刘浩, 马琳, 李国平.
地理研究, 2016 ,
LIU Hao, MA.
Spatial-temporal evolution pattern of unbalanced economic development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region since the 1990s[J].
Geographical Research, 2016 ,
Spatial-temporal evolution pattern of unbalanced economic development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region since the 1990s
LIU Hao1,, MA Lin2, LI Guoping1,
1. School of Government, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has been experiencing rapid economic development since 1990. However, development has been imbalanced and has been widening the gaps in economies of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. To identify the imbalanced pattern of economic development and analyze its dynamics in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during 1992-2012, we first proposed a "GDP per human activity intensity" consisting of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data and the constant price of GDP to map economic development. Second, local Moran's I was applied to classify the economic development pattern into 5 types: HH (high values surrounded by high values), HL (high values surrounded by low values), LH (low values surrounded by high values), LL (low values surrounded by low values), and not significant. Third, the boundary of the HH type was used as the line between rich areas and poor areas, and the dynamics of economic development and its response to administration are analyzed by buffer analysis. The results suggest that the spatial pattern of economic development has been imbalanced during 1992-2012, and the HH type in Beijing-Tianjin and the LL type in Hebei have been increasing in area and intensity. The HL type and the LH type in Hebei and suburban Beijing and Tianjin are growing because of the spillover effect of the development in the urban areas of Beijing and Tianjin. Moreover, having a different view from the previous understanding of "one poverty region around Beijing and Tianjin", we identified wealth gaps on two spatial scales: One is inside Beijing and Tianjin, which is between urban and rural areas, and the other is between Beijing-Tianjin and Hebei. Furthermore, the wealth gap in the former scale is larger than the latter. The imbalanced spatial pattern of economic development is a result of the administrative restrictions among Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei and the urban-rural dual system. Such a result can be attributed to the difference of administrative management and policy exists not only between cities but also between the urban and rural areas of a particular city. In addition, our analysis shows that the latter scale is the main reason for the imbalanced spatial pattern. Therefore, reducing urban-rural differences and administrative constraint is important in realizing balanced economic development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
poverty region around Beijing and Tianjin;coordinated development;economic imbalance;DMSP/OLS nighttime light;Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region;
2.2.3 时空演化格局 对1992-2012年京津冀地区经济发展失衡格局进行量化识别,先以1 km
1 km为评估单元,以Local Moran's I空间聚类将京津冀区域经济失衡格局分为非显著类型与显著类型(即HH富化扩散,HL富化极化,LH贫化塌陷,LL贫化制约).而后,分别提取环京和环津的HH富化扩散类型,将其外延识别为京津冀地区经济发展的失衡界线.经济发展格局类型的HH类型代表区域经济发展水平的高值集聚区,将京津冀地区经济发展失衡界线界定为经济发展高值地区向低值地区转变的突变地带,而HH类型即其数值是显著高于周边邻近地区的,其界线意义与本研究定义的经济发展失衡界线存在较高类似性,可以替代之.最后,依次对北京与天津的HH内部,HH外部但属京津市内,河北省域进行间隔2 km的Buffer分析,量化1990s以来京津冀地区经济发展失衡格局的演化过程.
QiYuanjing, YangYu, JinFengjun.China's economic development stage and its spatio-temporal evolution. , 2013, 23(2): 297-314.
