensive enterprises that enjoy favourable industrial policies prefer the development zones and new districts and the technology-intensive enterprises value the agglomeration effects and an innovative environment because they are less constrained by costs.

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    Relationship between city size distribution and air quality: A cross-country study based on LandScan data
    WANG Yu, SUN Bindong, LI Wan
    2021, 40 (11):  3173-3190.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201115
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    There is controversy in both theory and empirical evidence as to which city size distribution is conducive to green economic development. Although some studies have focused on this topic, few of them are based on the cross-country scope. Using LandScan population data and global Land Cover Map from 2000 to 2015, we identify all cities in nearly 100 countries with uniform measurement criteria. The descriptive statistics and two-way panel fixed effects models are adopted to explore the impact of city size distribution on PM2.5 concentrations. We carry out a series of robustness tests to ensure the reliability of our research. The robustness tests consist of the following four steps. First of all, we adopted a two stage least squares regression with instrumental variables to address the potential endogeneity of the model. Secondly, we excluded African countries around the Sahara Desert from the city sample. Thirdly, we used only the upper tail cities to calculate the Pareto index. Finally, we applied a different PM2.5 concentration calculation method in the model. The results suggest that overall a balanced city size distribution can reduce the PM2.5 concentrations in a country, while a polarised city size distribution exacerbates environmental pollution at the national scale. To begin with, a balanced city size distribution is conducive to promoting the division of labor and cooperation among cities, which can reduce air pollution by improving production efficiency. Also, a balanced city size distribution can decrease the total amount of commuting and thus PM2.5 concentrations will reduce. However, heterogeneity can be found in counties. In countries with higher population densities or stronger government intervention, a balanced city size distribution is conducive to reducing national PM2.5 concentrations. Conversely, a relatively polarised city size distribution is more conducive to the reduction of national PM2.5 concentrations for countries with higher population densities or stronger government intervention. These research findings will fill the gap on the topic of the effect of city size distribution on PM2.5 concentrations in cross-national level and have important implications for formulating a sustainable urban spatial plan.

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    Spatio-temporal change in vegetation patterns and its climatic drivers in the core region of Three Parallel Rivers in southeast Tibet
    WANG Chunya, WANG Jinniu, CUI Xia, WEI Yanqiang, SUN Jian, NIYATI Naudiyal, DU Wentao, CHEN Qingtao
    2021, 40 (11):  3191-3207.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201123
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    The influence of climate and other environmental factors on growth and distribution of vegetation is a key concern amongst ecological researchers today. Based on MODIS NDVI (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data from 2000 to 2016 in the core region of the Three Parallel Rivers in southeast Tibet, this study integrated meteorological data, vegetation type data of ESA CCI-LC (The European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Land Cover), and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) elevation data to figure out the spatio-temporal dynamics of NDVI, and analyzed their response to climate drivers by using Sen+Mann-Kendall analysis methods. The results indicated that, during 2000-2016, the vegetation cover in the study area was basically stable, showing a slow increase trend, and the spatial heterogeneity of different vegetation types was observed. The results of vegetation variation trend showed that vegetation coverage in this area was mainly stable (47.92%) and improved (30.93%), i.e. the overall regional vegetation showed a trend of stability and improvement. In addition, we can see a significant increase of temperature in the study area but no obvious precipitation changes in term of time scales. The correlation analysis demonstrated the spatial pattern of NDVI was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation, while the correlation with temperature is stronger than that with precipitation. Combined with the variation trend and partial correlation analysis results of vegetation and climate factors, it can be concluded that the slow inter-annual growth of NDVI is mainly caused by the increase of annual average temperature. Furthermore, the duality of human activities on vegetation was reflected in the combined influence of ecological projects such as 'Green for Grain' and establishment of small townships across the study area creates a mosaic of improved or degraded vegetation across the study area. The results show that air temperature is the main climatic factor affecting the vegetation pattern. Understanding the spatial variability of vegetation change and its driving factors is especially important to strengthen existing measures for biodiversity protection and regional ecological conservation in the study area, and the results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the eco-environmental protection of mountain vegetation.

