The influence of cross-border roads on spatio-temporal connection in the city integration areas: Guangzhou-Foshan case
CHEN Huiling1,, CAO Xiaoshu1,, LIANG Feiwen1, GU Hengyu2
1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2. School of Government, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Urban integration can be defined as some stage of adjacent cities development in the region, and transport is an important basis for generating the integration effect. This paper analyzes the spatio-temporal structure characteristics of the Guangzhou-Foshan region and the influence of cross-border roads construction on spatio-temporal connection between Guangzhou and Foshan by using Space Syntax and time-space map method. Findings suggest that the polarization pattern is presented within the Inner Ring Road of Guangzhou in 5 km and 10 km scopes, and the central agglomeration is obvious in 20 km and 100 km scopes based on the integration value in Guangzhou-Foshan model. The time map of Guangzhou-Foshan shrinks significantly in the east-west direction. After the planned roads became passable, the closer the street is to the boundary, the greater the range-displacement is. The time cost of southern Guangzhou city and Nanhai district of Foshan city, Shunde would improve significantly. The planned roads are conducive to improving the overall level of road network accessibility on different scales, which shunt the traffic flow of the western Guangzhou-Foshan roads, Chencun bridge and Yushan west road etc. Compared with the previous urban integration studies, this paper identifies the city grade difference and traffic potential on different scales and makes the space-time transformation of geographical space for Guangzhou-Foshan by using space syntax and time-space map method. These conclusions could be used as a reference for city function integration in the future and provide a new dimension and perspective for the related research.
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Policy decisions on transport infrastructure investments often require knowledge of welfare effects generated from using these infrastructures on a detailed regional level. This is in particular true for the EU initiative promoting the development of the trans-European transport (TEN-T) networks. As projects within this initiative affect regions in different countries, incentive compatible financing schemes cannot be designed without knowing where the benefits accrue. Furthermore, this initiative is also intended to contribute to the cohesion objective on a community scale, and only with regional impact studies one can assess to which extent these objectives are attained. As standard cost-benefit analysis is unable to assign benefits to eventual beneficiaries in the economy, we develop and apply a spatial computable general equilibrium (SCGE) model as a suitable alternative. The model has a household sector and a production sector with two industries, one producing local goods, the other producing tradables. Regions interact through costly trade, with trade costs depending, among others, on the state of the infrastructure. New links reduce trade costs, which changes trade flows, production, goods prices and factor prices and thus eventually the welfare of households in different regions. We present the formal structure of the model, the calibration procedure and the data sources for calibrating the model and estimating the trade cost reductions stemming from new transport links. As the model is only able to quantify effects related to trade in goods we also suggest a simplified approach to add effects stemming from passenger transport. We apply the methods to a policy experiment related to the TEN-T priority list of projects. We quantify project by project the social return, check whether significant benefit spillovers to countries not involved in financing might prevent realization of projects in spite of their respective profitability from European wide point of view, and finally we evaluate the contribution of each project to the spatial cohesion objective. Our results confirm sceptical views on EU involvement in infrastructure policy that have been expressed in the literature.
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The methodology is tested by its application to the development of the 670聽km of the Galician (north-western) HSR corridor included in the Spanish PEIT (Strategic Transport and Infrastructure Plan) 2005-2020. Cohesion impacts are assessed at different direct planning levels: regional, corridor and national levels, as well from the perspective of spillover effects. In all cases, the construction of the HSR corridor increases the accessibility values, and results show positive cohesion effects at the national and corridor levels, whereas at the regional level both balancing and polarization effects appear. These differences are mainly due to the location of HSR stations or to the quality of the transport network from the surrounding cities to the station, which determines the territorial distribution of accessibility improvements. Similar results are found from the spillover perspective.
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AbstractThe state of the art in appraisal of transport infrastructure (particularly for developed countries) is moving towards inclusivity of a set of wider impacts than has traditionally been the case. In appraisal frameworks generally Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA), features as either an alternative to, or complementary with, Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) particularly when assessing a wider set of distributional and other impacts. In that respect it goes some way towards addressing an identified weakness in conventional CBA. This paper proposes a new method to incorporate the wider impacts into the appraisal framework (SUMINI) based upon a composite indicator and MCA. The method is illustrated for a particular example of the wider set of impacts, i.e. equity, through the ex-post assessment of two large EU transport infrastructure (TEN-T) case studies. The results suggest that SUMINI assesses equity impacts well and the case studies highlight the flexibility of the approach in reflecting different policy or project objectives. The research concludes that this method should not be viewed as being in competition with traditional CBA, but that it could be an easily adopted and complementary approach. The value in the research is in providing a new and significant methodological advance to the historically difficult question of how to evaluate equity and other wider impacts. The research is of strong international significance due to the publication of the TEN-Ts review by the European Commission, as well as the transnational nature of large scale interurban transport schemes, the involvement of national and transnational stakeholder groups in the approval and funding of those schemes, the large numbers of population potentially subject to equity and other wider impacts and the degree of variation in the regional objectives and priorities for transport decision makers.
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AhmedN, Miller HJ.Time-space transformations of geographic space for exploring, analyzing and visualizing transportation systems. , 2007, 15(1): 2-17.
Transportation systems exist within at least two types of space. One is the apparent geographic space, but equally important is the time–space implied by the travel time relations created by the system. Differences between the geographic and time–spaces are properties induced by the transportation system. Methods for time–space transformations of geographic space to explore, visualize and analyze transportation systems were initially developed in the 1960s and 1970s. However, these methods have not been pursued beyond this initial flurry of research activity, most likely due to the difficulties associated with handling and processing digital geographic data. The rise of geographic information systems (GIS), as well as continued development and wider availability of transformation techniques such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and spatial analytical techniques such as bidimensional regression can allow the potential of time–space transformation techniques to be realized. This paper presents a general methodological framework that exploits recent advances in GIS, MDS and spatial analytical techniques. Results from applying these techniques to the Salt Lake City metropolitan area illustrate the power of these techniques to reveal spatial patterns in the travel time relationships induced by a transportation system. The application also addresses fundamental issues in time–space transformations, such as two-dimensional versus three-dimensional solutions, Euclidean versus non-Euclidean solutions and symmetric and asymmetric solutions.