Abstract<br/><p class="a-plus-plus">As important mechanisms of regional strategy and policy, prefecture-level regions have played an increasingly significant role in the development of China’s economy. However, little research has grasped the essence of the economic development stage and the spatiotemporal evolution process at the prefecture level; this may lead to biased policies and their ineffective implementations. Based on Chenery’s economic development theory, this paper identifies China’s economic development stages at both national and prefectural levels. Both the Global Moran I index and the Getis-Ord Gi* index are employed to investigate the spatio-temporal evolution of China’s economic development from 1990 to 2010. Major conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) China’s economic development is generally in the state of agglomeration. It entered the Primary Production Stage in 1990, and the Middle Industrialized Stage in 2010, with a ‘balanced-unbalanced-gradually rebalanced’ pattern in the process. (2) China’s rapid economic growth experienced a spatial shift from the coastal areas to the the inland areas. Most advanced cities in mid-western China can be roughly categorized into regional hub cities and resource-dependent cities. (3) Hot spots in China’s economy moved northward and westward. The interactions between cities and prefectures became weaker in Eastern China, while cities and prefectures in Central and Western China were still at the stage of individual development, with limited effect on the surrounding cities. (4) While the overall growth rate of China’s economy has gradually slowed down during the past two decades, the growth rate of cities and prefectures in Central and Western China was much faster than those in coastal areas. (5) Areas rich in resources, such as Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, have become the new hot spots of economic growth in recent years. For these regions, however, more attention needs to be paid to their unbalanced industrial structures and the lagging social development against the backdrop of the rapid economic growth, driven predominantly by the exploitation of resources.</p><br/>
[ZhangWei, ZhangHongye, ZhangYifeng.The determination of social ecological compensation standard based on "equivalent value of geographical factor endowment". , 2010, 65(10): 1253-1265.]
李国平. . 北京: 科学出版社, 2014.
[LiGuoping.. Beijing: Science Press, 2014.]
DengshengLu, HanqinTian, GuomoZhou, et al.Regional mapping of human settlements in southeastern China with multisensor remotely sensed data. , 2008, 112(9): 3668-3679.
Mapping human settlements from remotely sensed data at regional and global scales has attracted increasingly attention but remains a challenge. The thresholding technique is a common approach for settlement mapping based on the DMSP-OLS data. However, this approach often omits the areas with small proportional settlements such as towns and villages and overestimates urban extents, resulting in information loss of spatial patterns. This paper explored an integrated approach based on a combined use of multiple remotely sensed data to map settlements in southeastern China. Human settlements for selected sites were mapped from Landsat ETM+ images with a hybrid approach and they were used as reference data. The DMSP-OLS and Terra MODIS NDVI data were combined to develop a settlement index image. This index image was used to map a pixel-based settlement image with expert rules. A regression model was established to estimate fractional settlements at the regional scale, which the DMSP-OLS and MODIS NDVI data were used as independent variables and the settlement data derived from ETM+ images were used as a dependent variable. This research indicated that a combination of DMSP-OLS and NDVI variables provided a better estimation performance than single DMSP-OLS or NDVI variable, and the integrated approach for settlement mapping at the regional scale was promising. Compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique, the estimated fractional settlement image in this paper greatly improved the spatial patterns of settlement distribution and accuracy of settlement areas. This paper provided a rapid and accurate approach to estimate fractional settlements from coarse spatial resolution images at the regional scale by combining a limited number of medium spatial resolution images. This research is especially valuable for timely updating settlement databases at regional and global scales with limited time, labor, and cost.
HeChunyang, MaQun, LiTong, et al.Spatiotemporal dynamics of electric power consumption in Chinese Mainland from 1995 to 2008 modeled using DMSP/OLS stable nighttime lights data. , 2012, 22(1): 125-136.
