Railway passenger transport spatial contacts and their structure Tupu of central cities in China
Haijiang WANG1,2,3, Changhong MIAO2,3
1. School of Surveying & Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China
2. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
3. College of Environment & Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
On the basis of current interactive connection of railway passenger transport between 286 central cities in China and the analysis of different passenger train types-local, rapid, express, multiple units and high-speed railway, the paper intends to comprehensively deconstruct the spatial pattern of national railway passenger transport and its structure characteristics by using GIS methods based on O-D contact network, whose goal is to reveal the national railway passenger spatial contacts, distribution regularity and regional difference more clearly and profoundly, as well as new technical ideas and more data for transportation spatial connect research by means of making use of central cities' interactive connection data of "city-train-city" and overcoming the problem that traditional railway connection only has the information between origination and destination and lacks that of the intermediate stations. The results show that the spatial framework of national railway passenger transport between central cities presents an eastward tilted “kai” font shape, which mainly consists of two vertical train lines: Beijing-Shanghai to Shanghai-Shenzhen, Beijing-Guangzhou to Beijing-Harbin, and two horizontal lines: Lanzhou-Lianyungang to Lanzhou-Urumqi and Shanghai-Kunming. The linkage of national railway passenger transport between central cities is characterized by Rank-Size distribution, which belongs to the most optimal centralized distribution in natural state. The connection of national railway passenger transport between central cities generally relies on important transport axis and neighbor core cities. This study clearly demonstrates the major contact directions and corresponding intensities between inter and outer railway transports in a given subdivision types of train number. The study shows that the rapid train dominates the current railway passenger transport in China. The rapid development of the multiple units and high-speed railway technology has greatly changed the structure of Chinese railway passenger transport. The contacts of multiple units and high-speed railways concentrate in three economic regions of eastern China. However, there is a tighter linkage between Beijing and Shanghai, as well as Beijing and Guangzhou compared with that between Shanghai and Guangzhou (Shenzhen). A relative weak contact between Shanghai and Guangzhou (Shenzhen) is attributed to the infrastructure of high-speed railway facilities lagging behind.
central city of China; railway passenger transport; spatial contact; spatial structure
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Geographical study on passenger traffic focuses mainly on its generation, growth and distribution. This paper discusses the spatial aspect of China’s passenger traffic through its detemining factors and regional differentiations.1. Factors determining China’s passenger traffic Four factors are essential: (1) Growth of population. China’s population (excluding Taiwan) doubled during 1949-1985 while the total volume of passenger traffic increased 40.4 times. The high correlation between the two is shown by Formula 1. Meanwhile, the demand for journey varied from urban area to countryside. The average journey frequency in urban, suburb and rural areas were 17.02, 5.6 and 0.3 per capita/year respectively in 1985. (2) Emigration. Emigration forms various relationships between emigrant areas and immigrant areas and these relationships generate passenger traffic. Before 1949, the major directions of emigration were toward new developing areas such as Northeast, large cities such as Shanghai and Tianjin, and abroad. Since the founding of the People’s Republic, emigration of large scale became a planned activity. The major spatial directions of such activity can be categorized into: (a) partly relocating the existing industry to inner provinces accompanied with the relevant people, (b) sending technicians and skilled workers from coastal areas to inland areas to strengthen the development there, and (c) sending school-graduates and demobilized soldiers to remote or border areas for both political and economic reasons. (3) Urbanization. If China is divided into seven economic regions, the correlation between urbanization and passenger traffic is obvious. Northeast and East China, the urbanization level of which is higher than the national average, have more proportion of passenger traffic in national total than that of their population. Southwest China as the lowest urbanized region in the country has less proportion of passenger traffic than that of its population. (4) Economic growth. This factor has the closest correlation with the growth of passenger traffic. During 1949-1985, the GNP in China increased 16 times while the total volume of passenger traffic and the total turnover of passenger traffic increased 17 and 27 times respectively. The correlation coefficient tbetween the total passenger traffic (as dependent variable) and GNP, national population and the total length of national transportation networks (as independent variables) is very high (0.99). It is noticed in this paper that since the growth rate of passenger traffic matched that rate of the domestic consumption which decreased gradually, synchronal growth of passenger traffic with thegrowth of domestic consumption occurred in Japan and other developed countries appeared also in China. Such synchronal growth continues after 1978 when the economic reform began and the economy boomed although the growth rate of freight traffic has decreased since then. 2. Spatial differentiation of passenger traffic The modal split of transport for passenger traffic and the journey frequency per capita are analyzed. Based on the contribution of each mode of transport in passenger traffic in each of the seven economic regions, these regions are categorized into three types: (A) Land-dominating type of Northeast, North China and Northwest, (B) Land-water combination type of East China, and (C) Land-major water-minor type of South China, Southwest and Central China. As for journey frequency, 29 provincial units are regionalized into four types according to their relative distance to the national average of journey frequency per capita and average GNP per capita: (A) High-income with high mobility, (B) High income with low mobility, (C) low income with High mobility, and (D) low income with low mobility (see Map. 1). At the end of this paper, the-factors causing such a pattern is discussed.
Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China
It is significant in theory and practice to study quantitatively passenger interflow,which could reveal the spatial structure of transport and the inte-ractions between regions.In the past decades,the total volume of passenger interflow among railway bureaus accounted for 8.0-11.0 per cent of the total railway passenger traffic volume,but by 1986 it increased to 12.7 per cent.The relationship of passenger interflow among seven regions in China is analyzed.According to the results of quantitative analysis,the passenger interflow among regions in China can be classified into four types with dif-ferent rates of interflow:over 18per cent,14-17 per cent,10-13 per cent and less than 10 per cent.Absolute and relative interaction intensities are defined The passenger interflow among twenty regions in China is researched with the above-me-ntioned two indexes.
Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica, and State Planning Commission, Beijing
The pattern of passenger flows is one of the indicators reflecting spatial transport linkages. This paper examines the features, regional disparity and dynamics of passenger flow patterns in China since the 1980s. The post-reform period has witnessed clear changes in regional patterns of the average travel frequency per capita (TFPC, hereafter) in China. The major changes are: (1) the TFPC has been continuously rising in the fast-growing southeastern coastal provinces, including Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian and Hainan, and the ranking of these provinces in terms of TFPC has also gone up gradually; (2) the ranking of northeastern provinces (i.e. Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang) in terms of TFPC has fell down; (3) the TFPC of southern provinces with a big population has increased significantly, and among them Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou and Hunan registered a faster increase rate than national average; and (4) the TFPC of provinces in North China and the Northwest has remained at a comparatively low level. The relative disparity in provincial TFPC increased significantly in the 1980s while it narrowed down in the 1990s. One spatial features among other is that more and more southern provinces registered a high TFPC. The major factors leading to rapid growth of passenger flows are: (1) economic growth, which is the primer factor generating demands of people for various kinds of travel. The higher the income of people in a region is, the higher their travel frequency is, and the longer their travel distance is; (2) labor flow, which makes the low-income provinces have a high TFPC because of the huge out-flows of rural surplus labor into the fast-growing coastal regions; and (3) improvement of transport infrastructures, which enables people to travel more and longer.
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China
Based on the pole-axis spatial system theory and growth pole theory, 11 main economic indicators' data obtained from all the cities at prefecture level and above in 2008 were analyzed by employing principal component analysis to calculate the urban comprehensive score. Among all the cities, 100 top cities were selected as the primary cities. By choosing the sampled 100 cities as geographical centres, their economic impacting areas were determined by applying the spatial interaction theory, and meanwhile the urban economic influential radiuses were also explored, through buffer zone analysis in GIS. Taking the main railway lines, the main water distribution systems and the coastal boundaries as references, the average values of the radiuses of the primary cities which these axes running through were regarded as the economic influential radiuses to conduct the buffer zone analysis in GIS, and the top 10 primary axis impacting areas in China were named. Based on this, the primary economy axes in China were positioned through axes least-square method analysis. The results showed that cities located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan economic zone, the peninsula of Shandong economic zone, and Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta economic regions have developed to an advanced city cluster development phase, the central-eastern part of China has stepped into a pole-axis web shaped development phase, while the western China has not yet formed the primary axis. By combining the actual situations in China and the results obtained through this research, suggestions for improving the Chinese primary axes were also proposed, and the levels of growth poles on the primary axes were categorized. Based on the improvement of the primary axis, the cities for future development were selected from the axes. Finally, the micro regional economic policies were discussed.
