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旅游小企业成长路径及其驱动机制——以世界文化遗产地宏村为例
尹寿兵1,2,, 郭强1,2, 刘云霞1,2
1. 安徽师范大学地理与旅游学院,芜湖 241002
2. 安徽师范大学旅游发展与规划研究中心,芜湖 241002

作者简介:尹寿兵(1978- ),男,安徽和县人,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为区域发展与旅游规划。E-mail: ysblyx@163.com

摘要

以世界文化遗产地宏村为例,借助企业成长理论,采用深度访谈和非参与观察等研究方法,探求遗产地旅游小企业成长路径及其驱动机制。宏村旅游小企业的创立、发展、退出是一个动态的过程。在企业家精神和市场需求双重因素作用下,社区居民利用民居开展经营,实现了身份转化和场所转变,创立了旅游小企业。发展过程中,受遗产保护限制和市场竞争压力,旅游小企业主群体分化,成长意愿不足的小企业主通过租售退出市场,推动新的小企业创立;具有成长意愿的旅游小企业通过模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟等路径实现企业成长。研究发现,一体化、多元化、跟随、抱团等企业成长战略,以及家族企业的内部传承等共同构成了旅游小企业成长路径;同时,遗产保护、市场消费升级等旅游发展因素驱动了旅游小企业成长的循环更新。

关键词: 旅游小企业; 企业成长; 宏村;
The growth path and mechanism of small tourism businesses: Taking world cultural heritage site Hongcun as an example
YIN Shoubing1,2,, GUO Qiang1,2, LIU Yunxia1,2
1. College of Geography and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, Anhui, China
2. Center for Tourism Planning and Research, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, Anhui, China
Abstract

Taking the world heritage site of Hongcun as an example, with the help of enterprise growth theory, in-depth interviews and non participation observation methods are applied to explore the growth path and driving mechanism of heritage site small tourism businesses. The creation, development and withdrawal of small tourism enterprises in Hongcun are a dynamic process. Under the dual factors of entrepreneurial spirit and market demand, community residents managed to make use of their dwellings to achieve identity transformation and place change, and established small tourism businesses. In the course of development, the limitation of heritage protection and the pressure of market competition make the differentiation of the main group of the small tourism enterprises. Small business owners who lack of growth will withdraw from the market by sublease, which will promote the creation of new small enterprises. Small tourism enterprises with growth will achieve enterprise growth through imitating innovation, intergenerational inheritance, chain expansion, cluster management and brand joining. The study found that integration, diversification, follow ups and corporate growth strategies together with the internal succession of family businesses constitute the growth path of small tourism businesses. At the same time, the tourism development factors such as the heritage protection and the market consumption upgrade have driven the circulation of the growth of the small tourism enterprises.

Keyword: small tourism enterprises; enterprise growth; Hongcun;
1 引言

企业是现代社会最重要的核心单元,企业的成长与竞争力是一个国家繁荣富强的最终依靠。传统的旅游研究把旅游小企业看成是一种边缘企业,然而旅游小企业是目的地最活跃的经济组织单元,是社区居民参与旅游发展的主要形式,对地方经济和社会文化发展具有积极地作用[1,2,3,4,5]。因此,旅游小企业是企业经济学、旅游地理学和社会学共同关注的重要课题。

企业成长属于经济学和管理学研究的概念。它包含三个突出的特征:① 企业成长是一个动态的历史演进过程;② 企业成长是企业内、外多种因素相互作用的结果;③ 企业成长不仅表现为一些可测指标数量上的增长,更多的是反映产生这些增长的内在源泉,即质的改善[6]。古典经济学者Adam Smith、Alfred Marshal和George Stigler最早从经济学原理的角度探讨关于企业成长的问题。长久以来,国内外学者从多层面、多视角、多尺度不断对企业成长的研究进行深化。概括起来,理论研究逐渐形成了企业外生成长理论和企业内生成长理论[7]。外生成长理论强调企业成长是外生性的,导致企业成长的因素主要来源于企业外部,尤其强调市场特征对企业成长的决定作用。其代表性理论有:新古典经济学的企业成长理论、新制度经济学的企业成长理论和波特的企业竞争优势理论。企业内生成长理论强调企业成长是内生性的,企业内部因素(资源、能力和知识等)是决定企业成长的主导因素。代表性理论有:彭罗斯的内生成长理论、管理者理论的企业成长理论、制度变迁理论的内生成长理论、资源基础企业理论的企业成长理论和学习型组织理论的企业成长理论(表1)。企业成长的研究主题包括以企业内部成长、并购成长和网络成长为主的企业成长过程与机制研究[8,9,10];以企业资产、利润和就业机会等为指标的企业成长测度研究[11];以企业专业化战略、多元化战略和国际化战略为代表的企业成长战略选择[12]。企业成长的内部影响因素有企业管理[13,14]、企业文化[15]、企业家精神[13]、技术与知识[16,17]等,外部影响因素有市场竞争[14]、政治制度[18]、税收政策[19]、投融资环境[20]、地方文化[18,21]等。研究尺度涉及大企业和中小企业。如大型企业的竞争和扩张及其在区域社会经济发展中的地位和作用、中小企业的生存及成长障碍等[11,22-24]。同时,企业成长的研究涵盖了建筑建材、石油化工、汽车工业、零售服务、信息产业、旅游休闲等各种行业类型。

表1 企业成长理论及主要观点 Tab. 1 The theory of enterprise growth and the main points of view

旅游小企业是旅游休闲行业的重要组成部分,是依托旅游地,完全或部分地为游客提供服务、占有较小市场份额、雇员人数低于50人的经营实体[34]。学术界对旅游小企业的关注始于20世纪80年代,近40年的研究成果主要集中在旅游小企业的概念界定[2,35]、经营特征[36,37]、企业家精神[35,38-40],以及对当地社会、经济、文化的影响[1,38,41]等方面,而对旅游小企业成长分析仅仅是零散的、附带的,尚缺乏专门的、系统的研究。国外学者Lai等指出旅游市场环境变化会影响目的地旅游小企业发展[42]。Getz等以家族企业研究理论探讨了家庭旅馆的生命周期(开张、继承或终止)[39,43]、旅游淡旺季对小企业的经营影响[44],以及利润导向性旅游小企业主的创业动机[40]。Lerner等认为地理环境、政策支持、人力资本和企业服务会影响旅游小企业的经营绩效[45]。Phillips等认为旅游小企业生存发展的关键因素是企业主的控制能力[46]。在国内,邱继勤等指出旅游小企业经营结构简单、产品同质性高,使得小企业生存困难[47,48]。梁薇等指出生活方式型旅游小企业的发展需要政策层面的支持[49]。彭青等分析了丽江古城家庭旅馆的成长路径及影响因素[50]。傅慧等从个体层面、组织层面和外部环境三个层面探讨了影响旅游小企业成长的前因变量与结果变量[51]。尹寿兵等指出了治理模式的优化是实现景区内旅游小企业可持续发展的关键所在[34]。叶顺采用社会资本、人力资本两个因素分别对乡村小型旅游接待企业成长规模和成长密集性进行了分析[52]。闫婷婷分析了社会网络对乡村社区旅游小企业成长的影响作用[53]。文彤等从家文化视角揭示了本土旅游小企业在家族内的代际传承[54]