Abstract<br/><p class="a-plus-plus">Electric power consumption (EPC) is one of the basic indices for evaluating electric power use. Obtaining timely and accurate data on the spatiotemporal dynamics of EPC is crucial for understanding and practical deployment of electric power resources. In this study, an EPC model was developed using stable nighttime lights time-series data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS). The model was used to reconstruct the spatial patterns of EPC in Chinese Mainland at the county level from 1995 to 2008. In addition, the spatiotemporal dynamics of EPC were analyzed, and the following conclusions were drawn. (1) The EPC model reliably represented the spatiotemporal dynamics of EPC in Chinese Mainland with approximately 70% accuracy. (2) The EPC in most regions of Chinese Mainland was at low to moderate levels, with marked temporal and spatial variations; of high-level EPC, 58.26% was concentrated in eastern China. Six urban agglomerations (Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou region, Pearl River Delta, Shandong Peninsula, middle-south of Liaoning Province, and Sichuan Basin) accounted for 10.69% of the total area of Chinese Mainland but consumed 39.23% of the electricity. (3) The EPC of most regions in Chinese Mainland increased from 1995 to 2008, and 64% of the mainland area showed a significant increase in EPC. Moderate increases in EPC were found in 61.62% of eastern China and 80.65% of central China from 1995 to 2008, whereas 75.69% of western China showed no significant increase in EPC. Meanwhile, 77.27%, 89.35%, and 66.72% of the Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou region, Pearl River Delta, and Shandong Peninsula, respectively, showed high-speed increases in EPC. Moderate increases in EPC occurred in 71.12% and 72.13% of the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and middle-south of Liaoning Province, respectively, while no significant increase occurred in 56.34% of the Sichuan Basin.</p><br/>
QinglingZhang, SetoK.C. Mapping urbanization dynamics at regional and global scales using multi-temporal DMSP/OLS nighttime light data. , 2011, 115(9): 2320-2329.
Urban areas concentrate people, economic activity, and the built environment. As such, urbanization is simultaneously a demographic, economic, and land-use change phenomenon. Historically, the remote sensing community has used optical remote sensing data to map urban areas and the expansion of urban land-cover for individual cities, with little research focused on regional and global scale patterns of urban change. However, recent research indicates that urbanization at regional scales is growing in importance for economics, policy, land use planning, and conservation. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand and monitor urbanization dynamics at regional and global scales. Here, we illustrate the use of multi-temporal nighttime light (NTL) data from the U.S Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellites Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) to monitor urban change at regional and global scales. We use independently derived data on population, land use and land cover to test the ability of multi-temporal NTL data to measure regional and global urban growth over time. We apply an iterative unsupervised classification method on multi-temporal NTL data from 1992 to 2008 to map urbanization dynamics in India, China, Japan, and the United States. For two-year intervals between 1992 and 2000, India consistently experienced higher rates of urban growth than China, and both countries exceeded the urban growth rates of the United States and Japan. This is not surprising given that the populations of India and China were growing faster than those of the U.S. and Japan during those periods. For two-year intervals between 2000 and 2008, China experienced higher rates of urban growth than India. Results show that the multi-temporal NTL provides a regional and potentially global measure of the spatial and temporal changes in urbanization dynamics for countries at certain levels of GDP and population-driven growth.
RoychowdhuryKoel, Jones SimonD, ArrowsmithColin, et al.A comparison of high and low gain DMSP/OLS satellite images for the study of socio-economic metrics. , 2011, 4(1): 35-42.
The Operational Linescan System (OLS) onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) group of satellites, unlike other passive remote sensing sensors, is capable of recording the emissions from artificial lights on the earth surface. Along with detecting light from forest fires, shipping fleets and gas flares, the OLS sensor also records the light emitted from cities at night. This paper reports on a study that uses the DMSP Operational Linescan (DMSP-OLS) images with fixed gain settings of 20 dB and 50 dB to model selected metrics used in the Indian census for the state of Maharashtra. The study firstly looks into the utility of non-composited single fixed gain radiance calibrated DMSP-OLS products for proposing a method which might help to build a surrogate method for Indian census. Several parameters are considered in this analysis, with detailed focus on population density, total population and proportion of households with electricity access for 35 districts within the state of Maharashtra. Results show that spatial scale plays an important role in selection of the images and gains. Secondly, this study provides a relative assessment of gain setting for the DMSP-OLS images in an urban Indian context. Images with a gain of 50 dB prove suitable for larger areas while those with a gain of 20 dB give better results at a smaller spatial scale. Statistical analysis and residual maps of spatial distribution of total population and population density validate the result.
SmallChristopher, Elvidge ChristopherD, BalkDeborah, et al.Spatial scaling of stable night lights. , 2011, 115(2): 269-280.