1. Airport College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300, China;<br />2. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
MassonS, PetiotR. Can the high speed rail reinforce tourism attractiveness? The case of the high speed rail between Perpignan (France) and Barcelona (Spain). , 2009, 29(9): 611-617.
The transport system plays an important role in tourism destination development. A high speed railway authorizes a reduction in transportation costs and can be a tool for tourism destination development by allowing accessibility improvement. Nevertheless, this improvement is often synonymous with reinforcement of spatial competition between tourism destinations. New economic geography (NEG) models show that agglomeration and dispersion forces determine the spatial structure of economy. These two opposing forces are influenced by transportation costs. A decrease in transport costs can reinforce the concentration of economic activities. A prospective analysis investigating the case of the forthcoming South European HSR lines between Perpignan and Barcelona shows that the resulting increased spatial competition may reinforce the phenomenon of the tourism activities agglomeration around Barcelona to the detriment of Perpignan. Tourism product differentiation is one solution for Perpignan to confront agglomeration forces.
Andersson DE, Shyr OF, FuJ. Does high-speed rail accessibility influence residential property prices? Hedonic estimates from southern Taiwan. , 2010, 18(1): 166-174.
A new high-speed railway line (HSR) connects seven metropolitan areas in Taiwan. From Tainan, it is possible to reach Kaohsiung, Chiayi and Taichung in less than one hour, implying an enlarged spatial range of feasible commuting opportunities. The implicit price of HSR accessibility is estimated using hedonic price functions for the residential property market. The results of pre-specified and Box-Cox hedonic price functions are compared. The estimated functions show that HSR accessibility has at most a minor effect on house prices. High ticket prices and entrenched residential location patterns prevent otherwise feasible daily commuting opportunities between Tainan and other cities.
In China railway is a leading transport mode to link different areas,the essential set-up of spatial economic interaction is partly established by railway freight interchange.In the article,the interprovincial freight interchange by railway is studied systematically.The interchange volume was increasing quickly in the past two decades.From 1965 to 1987,it increased from 190 million tons to 73O million tons.The regional transport function of the railway changed.In the 1960s the railway took on mainly inner-provincial freight interchange.But in the 1980s,it took on mainly interprovineial freight interchange.The contradiction between higher increasing rate of interprovincial freight interchange and lower increasing rate of transport facilities is a main reason of transport shortage at present.This contradiction should be solved from the following three aspects:increasing investment,adjusting transport costs,and improving interregional economic cooperation.The obvious spatial features in interprovincial transport linkage are:obvious areal combination,different interaction directions and interaction intensities and so on.In this article,a scientific quantitative method,interaction intensity method is used to analyze the spatial relationship between provincial regions.
Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica and the State Planning Commission, Beijing
This paper studies the relationship of network organization and spatial service system optimization based on analyzing the change of intercity passenger transport network behind railway's upgrading. The authors choose some indexes, including travel time and the coefficient of temporal location, to evaluate the benefits of 63 cities, accordingly to the reflection of the optimization and change of railway network structure. At the same time, the paper especially studies eight major transport harbors, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Shenyang, Chengdu and Lanzhou. Based on the analysis, we found that: (1) Intercity passenger transport network shows remarkable "time-convergence", an indication of the great optimization of the spatial service system. (2) The influences of optimization's spatial distributions are not equilibrium, the change of network structure is not remarkable, but it has the trend of equilibrium. (3) Railway's upgrading accelerates the interaction of cities, but the benefits of eight transport hubs are not the same, either; "500 km half a day of activity circle" has already taken shape, "1000 km a day of activity circle" and metropolitan transport circles such as Beijing and Shanghai are being developed gradually. (4) After the infrastructure network reaches the "universal" stage, the upgrading of network organization becomes more and more important to optimize the spatial service system, accelerate the economic interaction. (5) With the expansion of major hub cities' hinterlands and spatial service scopes, sequentially it will bring strong guidance to relocate economic action.