无论是哪一个领域的企业,其最终目的更多的是对利润最大化的追求,而企业要达到这个目的就必须找到合适的“路径”。因此,企业需要通过不断采取一系列的成长路径来达到既定目标从而实现企业成长[55]。企业成长路径就是企业通往发展目标所采取的方式、方法和途径。基于以上文献分析,企业成长已形成了丰富的理论研究成果并用于指导企业成长实践。如企业通过横向一体化和纵向一体化的成长战略,扩大市场份额、实现交易内部化[56]。旅游小企业研究历史较短,对其成长研究更少。但在实际发展中,旅游小企业同质化严重,普遍缺乏企业文化、规章制度和发展目标等,致使旅游小企业生存困难。从多学科交叉视角来看,尚没有将成熟的企业成长理论引入到旅游小企业成长研究当中。旅游小企业作为一种边缘企业,既有企业的一般特性,又有旅游目的地根植性的特征。因此,本文以世界文化遗产地宏村为例,通过追溯其旅游小企业成长的过程,以企业成长理论为指导,进而探索宏村旅游小企业成长路径及其驱动机制。

2 研究区概况

宏村位于安徽省黄山市黟县,有800余年历史,属于徽文化的核心区。宏村先后被列为世界文化遗产、全国重点文物保护单位、中国历史文化名村、国家AAAAA级旅游景区和中国特色小镇等。宏村旅游开发虽始于1986年,但游客接待量在1996年前均未突破2万人次,景区门票收入增长缓慢。1997年地方政府引进北京中坤集团,在宏村成立了旅游开发公司。新的经营主体盘活了宏村旅游资源,使宏村旅游业焕发出生机。从统计数据来看,1997年以后,宏村旅游发展迅猛。2008年游客接待量82.8万人次,门票收入4036.4万元,宏村游客接待量和景区门票收入实现了数十倍、数百倍的增长。至2015年末,宏村游客接待量达到了185万人次,门票收入达到1.12亿元,旅游总收入达到了10亿元。

旅游人次的大规模增加,促进了旅游接待设施的快速发展。目前,宏村已初步成为各类旅游小企业的集聚地。黟县工商部门提供的信息登记资料显示,从2001年到2016年2月,宏村新开业旅游小企业数量呈明显增长趋势(表2)。同时,实地调研发现,宏村旅游小企业由食宿、土特产等单一企业类型逐步发展为主题民宿、休闲小吃、酒吧、咖啡、奶茶、鱼疗、服装等多元化企业类型;此外,近年来宏村旅游小企业主普遍呈现年轻化,企业的经营能力和创新能力得到进一步提高;旅游小企业老品牌不断强化,新品牌不断创立创新,逐步扩大了企业品牌影响力;各旅游小企业更加注重企业文化内涵、主题营造、时尚休闲等元素,并且不断探索新的适宜顾客的经营理念和更优质的软硬件服务。总体上看,宏村旅游小企业量和质不断优化。

表2 宏村旅游小企业开业时间调查表 Tab. 2 Opening time questionnaire of small tourism enterprises in Hongcun village

从全国范围来看,随着旅游业的快速发展,中国已形成了多个旅游小企业集聚地。宏村是中国旅游小企业发展较早,数量较多的地区之一;宏村是村落型世界文化遗产地,旅游小企业成长所受到的制约因素较多;宏村作为旅游研究的典型案例地,已积累了大量的研究成果。基于以上原因,以宏村为案例地,能够更好地分析旅游小企业成长路径,同时也使得研究成果具有典型意义。

3 研究方法与数据来源

本文主要采用深度访谈、非参与观察等定性研究方法。访谈对象是企业主和店长。访谈提纲是根据研究问题,在阅读相关文献及专家小组讨论的基础上设计。访谈问题包括企业经营动机、经营变化、进入门槛、经营困境、企业成长过程与影响因素等。非参与观察主要是了解各企业的空间分布、产品经营类型、企业设计风格等,并进行对比和记录。课题组成员于2016年3月(2天)、2017年6月(10天)、2017年10月(11天)进行了三次实地调研。样本选择兼顾了企业经营类型、开业时间、空间区位和业主籍贯等要素。为保证调查结果的可靠性,通过尽可能多的渠道丰富资料来源,并对已建立的结论进行检验,形成三角互证。最终,共访谈旅游小企业主和店长34位(表3),并得到了大量现场照片及二手资料。其中,每个访谈用时基本在30~60 min,访谈录音总时长为898 min,将所有的录音转换成文字,形成了108030个字符的访谈文本。

表3 宏村旅游小企业访谈样本一览表 Tab. 3 A list of interview samples of small tourism enterprises in Hongcun Village
4 宏村旅游小企业成长路径分析

以企业成长理论为指导,通过对深度访谈、非参与观察及二手资料的梳理。分析发现:宏村旅游小企业在成长过程中呈现出两个方向,一是通过选择模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟等路径方式,实现企业可持续成长。二是因经营不善导致部分企业关门倒闭,退出市场后,将店面、房屋租售给其他企业主,他们采用一种或多种恰当的路径方式,再次实现企业成长。

4.1 模仿创新成长路径

模仿创新是一种学习先进者的跟随战略。企业模仿创新即通过学习模仿率先创新者的创新思路和行为,汲取率先者的成功经验和失败教训,通过引进其核心技术,并在此基础上进行改进完善[57]。模仿创新是相对于自主创新,可分为三个层次:创造的模仿、改进的创新和纯粹的模仿,在企业自主创新缺乏相应资源支撑时,模仿创新不失为一种快速提升企业成长能力的方式。首先,模仿能够快速“复制”十分复杂的知识技能,向成功的率先创新的企业学习;其次,后进企业可以在先进企业成功经验的示范指引下进行技术积累,避免企业走弯路。模仿创新是许多后进企业赶超先进企业,实现企业成长的秘诀[58]。正如改革开放以来,中国在轻工机械、家用电器、精密仪器等方面,通过学习国外产品并结合本国国情,取得了理想的效益。