City size distributions, defined on the basis of population, are often described by power laws. Zipf's Law states that the exponent of the power law for rank-size distributions of cities is near 鈭1. Verification of power law scaling for city size distributions at continental and global scales is complicated by small sample sizes, inappropriate estimation techniques, inconsistent definitions of urban extent and variations in the accuracy and spatial resolution of census administrative units. We attempt to circumvent some of these complications by using a continuous spatial proxy for anthropogenic development and treat it as a spatial complement to population distribution. We quantify the linearity and exponent of the rank-size distribution of spatially contiguous patches of stable night light over a range of brightnesses corresponding to different intensities of development. Temporally stable night lights, as measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Line Scanner (DMSP-OLS), provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. Brightness and spatial extent of emitted light are correlated to population density (Sutton et al., 2001), built area density (Elvidge et al., 2007c) and economic activity ( and ) at global scales and within specific countries. Using a variable brightness threshold to derive spatial extent of developed land area eliminates the complication of administrative definitions of urban extent and makes it possible to test Zipf's Law in the spatial dimension for a wide range of anthropogenic development. Higher brightness thresholds generally correspond to more intense development while lower thresholds extend the lighted area to include smaller settlements and less intensively developed peri-urban and agricultural areas. Using both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to estimate power law linearity and exponent of the resulting rank-size distributions across a range of upper tail cutoffs, we consistently find statistically significant exponents in the range 鈭0.95 to 鈭1.11 with an abrupt transition to very large, extensively connected, spatial networks of development near the low light detection limit of the sensor. This range of exponents and transition are observed at both continental and global scales. The results suggest that Zipf's Law also holds for spatial extent of anthropogenic development across a range of intensities at both continental and global scales. The implication is that the dynamics of urban growth and development may be represented as spatial phase transitions when the spatial extent and intensity of development are treated as continuous variables rather than discrete entities.
TaoYuan, XinqiZheng, WeiZhou.Calculation methods of territorial development intensity using DMSP/OLS data. , 2011: 6.
The nighttime lights collected by the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have a number of favorable characteristics for depicting the spatial patterns of Constructed surfaces on large scale. This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the brightness of nighttime lights and territorial development intensity (TDI) from pixel-scale using the land use data of Shuozhou City as the reference data source. The nighttime lights were reprojected to 2-kilometer equal area grid in an Albers conical equal area projection. Linear regression defined a formula for estimating the TDI base on the brightness of nighttime lights. Furthermore, results also confirm that different types of construction land make different contribution to the brightness. This method is effective and convenient for constructed area analysis and monitoring.
WangWen, ChengHui, ZhangLi.Poverty assessment using DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery at a provincial scale in China. , 2012, 49(8): 1253-1264.
All countries around the world and many international bodies, including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), have to eliminate rural poverty. Estimation of regional poverty level is a key issue for making strategies to eradicate poverty. Most of previous studies on regional poverty evaluations are based on statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has discussed the deficiencies of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional poverty evaluation issues using 3-year DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery. In this study, we adopted 17 socio-economic indexes to establish an integrated poverty index (IPI) using principal component analysis (PCA), which was proven to provide a good descriptor of poverty levels in 31 regions at a provincial scale in China. We also explored the relationship between DMSP/OLS night-time average light index and the poverty index using regression analysis in SPSS and a good positive linear correlation was modelled, with Requal to 0.854. We then looked at provincial poverty problems in China based on this correlation. The research results indicated that the DMSP/OLS night-time light data can assist analysing provincial poverty evaluation issues.
ZhaoNaizhuo, CurritNate, SamsonEric.Net primary production and gross domestic product in China derived from satellite imagery. , 2011, 70(5): 921-928.