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China; <br />2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
戴特奇, 金凤君, 王姣娥. 中国1990年代城际空间相互作用与网络结构演化研究: 从城际铁路客流的角度. , 2005, 24(2): 80-89. [DaiTeqi, JinFengjun, WangJiao'e. Spatial interaction and network structure evolvement of cities in terms of China's railway passenger flow in 1990s. , 2005, 24(2): 80-89. ]
Cities seperated in space are connected together by spatial interactions (SI) between them. But the studies focusing on the SI are relatively few in China mainly because of the scarity of data. This paper deals with the SI in terms of rail passenger flows in 1990s, which is an important aspect of the network structure of urban agglomerations. By using a data set consisting of 1991 and 2000 rail O-D passenger flows between nearly 200 cities, intercity rail distance O-D matrixes, and some other indices. It is found that the attenuating tendency of rail passenger is obvious, but the gravity model cannot explain the change over time. Then a further study is carried out based on the hub-and-spoke framework under which the error of gravity model is explained. And by analysis of dominant flows and spatial structure of flows, we find that passenger flows have a trend of polarizing to hubs while the links between hubs upgrades, and some driven factors for the re-organization process of the structure of urban agglomerations are discussed.
1. Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;<br />2. Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
In this paper, the indexes and models are used to measure the accessibility of transport network, such as total transport distance Di and accessibility coefficient. On the basis of "The Shortest Route Model", the evolution of railway network, changes of the spatial structure in accessibility, the relationship between railway network distribution and spatial economic growth in the past several hundred years in China are analyzed. The results show that the evolution of railway network in China experienced 4 stages, i.e., initial stage, constructing stage, extending stage and optimizing stage, but the speed of spatial expanding is relatively slow. One hundred years' construction of railway leads to "time-space convergence". The spatial structure of accessibility displays "different circles with one core", and radiates from North China to the surroundings. The area, higher than the national average level in accessibility, expands from North China to East China and Central China, and the center of accessibility moved from Tianjin to Zhengzhou gradually.
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
Based on the railway passenger transportation network,employing the index of shortest time distance matrix between every two provincial capital cities which are Abstracted nodes in the railway network in 2003 and 2008,the paper analyses the level and spatial pattern of accessibility throughout the country.And then,the distance parameter in the gravity model is modified by the shortest travel time indicator,the strength of interprovincial economic linkage are measured and the spatial orientation are examined on the assumption that the provincial capital cities are the economic barycentre of the whole province.Results are shown as follows.(1) The inter-provincial accessibility level has gained a significant upgrade,especially accessibility promotion in the western provinces is higher than that of the others through the 5th and 6th train-speed network upgradings.But,the disparity of inter-provincial accessibility level is still remarkable throughout the country.The circle-type spatial pattern of the accessibility level that reduces gradually from the eastern coastal provinces to the northwestern provinces has emerged,the scope of the accessibility central zone is expanding,and the primary railway lines are becoming stronger and stronger.(2) The disparity of quantity of economic linkage is remarkable,the quantity of economic linkage in east coastal provinces is much higher than that of the central and western provinces.(3) The predominant axes of inter-provincial economic linkage have formed along the main railway lines from Beijing to Shanghai and from Beijing to Guangzhou.The spatial network pattern of regional economic linkage is forming along with the train-speed upgrading and the promotion of regional economy.The research of inter-provincial accessibility and economic linkage can not only give suggestions to regional economic restructuring,and to the primary spatial orientation of regional economic development,but also provide reference for coordinating inter-provincial economic linkage and cooperation in the process of regional economic integration.
College of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China