在宏村,模仿创新一直存在于多数旅游小企业的创立和成长过程中。起初,在部分旅游小企业成功经营的诱导下,当地居民陆续将自有房屋改建为旅游商铺,参与到旅游小企业经营中来。他们并没有相关的旅游小企业经营管理经验,一切都是在模仿他人,慢慢摸索探究。“别人怎么做我也怎么做,他们能行,我也能行(A28)”。“他后来做嘛,他看着前面的,就想办法要做的比前面的好吧,想卖个好价钱,人都是这样。你看宏村,你刚装修,过个一两年就过时了(A13)”。此时,完全是一种纯粹的模仿,结果宏村旅游小企业数量急剧增多,但异质化产品较少。随着旅游市场的繁荣发展、企业主知识水平和经验见识的增加,以及外来经营者的相继进入,新型的旅游小企业经营理念、设计风格、旅游产品等得到进一步发展和丰富,这些因素对宏村旅游小企业特别是本土旅游小企业形成了巨大的冲击。本土传统型的旅游小企业纷纷效仿新型企业的经营模式,如网站运营、设计风格、公共区域、主客互动、产品创新等。这一阶段,更多的是企业管理、经营理念方面的模仿,并且开始出现少量创造的模仿和改进的模仿,这对宏村整体旅游小企业提档升级有积极的推动作用。“企业管理模式、服务,这些方面肯定要学他们。还有你像他们做出来的个性民宿、主题民宿,这些理念,我们本地人也要慢慢的去学啊,不能一味地就是发展我们的徽派建筑啊(A23)”。实质上,模仿是普遍的,而完全的创新则是罕见的[59]。在宏村旅游小企业成长初期自身创新资源不足或者困难转型时期,通过模仿创新,可以将优势企业的经营模式、经营理念和设计风格等快速复制到本企业,使知识和技术得到有效积累,并涵化为本企业的有用资源。大量实证研究显示,模仿创新能够将企业潜在的优势转化为现实的后发优势,推动企业持续成长。

4.2 代际传承成长路径

企业在成长过程中会面临企业经营权转让或家族内部传承两种路径选择[60]。成功的家族企业传承能够保留“家庭特有的异质性”或“家庭性”,帮助家族企业取得或维持相对于非家族企业的竞争优势[61,62,63]。同时,二代继任者的“持续创业”而非“守业”是家族企业跨代成长的基本战略,他们在继任父辈企业资源的基础上,需要更多企业经营理念的革新和跨代创业精神的培训[64,65]。因此,成功的代际传承是家族企业可持续成长的关键。

本土旅游小企业进行家庭代际传承应该是值得考虑的经营选择与发展方向[54]。在宏村,随着多数第一代旅游小企业主步入老年,外来资本纷纷进入当地市场,新的企业经营管理理念不断革新,多样化的网络平台成为主流营销方式,以及部分二代子女在外工作不顺等因素,促进第二代回乡经营家庭旅游小企业。“父母年龄大了,然后他们就带小孩去了,我们再来做。他们(外地经营者)从外面来,带来了新东西,在保留传统徽派文化建筑的同时带来新的经营理念,这是比较冲击本地经营的(A01、A23)”。“家里有年轻人的基本上都回来了。父母不懂网络这个东西啊(A10)”。“以后还是让他们回来,你发展的好还好,不好的话,你一个月就那两三千块钱,都不够自己的,还不如回来做这个(A19)”。第一代旅游小企业创业者将企业交于子女打理,以代际传承的方式实现家业传承的目标。这些二代年轻的业主,之前多是在外读书或者打工,他们的学识和眼界较第一代业主有很大的提升。他们将自己的所学所见应用于企业经营中,促使本企业适应现代旅游消费市场。2006年父母开业,2015年接手经营的A10业主谈到:“他们那个时候装修是什么?房间里有空调、有电视、有床,有卫生间,就OK了,你像茶具、矿泉水、电热水壶、电吹风、浴巾他们是不配的……因为我们到外面跑得多,父母那个时候都没有出去过。别人的宾馆是什么样的,他也不知道。我们出去过,住过别人的宾馆、酒店。才知道这个酒店里面应该有一些什么东西”。1997年开业,2016年正式接手经营的A01业主也认为:“包括从客房设施的硬件,这种能看得见的变化,还有服务理念的这种看不见的变化。原来简单的提供吃住行这三个,这些简单硬性需求,发展到现在这种软性需求。客人来提供他一些方便,以前父母考虑较少一点”。在传统农家乐向精品民宿转变的过程中,休闲的概念被二代业主识别并实践到本企业经营中,企业逐步由增加客房数获取收益到精致化、休闲化的方向演变。“像摇椅啊,这些东西他们也不会去配。我们后来接手,慢慢去搞一些稀奇古怪的东西,再比如院子里的盆景啊,我都也是花过心思的。最近我计划把父母原来住的房间改成一个书吧。不做房间了,做书吧。就给客人有休息的地方。喝喝咖啡、喝喝茶、看看书、聊聊天这样子(A10)”。由此可见,宏村二代旅游小企业主是在“守业”基础上的“持续创业”,他们不断融入新的企业经营理念,推动企业可持续成长。同时,本土旅游小企业代际传承相对于引入外来资本“租金式”的发展模式,经济上,可有效避免家庭企业经济漏损,改善家庭生活条件;文化上,本土旅游小企业可有效传承当地传统文化。因此,代际传承是宏村本土旅游小企业成长过程中的关键环节和重要路径。

4.3 连锁扩张成长路径

企业通过扩大原有产品的生产和销售,向与原产品有关的方向扩展以及扩展新的市场和客户类别,并通过企业内部的组织和交易方式将不同生产阶段联结起来,以实现交易内部化,以横向一体化、纵向一体化和多元化的方式实现企业成长[46]。宏村游客量的持续增加、现代游客多维度的需求层次和高品质追求,以及宏村作为世界文化遗产地对企业规模的限制等因素。一些经营时间久或者经营效果较好的企业,开始以开分店、连锁经营的形式扩大企业。创办于2014年的A24客栈民宿,是宏村经营状况较好的旅游小企业之一。短短3年就有三家店在同时经营,且每家店均有主打特色和顾客群体。“我们第一个店,应该是以年薪在15到20万之间的,这边是20万以上的,三店就是针对普通群体……风格方面也有不同,三店那边是主题客栈,一店是老房子风格,这边(二店)比较偏欧式”。由宏村老房子、古宅改建的客栈民宿外观古朴、怀旧,但均存在潮湿、隔音差等无法改变的缺点。因此,新开的分店就会有意地规避这些缺点,以干燥舒适的新店与老店形成景观和产品互补。“凡舍七号是我们的分店,那边比较新,是楼房改造的,住宿条件要好一点。但是没有这种老房子的特色,好多人讲都是要‘看在眼里,住在心里’。就是说看要看这种老房子,但住要住好一点(A01)”。游客市场的细分,促进旅游消费产品的进一步细化,部分宏村旅游小企业通过向新的客户类别扩展,采取横向一体化的企业扩张方式,尽可能地抢占游客市场。