<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="sp0055">Since the 1980s Chinese economic reform has greatly accelerated its economic growth while in contrast China's environment is increasingly degraded. The Chinese government has recognized that environmental protection and sustainable economic development can promote mutual and sustainable co-development of the economy and the environment as a basic national principle. This paper examines the interactions between economic development and environmental change in China that were compared and analyzed for the years 1996 and 2000. Net primary production (NPP) was selected as a proxy evaluator of ecosystems and gross domestic product (GDP) was chosen as a proxy evaluator of economic development. An NPP change map was produced with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) summed annual NPP imagery products. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime imagery was used to produce a Chinese GDP change map. An integrated map was produced to exhibit the combined changes of NPP and GDP. This map showed that in the regions with increased GDP, NPP decreased but the regions with no GDP change were smaller in area for NPP increase while larger in area for NPP decrease. The changing pattern of NPP varied with the developing level of GDP at province level. A province's development of GDP is controlled by its accessibility to natural resources. Interactions between NPP and GDP are greatly affected by factors of spatial location aside from human factors and natural systems' characteristics.</p><h4 id="secGabs_N1cd59dd0N1c93e2b8">Research Highlights</h4><p>? Nighttime imagery is used to estimate GDP at the pixel level. ? Remote sensing is a potential tool to study interactions of social-ecological systems. ? The Changing patterns of NPP and GDP vary by region. ? Globalization leads to uneven outcomes for Chinese social-ecological systems.</p>
通过空间计量经济学经济收敛标准分析方法的扩展，就中国240 个地级及以上城市的经济增长收敛性展开讨论。运用Moran's I 探讨中国区域经济空间相关模式与集聚，发现1990-2007 年间人均GDP水平显示出强烈的全局正自相关，且局部空间结构相对稳定，各城市要脱离原来的集群有一定困难。文章指出收敛标准分析存在错误方程设定，空间计量分析方法是合适的。空间计量分析结果表明中国城市间存在绝对β收敛，与非空间模型相比收敛速度显著提高且可信，空间因素在区域经济增长与收敛过程中起到重要作用。但敏感性分析显示，绝对收敛的同一稳态以及在空间上并不稳健。从机制看，中国城市间同时存在新古典增长理论和新增长理论所强调的趋同机制。最后，对促进绝对收敛的区域政策进行了讨论，并提出通过模拟经济收敛过程，是判断区域政策有效性的重要工具。
[HongGuozhi, HuHuaying, LiXun.Analysis of regional growth convergence with spatial econometrics in China. , 2010, 65(12): 1548-1558.]
ZhangYifeng, JiaDameng, ZhangHongye, et al.Spatial structure of valley economic development in the mountainous areas in Beijng. , 2011, 21(2): 331-345.
Valley economy is a new mode in mountainous area development that is defined by various characters of valley development, and is a distinguishing economical geographic pattern for mountainous area development. The special spatial coupling relations in the distribution of different mountainous elements in valleys are new subjects for the mountain development studies, and such studies are meaningful both for researches and practices. Based on the long term researches on mountainous area development and following a brief exploration into the connotations and the spatial organizing process of valley economy, the authors analyzed the present situations of the development of valley economy in Beijing’s mountainous areas, studied the characteristics and the impacts of the spatial structural changes of the valley economy in Beijing’s mountainous areas, and finally proposed a rational arrangement of the spatial structure of the valley economy in Beijing’s mountainous areas. It is considered in this study that valley economy plays an important role in the development and functional transformation in Beijing’s mountainous areas in the new epoch. Firstly, valley economy is not outlined by the administrative boundaries, and it connects most of the villages in the mountainous areas roughly along the major transportation lines. Therefore, valley economy can exert positive influence on the development in the mountainous areas, at least in the aspects such as the rearrangement of industrial structure in the mountainous areas and the coordinated development of rural and urban areas. In addition, it is found that the valley economy in Beijing’s mountainous areas is evolved in a spatial organizing stage of secondary concentration, which is characterized by resource-saving, ecological protection and industrial optimization. Therefore, the development of valley economy will be helpful to the coordination between ecological protection and economic development in the mountainous areas, and will promote the integrated development of the mountainous areas. The developing mode of the valley economy in Beijing’s mountainous areas will provide the basis for the decision-making in the transformation of the functional roles of Beijing’s mountainous areas, and on the other hand, will present experiences for the studies in the mountainous areas outside of Beijing.