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    Structural characteristics and influencing factors of summer tourism flow network in Guizhou province
    LI Lei, TAO Zhuomin, LU Lin, SUN Xiaolong, LIU Honglan
    2021, 40 (11):  3208-3224.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201144
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    Climate and environment have a great influence on human health, and climate comfort is an important factor in tourists' mobility behavior. Under global warming and the increasing effect of urban heat islands, travel to the cool areas has become a major choice for more and more tourists in summer holidays. Guizhou province is located on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. It is one of the coolest areas in summer and one of China's favorite summer tourist destinations. The number of summer tourists in Guizhou has grown rapidly in the past few years, but previous studies have not been carried out on the characteristics and influencing factors of the summer tourism flow network in the province. This paper, based on long-term investigations of the summer tourism phenomena in the study area, obtained 2177 valid summer tourism flow route data from 2015 to 2019. Then, we use complex network analysis, spatial analysis (GIS), quadratic assignment procedure (QAP), and other methods to study the summer tourism flow network's structural characteristics and influencing factors. The results are as follows: (1) Summer tourism flow network presents characteristics of large scale, low density, obvious agglomeration and imperfect development, and a structure of significant "core-periphery". The core cities and scenic spots are distributed in a "plates" and "point axis" pattern, and tourism flow routes have the structural characteristics of "base camp" and "trip chaining." (2) The transportation city and core scenic spots are the centers of summer tourism flow. Guiyang is the most important node city in the network, with outstanding advantages and irreplaceable status in the overall network. In terms of spatial distribution, summer tourism cities and scenic spots form a "▽"-shaped network of Guiyang & Anshun-Libo-Kaili & Zhenyuan. (3) The spatial distribution of summer tourism flow is affected by climate comfort, spatial proximity, tourism resource endowment, reception service capacity and transportation convenience, but urban economic development has no significant impact on it. Finally, this paper provides countermeasures and suggestions for the high-quality development of summer tourism in Guizhou from aspects of coordinated regional tourism development, tourism statistical data reform, and network space structure optimization.

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    Characteristics and influencing factors of intercity travel during the May Day holiday under the influence of the COVID-19 outbreak in China
    LI Tao, LI Yu, DAI Liang, WANG Jiaoe
    2021, 40 (11):  3225-3241.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201279
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    Evaluation of the impact of the public health emergencies on intercity travel during holidays is of great significance for scientifically preventing the spread of the epidemic and ensuring the safety of intercity travel. Intercity travel data obtained by the Baidu migration platform is available to systematically explore the changes of time series, patterns and characteristics of the travel flows of the intercity travel during the May Day holiday under the influence of the COVID-19 epidemic. The formation mechanism of intercity travel under the background of the superposition of epidemics and holidays is revealed based on the spatial econometric models. The results are as follows: Affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, the scale of intercity travel during the May Day holiday in 2020 dropped by 46.0% compared with 2019. The fluctuation of intercity travel in the study period is mainly characterized by the fluctuation within the province, and the pattern of interprovincial intercity travel is generally stable. The region most seriously affected by the epidemic is northeast China, followed by the eastern and central China, and the last is western China. The COVID-19 epidemic significantly restricted the intercity travel during the May Day holiday. Compared with normal years (the same period of 2015), nearly 70% of the holiday intercity travel routines are limited within a range of 400 km, and 70% of the routines are concentrated within 250 km affected by the epidemic. Urban attractive factors such as GDP, urbanization rate, administrative level, and traffic connectivity variables such as highway density, connectivity of high-speed rail and aviation are the main factors affecting intercity travel during the May Day holiday period. However, the impact of each variable on intercity travel has temporal heterogeneity during different periods in holiday. Highway density and high-speed rail have a significant positive effect. The urban rate has a significant negative effect on intercity travel during the leaving period of the holiday, but a positive effect on it during the return period. The richness of tourism resources is only significant during the leaving period. Finally, this paper summarizes the formation mechanism of holiday intercity travel under the influence of the pandemic.

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    Romantic geography: Exploring the sublime landscape in the interaction between human nature and the earth
    GUO Wen
    2021, 40 (11):  3242-3252.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210154
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    Romanticism is a word with profound history, multiple definitions, rich connotation and broad boundary practice. It is generally believed that the connotation of romanticism has distinct unity. The ideas usually associated with it are the consciousness of uniqueness, profound emotional introspection, and the consciousness of differences between things. The discussion of romanticism is reflected in many fields of knowledge. However, in daily life and geographical practice, people rarely put "romance" and "geography" together. It seems that there is a contradiction between the two words, which should not be the original intention of the production and development of geographical knowledge.
    Based on the text analysis method and centered on Romantic Geography by Yi-Fu Tuan, this paper makes an academic investigation from five aspects of "polarized values", "earth and its natural environment", "rich and beautiful but plain", "city" and "human beings", and holds that the core of romantic geography is a search beyond the secular world, which is the dialectical integration and practice of romanticism and geography. Romantic geography is not only an important new discourse representation in geographical thought, but also a valuable geographical spirit.
    The knowledge search of contemporary geography has become more and more refined, which highlights that geographers pay more and more attention to a very limited "circle" in knowledge production. Maps, materials, descriptions and analysis exist everywhere, but there is no heroic act or assiduous pursuit. As a subject describing the relationship between man and earth and space science, geography needs the intervention of romanticism. Romantic geography's admiration for energy and enthusiasm for morality can stimulate people to seek up and down, which is conducive to the value guidance of human space practice. As a praise of human spirit, it can sublimate people's spirit. In China's response to globalization and glocalization of space production, the theory and practice of contemporary geography should not be limited to the knowledge category of seemingly "home economics", but should explore the noble and outstanding landscape in the interaction between human nature and the earth in the process of value translation and transcendence of polarization, and focus on the value pursuit advocated by romantic geography. "Exploring" spirit and beautiful "possibility" has become the moral concept and practical direction advocated by geography. Returning a romance to geography may be a difficult process, but it is a topic that should not be avoided.

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