企业成长理论指出,企业是市场机制的替代,节约市场交易费用是企业成长的动力。一方面,宏村不同消费需求的观光游客,促使部分旅游小企业采取一体化的方式实现店面扩张。另一方面,宏村每年还拥有近40万人次的写生学生,是黟县写生接待的重点区域[66]。针对观光游客和写生学生两大顾客群体,部分旅游小企业便根据两类群体不同的消费需求开设分店。“村里面主要做游客,主打的是现磨咖啡;外面做学生,主要是经营奶茶,鸡排小吃什么的(A15)”。同时,宏村部分旅游小企业还会采取企业内部成长的方式,以节约市场交易成长,实现企业扩张。“那边主要是住宿,这边餐饮和住宿都有,我这边餐饮也是个特色。因为我家客人比较多,回头客比较多,我就觉得有必要经营一个新店,我也会介绍那边的客人到这里吃饭(A02)”。“那边的店是2016年开的,主要是做客栈。这边楼上有几个小房间,但主要是做餐饮(A14)”。将食宿分别专业化经营,达到丰富本企业经营类型的扩张目的。此外,宏村旅游小企业连锁扩张不仅体现为分店数量增多和产品类型丰富,还体现在企业位置的区域扩展,即企业多店面、多类型、多区域的网络化连锁扩张成长。“我们老板好几个景区都有店。西递是个客栈,西塘是卖饰品的,现在好像在婺源那边又想开店了。也许叫的名字不一样,但都是他开的”(A29)。宏村旅游小企业采取连锁经营、开分店的形式已经比较普遍。他们以市场为导向、以企业家精神为推动,通过提供多样化产品,扩展新的客户群体等方式,以节约市场交易费用,采取多店面连锁扩张的方式实现企业可持续成长。

4.4 抱团经营成长路径

抱团经营就是企业通过灵活多样的形式联合起来,资源共享,风险共担,克服和解决依靠单个企业的资源和能力无法克服的困难,实现企业成长的目标[67]。企业抱团策略一般会出现在企业市场竞争或者融资困难的时候。如异地商会通常采取这种方式组建“经济共同体”,协助会员企业进行资金、资源整合,提高整体竞争力,增强抗风险能力,达到预期的投资和运营效果。企业抱团不等同于企业并购和连锁,抱团后的企业拥有完全的自主经营权利,不会受到其他企业的管理限制。抱团是企业避免自身劣势,增强竞争力,实现可持续成长的策略和方式。宏村旅游小企业抱团经营多出现在本地客栈这一企业类型。原因包括:一是古村落文化遗产地的性质,导致每个客栈(民宿)的客房数量较少;二是客房在网上预订平台全部售出之后,将不得不退出预订页面。“我们7个房间,你订完了就得关房。一关房,就搜不到你了(A23)”;三是外地业主可通过连锁分店的形式,抢占市场,而本地业主则受到资金和经营能力的限制。在单个企业资源和能力不足、缺乏竞争优势的情况下,部分企业间采取抱团的形式,以扩大产品销售规模,弥补自身企业不足,应对同行竞争。

宏村客栈民宿抱团经营仍处于非正式阶段,尚未形成正式的组织形式。“我准备联系本村的几家在一起,做一个平台,比如说分为一院、二院、三院这样子,如果你接到旅行团,大家可以一起分。就是准备捆绑式的,不要单打独斗了。通过抱团,你基本上可以一直摆在(网络平台)上面卖,房源保证充足”(A19)。这样,既保证了自身利益,又促进了各个抱团企业的发展,是一个多方共赢的尝试。旅游小企业实现成功抱团经营需要满足几个条件。一是抱团企业的规模档次一致;“我们要把宏村本地人经营的客栈10个、5个这样的去分等级、分档次。你看老房子归老房子去归属,像我们这种新装修、新装饰的是一种,还有一大批不如我们的,让他们提升一下再去捆绑(A23)”。二是企业的服务态度良好;“你服务态度好的,我才给你纳进来,服务态度不好,我不考虑的(A19)”。三是企业主之间社会关系较紧密;“这些人要从我熟悉的人中去选,如果关系不好,以后因为一点点小事斤斤计较,就不好了(A19)”。总之,通过对各抱团企业的规模档次、服务态度以及企业主之间的社会关系进行层级划分和评估,以实现企业抱团后总体的质量和形象,并避免经营纠纷。虽然抱团经营的这种成长路径尚未形成制度性的组织,但已初见雏形,如关系较紧密的企业主之间、软硬件水平较一致的企业之间相互介绍客人。同时,宏村是一个汪姓聚集的传统古村落,宗族观念较强,在这样的社会网络下,企业抱团经营的成长方式具有存在的现实基础。“这种想法怎么说呢?也许能走通。也许走不通。因为农民这个小资产意识太强。谁也吃不了亏。但是,宏村好在基本都是汪姓,都是七大姑八大姨的,也许可以弄得出来(A23)”。

4.5 品牌加盟成长路径

品牌是企业的灵魂,也是企业战胜竞争对手的“杀手锏”。企业加盟就是业主通过缴纳一定的加盟费,利用加盟总部的品牌、形象和技术等,在商业市场上招揽顾客消费。在激烈的市场竞争中,企业要成长发展,就要学会适应和应对这种环境,建立起与企业外各种资源间的联系。那么,寻找合适的品牌,采用加盟店的形式,是新建企业吸引顾客、增加营业额的有效方式。

企业创办及成长过程中,在明晰自身不足的情况下,需要对市场环境作出有效的分析,确定企业成长战略。而品牌是市场的引导者,是一种无形的竞争力量,是企业快速成长的便捷路径。在宏村,2016年初开业的A31是一对夫妻,他们瞄准了当地巨大的写生学生顾客群体,丈夫在紧靠西一门的景区外,已成功加盟XX品牌,生意非常好。自己在景区内经营要兼顾学生和游客两大顾客群体,加盟品牌考虑的因素就较多,既要达到品牌的大众市场认可度,又需支付高额的品牌加盟费和景区内房租。“今年旁边开了两家加盟店,游客和学生都很多,我这个牌子不太好,要换一个好点的加盟店就好了。他们都是在我之后开店,但他们是那种有名的店,肯定要比我好一些吧。我丈夫在景区外面,他主要考虑写生学生就好了(A31)”。面对产品经营的同质化压力,加盟某个市场口碑较好的品牌成为企业成长的捷径。同时,现代消费者要求购买的产品能够同时满足其物质和精神需求,即消费者的“认牌消费”观念[68]。“现在人们出去消费,首先就要看你店的名气了,如果名气大,就认这个牌子(A17)”。宏村部分旅游小企业在自身缺乏应有的资金和技术可以创立品牌的时候,为面对市场竞争和游客需求,走品牌加盟的企业成长道路,可使企业快速扩大市场占有份额,实现企业成长。

