Rural settlement reconstructing driven by mountain scenic spot construction: An empirical study of Yunqiu Mountain Scenic Spot
ZHU He1,, LIU Jiaming1,2
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Under the background of rural tourism development, great changes have taken place in traditional village, especially in mountainous areas. Influenced by natural environment and resources, the reconstruction of these villages appeared to be unique and typical. This study was conducted based on in-depth interview and questionnaire survey, and remote sensing image interpretation and GIS analysis. It, taking two villages in Yunqiu Mount as cases, focused on multidimensional reconstruction process of rural settlements from micro scale, and gained some findings as follows: driven by the tourist site constructiion, the three dimensions of "space-economy-society" in the two villages in Yunqiu Mountain have been reconstructed. At the spatial dimension, the land use status and the scale of the three basic space have changed, specifically, production space and living space reduced, and the ecology space increased. The spatial pattern changes from a circular pattern of "living-production-ecology" to a model in which living and production spaces are embedded in the ecology space. At the economic dimension, the income of the villagers increased, and their livelihood model changed. The increasing industrial dependence on tourism has replaced the traditional production mode. At the social dimension, the population and the labor force has increased significantly, the spatial differences of social classes have been narrowed, and the rural organization gradually has shifted to the mode of tourism production. There exists an interaction between space, society, and culture in the countryside, thus an organic system is formed under the promotion of tourism development in the scenic spot.
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In order to evaluate the effect of Grain for Green Policy in the reach from Hekouzhen to Tongguan of the Yellow River, based on dryness/wetness, geomorphic type, slope gradient and aspect, from macroscopic to microcosmic, three indicators, including (a) a land use change significance index, (b) a land use change proportion (c) a vegetation change index, are used to characterize the primary transformation types, the intensity of land use changes, and the degree of vegetation restoration in the period 1998-2010. The results show that: (1) The area of land use change accounted for 19.19% of the study area. High coverage grassland, forest, and other woodland increased significantly, while low coverage grassland, farmland decreased markedly. (2) Spatially, land use change was found primarily west of the Yellow River, between 35 and 38 degrees north latitude, including Malian River basin, Beiluo River basin, Yanhe River basin. (3) The transformation types, including low coverage grassland to moderate coverage grassland, moderate coverage grassland to high coverage grassland, farmland to other woodland, shrub to forest were the primary types resulting from land use change. (4) The effect of dryness/wetness, geomorphic type and slope gradient on land use change was significant, but that of aspect on land use change was not so clear.