5 成长路径的驱动机制

企业家精神和市场需求作为内外动力始终贯穿宏村旅游小企业的创立和成长过程,并持续发挥驱动作用(图1)。宏村旅游小企业产生于初级旅游市场需求和当地具有企业家精神的社区精英。随着宏村旅游业开发,游客简易的需求逐步产生。一些社区能人通过对自有房屋改造为游客提供服务。由此,民居房屋开始转变为旅游小企业的经营场所,居民开始转化为农民与企业主的双重身份。“那时候啊,因为游客来没地方吃,也没地方住,然后慢慢就有人有这种想法,先开店。那时候就是松鹤堂、居善堂、树人堂这几家,其他人都没有。那时候开店也得有这个投资,装修一下要万把块钱,好多人不愿意投入这个成本嘛。那时候人真的很少,一天也没几个。一开始岳父岳母一边开店一边做农活,没客人的时候就下田嘛,后来就专门搞这个东西了(A01)”。此时游客对各项旅游产品的需求量极少,而且对企业的软硬件设施和服务要求也很低。随着游客数量的增多和需求层次的提高,居民开始专职于旅游小企业经营,其规模档次得到了初步提升。“那时候人需求比较低,来了农户家就问,你家有饭吃吗?我给你多少钱,你给我烧点饭吧。然后问你家有地方住吗?然后把房子给你收拾一下。后来就是慢慢的游客就会问有没有什么标准间啊,能不能点菜啊,刚开始的时候是,游客来我们给他烧什么他吃什么,后来就是他点,慢慢就有了专门做餐饮的了(A02)”。当发现第一批居民通过经营旅游小企业赚钱后,其他居民开始纷纷效仿,纯粹的旅游小企业模仿经营开始出现,他们利用自有房屋或经营客栈、或经营土特产品和手工艺品。“别人能行,我也能行,反正都是自己的房子”的思维方式盛行。最终,通过这种旅游市场推动、精英企业家带动和模仿经营的方式,使得宏村旅游小企业数量从无到有,并迅速增加。

图1 旅游小企业的成长路径及其驱动机制 Fig. 1 The growth path and driving mechanism of small tourism enterprises

宏村旅游小企业成长过程中同样受到企业家精神和市场需求的影响,并且企业成长的内外部环境变得更加复杂。具体表现为以下几个方面:一是旅游市场需求持续升级,游客由简易的基本需求变得更加追求品质化和多元化,由此促进旅游小企业经营提档升级,更加注重产品多样化和品牌化。“一开始就是自己居住装修一次,后来经营客栈,就增加一些,现在游客要求越来越高了,要做得更精细一点(A02)”。近年来,中国旅游市场逐渐由大众观光向观光与休闲并重转变。相应地,旅游地小企业经营也逐步精品化和休闲化。企业所提供的服务和产品以及对小环境氛围的营造更加趋向于慢旅游和休闲度假。“你看我家的房型名称,都是一些词牌名。用这种方式就是想给游客一种回归古朴的住宿体验,和在城市里不一样的感觉(A33)”。二是企业间同质化竞争加剧,由前期大量模仿而来的小企业,其产品和服务出现极大雷同,导致整个宏村旅游小企业经营愈加困难。由此,企业通过简单模仿到改进的模仿、创造的模仿,寻求差异化的转型道路。“就是努力跟人家做不一样的,不要跟人家做一样的,人家仿你的,你就赶紧换啊(A22)”。“就是因为有竞争压力,我们才改变的。我们追求的客源不一样,他们可能会追求消费低端一点的,我们至少是追求中端一点的客人(A05)”。三是古村落遗产地保护的限制,来自于房屋改扩建的硬性限制,使得宏村每个小企业的经营规模都不会太大。为抢占客源市场,促使宏村旅游小企业由一店单特色到连锁多特色分店、由单打独斗到企业抱团的方向演化转变,更加促进了企业的特色和品质升级,并提高了各企业抵抗外部风险的能力。四是企业家精神的持续驱动,宏村的旅游小企业主可分为三类,第一类是早期的社区能人,他们实现了宏村旅游小企业从无到有,并不断模仿创新,提升企业品质;第二类是外地企业主,随着这部分企业主相继进入宏村,他们新颖的经营理念、先进的管理方式,对宏村整体旅游小企业是一种提升,并对本土旅游小企业形成了巨大的冲击,迫使其转型升级。第三类是本土二代企业主,他们在受教育水平、资本运用能力方面,相对于上一代本土企业主有所提高。在承接父辈产业,面对激烈的市场竞争和本企业仍处于较低层级水平的情况下,他们有心发挥自己应有地作用,使企业转型升级。

这种通过企业家精神内部推动,以及旅游市场持续升级、企业竞争加剧和古村落遗产地保护等外部限制压力下,部分旅游小企业主动采用模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟等方式,实现企业可持续成长。但是,部分旅游小企业主成长意愿不足,在面对企业多种生存压力下,选择了退出市场,而将企业或者房屋租售给其他有意于从事旅游小企业经营的企业主。新的旅游小企业主在对市场作出考察分析后,通过选择模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟五种路径方式的一种或多种,实现旅游小企业继续成长。按此规律,形成宏村旅游小企业成长循环更新,促进宏村旅游小企业提档升级,实现量的增长和质的提升。

6 结论与讨论

旅游小企业创立和成长包括模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟等五种路径。在旅游小企业成长初期自身创新资源不足,或企业自主创新缺乏相应资源支撑时,通过模仿创新,能够快速有效的积累知识和技术,内化为企业成长的资源。旅游小企业利用市场对品牌的认可,采取加盟的方式,以提高市场份额获得成长。二代旅游小企业主在代际传承的基础上,以“二次创业”实现企业的转型升级。部分旅游小企业通过增加旅游产品数量、丰富旅游产品类型和拓展旅游消费人群等方式,增加企业销售量、扩大经营范围、开拓新的旅游市场,采用抱团经营和连锁扩张的企业成长路径,实现企业规模经济和节约市场交易费用,实现企业成长。

进一步研究发现,旅游小企业的创立和成长是一个动态的过程。在企业家精神和市场需求双重因素作用下,宏村旅游小企业在创立和成长过程中通常会采取模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟五种路径实现企业成长。居民利用民居房屋开展经营旅游小企业,实现了身份转化和场所转变,创立了旅游小企业。在成长过程中,受遗产保护限制和市场竞争压力,旅游小企业主群体产生分化,成长意愿不足的小企业主通过租售退出市场,推动新的小企业创立;具有成长意愿的旅游小企业通过五种企业成长路径的一种或多种实现企业成长。以此,构成了旅游小企业成长的循环更新。

随着中国旅游业的快速发展以及社区居民参与旅游发展意识的不断增强,旅游小企业的创立和成长问题亟需开展深入的理论研究。本文只是分析在企业家精神和市场环境等内外力作用下,宏村旅游小企业在成长过程中存在的五种路径方式,但是,就单个旅游小企业成长路径的选择而言,是选择一种还是多种?如何选择等问题是未来该领域的研究议题。同时,本研究以宏村为案例地,所得出的五种成长路径是否同样适用于其他的旅游小企业集聚地,还需开展多案例的比较研究,丰富旅游小企业成长路径选择及其驱动机制的本土化理论成果。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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[34] 尹寿兵, 刘云霞, 赵鹏. 景区内旅游小企业发展的驱动机制: 西递村案例研究. 地理研究, 2013, 32(2): 360-368.
Qualitative research methodology is used in this study, such as participant observation and in-depth interview. Based on reviewing the progress of tourism development in Xidi village, it has been found that entrepreneurship and tourism demands are the critical internal and external factors in the development of the small tourism firms (STFs), and both factors have exerted great influence on the governance model. Three stages of governance model have been identified by the intervention degree of government, community and the third sector (e.g., Heritage Protection Organizations). The three stages are the community governance model with spontaneous community participation, the network governance model featuring the joint controls by government, community and the third sector, and the hierarchy governance model with government's constantly strengthening commands and controls. Along with the changes in governance model, government's commands and controls have been strengthened continuously, while government's interest demands led to structural changes in the tourism markets, which caused the changes in the operating characteristics and spatial structure of the STFs. Meanwhile, the entrepreneurship and imitative innovation capacity of the residents have been influenced, hence the development pace and scale of the STFs presented different features in different stages. As indicated by the research findings, the optimization of governance model is the key point to the sustainable development of the STFs.
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This paper examines critical issues related to the management of small tourism firms (STFs). It is based on a postal survey of 317 STFs, supplemented by 57 in-depth interviews with owner-managers. The findings suggest that the development and management of small tourism firms are shaped by a number of different factors related to the business owner anager, nature of the tourism activity, its locality and other aspects of the sector specific business environment. A central part of New Zealand, encompassing four localities integrated in a single marketing entity, the Centre Stage [tourism] Macro Region (CSMR), provides the geographical scope of this study. The area exhibits a blend of urban and rural contexts offering a unique opportunity to examine managerial problems in the growing small tourism sector.
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Drawing on the literature on tourism, entrepreneurship, environmental psychology, and corporate philanthropy, this research examines how place identity, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and support for community influence the entrepreneurial performance of small and medium tourism enterprise (SMTE) owners. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling are used to analyse the responses from 301 tourism entrepreneurs operating in regional South Australia. The data supports a model suggesting that the place identity of tourism entrepreneurs has a significant, positive effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and support for the community. Findings also suggest that the place identity of tourism entrepreneurs has a positive, indirect effect on entrepreneurial performance: a tourism entrepreneur sense of identity with the place in which his/her business operates contributes toward entrepreneurial success.
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[37] 尹寿兵, 刘云霞, 赵鹏. 皖南古村落旅游小企业经营特征研究. 安徽农业大学学报: 社会科学版, 2013, 22(2): 70-73.
经营特征一直是旅游小企业领域的主要研究内容之一,已有成果较少探讨古村落景区旅游小企业经营特征的形成因素。通过对皖南古村落旅游小企业的调查,总结归纳旅游小企业的经营特征。研究发现,旅游小企业经营特征的形成是地理区位和历史传统、古村落文化、市场需求、管理机构变迁、旅游发展等多重因素共同作用的结果。研究结论有助于古村落目的地旅游小企业可持续发展。
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随着旅游小企业的迅速兴起与发展,国外学术界已经初步形成关于旅游小企业的研究体系,并将其视为旅游目的地可持续研究的重要内容。相对于国外研究而言,国内学术界对于旅游小企业的研究还是一片空白。为此,本文对国外旅游小企业研究的兴起与发展的历程,重要的研究文献,以及当前国外学者研究的主要内容等进行了具体的介绍,并对国外现有研究文献进行相关评述。希望借此文以促进国内旅游小企业的研究。
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This research examines goals pertaining to start-up, operations, the family, and ultimate disposition of the enterprise by family and owner-operated businesses in the rural tourism and hospitality sectors. The sample is from a survey in rural Western Australia. A large majority of respondents were from middle-aged couples, new to the business, with strong motivation to live and work in the countryside. Lifestyle and family-related goals were predominant, but there was also recognition that the business had to be profitable. Most respondents were uncertain about the ultimate disposition of their business; only about one-third had definite succession plans to involve children or other family members. Implications are drawn for business and destination development.
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Surveys were conducted among family business owners in the tourism and hospitality industry in two resort areas (one in Canada and one in Denmark) with a view to identifying growth and profit-oriented entrepreneurs. Analysis of owners’ attitudes and goals reveals the predominance of lifestyle and autonomy orientations, but also profiles those who are more profit and growth oriented. This small sub-group differs somewhat in the two resorts—in both cases profit and growth orientation is significantly higher among those who purchased their business, particularly accommodation establishments and restaurants. Bed and breakfast and arts and craft businesses are clearly associated with lifestyle and autonomy. Theoretical, management and policy implications are discussed.
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There are more than a billion people who live in poverty (Collier, 2007; Reynolds, 2012). Twenty-one percent of the population in developing countries (1.22 billion people) can only spend $1.25 or below a day in the year 2010 (Olinto, Beegle, Sobrado, and Uematsu, 2013). In addition to poverty, a major problem for developing countries is the high rate of unemployment (The International Labor Office [ILO], 2013). Two thirds of the young population in developing countries was unemployed or worked in irregular employment in the year 2012 (ILO, 2013; UNDESA, 2013). What will aggravate the situation is that many more young people will enter the future job market. In least developed countries 40% of the population was younger than 15 years in 2012, and 20% were aged between 15 and 24 years (UNDESA, 2013). Consequently, many governmental and non-governmental bodies argue that solving the problem of unemployment and fostering employment creation in developing countries is of high importance (ILO, 2013; UNDESA, 2013). A possible approach to address the issue of unemployment is entrepreneurship since research shows that entrepreneurship supports employment creation (Acs, Desai, and Hessels, 2008; Gries and Naud茅, 2010; Mead and Liedholm, 1998; Naud茅, 2010, 2012; Naud茅, Gries, Wood, and Meintjies, 2008). This implies that through promoting entrepreneurship it is possible to contribute to employment creation.
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61Small tourism firms in rural destinations are constantly challenged by industry related and external changes.61Representations of a rural destination by small tourism firm owners and managers are explored.61Coping is mobilised by perceived threats to the destination's representation.61Implementation of coping is not without difficulties and concerns.61Collaborative planning with stakeholders concerned about rural development is needed.
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This research examines the meaning and impacts of “extreme” seasonality of tourist demand on family businesses in the tourism and hospitality industry, and how owners strategically adapt. Data were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire and interviews with family business owners on the Danish Island of Bornholm. Revealed strategies were categorized as “coping” with or “combating” seasonality, and in some cases the possibility of terminating the business or “capitulating”. Most responses to extreme seasonality have profound implications for family life as well as business growth or viability. Implications are drawn for family businesses and for destinations.
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In response to the United Kingdom’s government’s desire to improve the performance of tourism, hospitality, and leisure small medium-sized enterprises, this article analyzes the performance measurement processes within 10 best practice organizations. Related to contemporary approaches to improving business performance in the management literature, performance measurement approaches are analyzed using the balanced scorecard framework. An exploratory case study approach using the balanced scorecard as the theoretical framework was taken to explore and elicit critical success factors in performance measurement. Results revealed that four key concepts drove measurement and performance evaluation systems across the sample. These were the exercising of budgetary control with a view to increasing total revenue, the undertaking of customer relationship management as a means of improving quality of service and customer retention, the necessity for strategic management in managing internal business processes, and collaboration (both inter and intra) to drive innovation and learning. The article also proposes a balanced scorecard template for hotels
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本文以中国旅游小企业发展的典型地区阳朔西街为案便,对旅游小企业的经营特征进行研究。在问卷调查和访谈的基础上,分别从企业性质与经营方式、顾客的类型与数量等方面对旅游小企业的特征进行总结,最后指出在中国旅游小企业的发展中,应充分依据其经营特点,以促进旅游小企业的发展和旅游目的地的发展。
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随着全球企业小型化的发展,小企业已经发展为旅游企业的重要组成部分,对区域旅游发展起到促进作用.生活方式型旅游企业从属于旅游小企业,在国内外广泛存在,但相关研究较少.本文运用质性研究方法,通过大理古城实地调研.将生活方式型旅游企业划分为3种类型并进行分析,发现它们的动机和目标存在一定的共性,但也出现了分异.类生活方式型动机出自维持生计和兴趣爱好,但目标却逐渐偏向盈利和扩张;进取型的动机是兴趣爱好,目标也是享受生活状态,具有一致性;保守型中纯玩型的动机是享受不同生活方式,目标则表现出不稳定性,而需要维持生计型的则动机明确,维持生计,目标出现分化,分为维持现状和不明确.因此,政府在政策制定时需要对不同类型的企业进行区分并加以引导.
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[50] 彭青, 曾国军. 家庭旅馆成长路径研究: 以世界文化遗产地丽江古城为例. 旅游学刊, 2010, (9): 58-64.
本文对丽江家庭旅馆的成长路径和影响因素进行实证研究,发现丽江古城家庭旅馆的4种成长路径:连锁化经营、扩展为民居旅馆、业务多元化、业务创新发展。在丽江,家庭旅馆经营者出现了原住民文化空心化与外来文化多元化的反差现象。影响丽江古城家庭旅馆创建的主要因素包括创始人个人经历、机会成本、家庭条件以及市场需求和政策引导。影响丽江家庭旅馆成长的主要影响因素是服务创新,一些在预订、通讯网络、文化交流等方面创新的家庭旅馆获得持续成长。丽江家庭旅馆关闭的影响因素包括销售渠道不畅而转租、追求高品质生活而迁移、因政府强制改造缺乏资金而放弃经营等。丽江家庭旅馆成长路径与一般家族性企业发展规律有别,强制性制度影响是发展的重要外部影响因素,也是文化遗产地家庭旅馆成长的特殊性。
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[51] 傅慧, 赵世伟, 蔡筱霞. 旅游小企业成长研究: 前因变量与结果变量. 中大管理研究, 2013, 8(3): 63-79.
传统的旅游研究把旅游小企业看成一种边缘企业,很多旅游目的地对旅游小企业发展都曾持有消极的态度。然而,旅游小企业进入门槛低,适于企业主人力资本的发挥,对旅游行业的充分发展扮演着灵活而重要的角色,使得近年来有关旅游小企业的研究受到国外学者的积极关注。本文从旅游小企业的概念界定争议入手,结合旅游小企业的特征,从个体层面(旅游小企业的企业主、旅游小企业员工),组织层面(旅游小企业资源禀赋、电子商务运营能力、创新能力)以及外部环境(政策制定)等三个层面探讨了影响旅游小企业成长的前因变量与结果变量,奠定了旅游小企业成长研究的理论基础。
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随着经济全球化趋势的发展,创新型企业在国际竞争中的作用日益凸显,近年来我国创新型企业取得了快速的发展。然而,与发达国家相比,我国创新型企业在成长过程中还面临很多问题,很多企业只能实现短期成长,难以实现持续、长期成长,其重要根源在于创新型企业在成长中尚未找到切实可行的有效路径。因此,分析创新型企业成长路径影响因素及作用机理,探寻路径选择决策的思路,从而推动创新型企业健康、持续成长,具有重要的意义。   论文在对国内外研究进行综述的基础上,对创新型企业以及企业成长路径的基本范畴进行了概括。界定了创新型企业的含义及特征...
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[59] 李小建, 李二玲. 中国中部农区企业集群的竞争优势研究: 以河南省虞城县南庄村钢卷尺企业集群为例. 地理科学, 2004, 24(2): 136-143.
The competitive advantages of enterprise clusters in rural areas of central China are resulted from not only the triple factors of the economies of scale, the economies of the division of labor and the network linkage, which is the common characteristic of all clusters, but also from the imitative innovation, the context of the central Chinese culture, the institutional support and the lower production costs. This article takes the example of the steel tape clusters in Nanzhuang Village, Yucheng County, Henan Province to examine the theory in view of the practice.
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[60] Bjuggren P O, Sund L G.Strategic decision making in intergenerational successions of small-and medium-size family-owned businesses. Family Business Review, 2004, 14(1): 11-24.
This paper deals with intergenerational successions of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). Entrepreneurs face an unavoidable succession dilemma: they must make either explicit or implicit strategic decisions about transitioning ownership of the family business. The main alternatives are to sell the company to someone outside the family or to make arrangements for an interfamily succession. In the latter case, there are many transition modes, e.g., through a gift of shares or a ill. This paper uses decision trees to analyze intergenerational successions problems. One conclusion of the paper is that it is important for a society to provide a legal system that facilitates transitions of family companies within the family because the legal system will, among other positive factors connected with family businesses, preserve idiosyncratic knowledge of family character.
DOI:10.1111/j.1741-6248.2001.00011.x      [本文引用:1]
[61] Bjuggren P O, Sund L G.A transaction cost rationale for transition of the firm within the family. Small Business Economics, 2002, 19(2): 123-133.
This paper is about the transition of ownership of shares in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the family (i.e. from parents to children). In spite of the fact that such successions are rather prevalent among SMEs, there are no explanations in the literature as to why transitions are preferred to outright sale. In this paper we assume that the decisive factor in the choice of succession mode is the desire for efficiency expressed as the highest possible firm value. A firm should stay in the family if this is the most profitable transition alternative. One reason for intergenerational succession to be the most profitable alternative is knowledge idiosyncrasy. However, the benefits of knowledge idiosyncrasy cannot be reaped without an institutional framework that constrains human activities in a proper way. A part of an institutional framework are the laws that act as constraints in successions. Do these laws foster or prevent efficient transition of family firms? This question is addressed in a study of the Swedish inheritance and inheritance tax laws in the light of the policy recommendations on succession made by the European Commission.
DOI:10.1023/A:1016289106477      [本文引用:1]
[62] Cabrera-Suárez K, Saá-Pérez P D, García-Almeida D. The succession process from a resource-and knowledge-based view of the family firm. Family Business Review, 2001, 14(1): 37-48.
A major challenge facing the family firm is the succession process. One reason for this challenge might involve the successor's ability to acquire the predecessor's key knowledge and skills adequately to maintain and improve the organizational performance of the firm. This paper uses two theoretical approaches from the strategic management field to explore this critical process and analyze how it can be managed effectively: the resource-based theory of the firm and the emergent knowledgebased view. This conceptual framework provides a powerful tool for understanding the nature and transfer of knowledge within the family business, which becomes the basis for developing competitive advantage over nonfamily businesses.
DOI:10.1111/j.1741-6248.2001.00037.x      [本文引用:1]
[63] Chrisman J J, Chua J H, Litz R.A unified systems perspective of family firm performance: An extension and integration. Journal of Bussiness Venturing, 2003, 18(4): 467-472.
Theory and practice indicate that in family-influenced firms, the interaction of the family unit, the business entity, and individual family members create unique systemic conditions and constituencies that impact the performance outcomes of the family business social system. Habbershon and Williams [Fam. Bus. Rev. 12 (1999) 1] have suggested that these unique systemic family influences can be captured through an analysis of the resources and capabilities of the organization. In this paper, we pursue their line of thinking and more specifically examine the systemic relationship of resources and capabilities as a source of advantage or constraint to the performance outcomes for family-influenced firms. The idiosyncratic firm level bundle of resources and capabilities resulting from the systems interactions are referred to as the “familiness” of the firm. Wealth-creating performance for family-influenced firms is a function of the “distinctive familiness” generated by the family business system. The performance model focuses on a particular subset of family-influenced firms whose performance goal is transgenerational wealth and wealth creation potential. We refer to those families that meet this premise as “enterprising families.” We develop a unified systems model of performance that links the resources and capabilities generated in the enterprising families system with their potential for transgenerational wealth creation.
DOI:10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00053-3      [本文引用:1]
[64] 李新春. 单位化企业的经济性质. 经济研究, 2001, (7): 35-43.
尽管社会学家对单位化组织展开了多方面的研究 ,但缺乏对单位化企业的经济性质的研究。本文首先从单位化企业的概念和特征入手 ,旨在厘清“单位化企业”的概念和描述其主要经济特征。然后 ,从企业理论的角度 ,主要从三个方面分析单位化企业的性质 :第一个方面是企业的身份特征 ,相比于科斯意义上的企业 ,单位化企业在市场交易和内部组织上具有强烈的身份治理特征 ,这是长期被企业的契约理论所回避的一个问题 ;第二个方面是企业劳动合约的性质 ,纳尔森 /温特意义上的企业组织进化的“组织程式”是与长期关系合约直接相联系的 ,这是企业内部组织通过管理协调节约交易成本的主要因素 ;第三个方面论述单位化企业中家庭与企业的联结 ,这导致韦伯意义上的官僚科层制度的组织效率难以实现
[本文引用:1]
[Li Xinchun.The economic nature of the unit enterprise. Economic Research Journal, 2001, (7): 35-43.]
[65] 李新春, 韩剑, 李炜文. 传承还是另创领地? 家族企业二代继承的权威合法性建构. 管理世界, 2015, (6): 110-124.
代际传承是家族企业可持续成长的关键。然而,二代继承人往往因为权威合法性不足面临着"少主难以服众"的尴尬局面。针对上述现象,本文从权威理论和比较期望理论出发分析二代继任的权威合法性不足的问题。这一研究从过去主要关注家族企业传承什么和如何传承的问题,转向对代际传承与组合创业的关系及其微观机理的研究。本文的基本假设是,二代继承者一个可能的选择不是简单地继承父业,而是"另创领地"进入其他行业或领域,这一组合创业是其面对自身权威合法性不足以及比较期望过高的不利环境时,构建个人权威和显示其能力合法性的战略选择。同时,制度环境作为改变比较期望的参考框架,也会影响二代进行组合创业的倾向。这一研究模型将家族传承、权威合法性与组合创业理论有机地结合起来,拓展和深化了家族企业代际创业与传承的研究。运用我国上市家族企业的数据,本文分析检验了上述理论命题,给出了稳健性较好的实证支持,对我国家族企业二代传承与组合创业的关系给出了一个制度情境依赖的解释。
[本文引用:1]
[Li Xinchun, Han Jian, Li Weiwen.Is it succession of the family business or creating other field? The construction of the authority legitimacy of the second generation succession of the family business. Management World, 2015, (6): 110-124.]
[66] 卢松, 吴霞. 古村落旅游地写生游客满意度评价: 以黟县宏村为例. 地理研究, 2017, 36(8): 1570-1582.
写生旅游是古村落旅游开发中极富特色的一种旅游产品形式,构成了研学旅游市场的重要组成部分。以黟县古村落宏村为例,开展古村落旅游地写生游客满意度评价研究。研究发现:(1)黟县古村落写生客源地来源广泛,主要集中于中、东部地区;写生消费总量可观、经济贡献比普通游客大。(2)识别了古村落写生游客满意度评价6个维度,按满意度由高到低依次为:写生核心吸引物、专门管理与服务、写生氛围、公共服务设施、写生环保设施、食宿设施。(3)总体上写生游客对黟县古村落写生旅游产品有着较高的满意度水平,写生游客满意度6个因子均对总体满意度有显著影响,其中写生核心吸引物影响最大,公共服务设施次之。(4)开展了游客满意度—重要性矩阵分析,对优势因素、重点改进因素、后续改进因素和维持因素进行了识别。研究成果有助于提升写生旅游者游客体验和促进古村落旅游可持续发展。
DOI:10.11821/dlyj201708014      [本文引用:1]
[Lu Song, Wu Xia.Assessment of tourist satisfaction of the painting tourism in the ancient villages: The case study of Hongcun village, Yixian county. Geographical Research, 2017, 36(8): 1570-1582.]
[67] 杭言勇. 浙江省中小企业国际化过程中“抱团”策略的实证分析. 国际商务, 2009, (3): 48-51.
浙江省中小企业"抱团"取暖共克时艰的生动案例充分体现了其敢为天下先的创新特质,不仅有效地解决了中小企业国际化过程中的困难和问题,也为进一步研究中小企业战略联盟模式的发展提供了有益的素材。
[本文引用:1]
[Hang Yanyong.Positive analysis on the "Embracing" strategy in the internationalization process for small and medium enterprises in Zhejiang. International Business, 2009, (3): 48-51.]
[68] 陈栋, 卫平. 企业品牌核心价值研究. 技术经济, 2011, 30(3): 108-116.
结合品牌核心价值产生的内外部环境,对品牌核心价值的组织构成、品牌核心价值各组成部分的关系及其与外部环境的相互作用机制进行了探讨,提出了品牌核心价值体系的概念,运用柯布-道格拉斯生产函数构建了品牌核心价值体系模型,并运用该模型对如何调整与完善品牌核心价值进行了分析.
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1002-980X.2011.03.021      [本文引用:1]
[Chen Dong, Wei Ping.Study on core value of enterprise's brand. Technology Economics, 2011, 30(3): 108-116.]
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