地理研究  2018 , 37 (7): 1253-1267 https://doi.org/10.11821/dlyj201807001

区域产业发展演化:路径依赖还是路径创造?

贺灿飞

北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871

Regional industrial development and evolution: Path dependence or path creation?

HE Canfei

College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

收稿日期: 2017-12-7

修回日期:  2018-04-27

网络出版日期:  2018-07-30

版权声明:  2018 《地理研究》编辑部 《地理研究》编辑部 所有

基金资助:  国家自然科学基金项目(41731278);国家杰出青年科学基金项目(41425001)

作者简介:

作者简介:贺灿飞(1972- ),男,江西永新人,博士,教授,研究方向为经济地理、产业与区域经济。 E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn

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摘要

区域发展是区域产业不断演化、转型与升级的过程。近年来发展起来的演化经济地理学旨在通过分析企业进入、成长、衰退和退出等动态过程阐释企业、产业、集群、网络、城市和区域的空间演化,认为区域产业发展演化遵循路径依赖,并决定于产业技术关联。然而路径依赖式演化理论过于强调内生发展过程,忽视了外生因素和制度变革带来的路径创造机会。中国处于经济转型时期,区域产业结构变动剧烈。技术关联推动了区域产业演化,显示中国区域产业演化具有路径依赖性,同时市场化、全球化和分权化的经济转型过程为区域产业发展创造了新路径。外部联系、制度安排、行为主体的战略性行为等促进了路径创造。

关键词: 演化经济地理 ; 区域产业演化 ; 路径依赖 ; 路径创造 ; 产品空间

Abstract

Regional development is a process in which industries develop, transform and upgrade constantly. Evolutionary economic geography understands the spatial evolution of firm, industry, cluster, network, city and region through the lens of firm entry, growth and exit, and argues that regional industrial evolution is path dependent and determined by inter-industrial technological relatedness. However, path dependence theory overemphasizes the endogenous factors in regional industrial development and ignores the critical role of external linkages and institutional factors, which would bring path creation for regional development. In China, there has been dramatic transformation in regional industrial structure since the economic reform. Empirical studies indicate that technological relatedness has indeed significantly determined regional industrial evolution, suggesting a path dependent process. Meanwhile, marketization, globalization and regional decentralization provide great opportunities to create new industries for regional development. In particular, external linkage, institutional factors and purposeful and strategic actions of local actors would stimulate path creation.

Keywords: evolutionary economic geography ; regional industrial evolution ; path dependence ; path creation ; product space

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贺灿飞. 区域产业发展演化:路径依赖还是路径创造?[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(7): 1253-1267 https://doi.org/10.11821/dlyj201807001

HE Canfei. Regional industrial development and evolution: Path dependence or path creation?[J]. Geographical Research, 2018, 37(7): 1253-1267 https://doi.org/10.11821/dlyj201807001

1 引言

区域发展是区域产业不断演化、转型与升级的过程[1,2]。现有研究对于区域产业演化路径并没有形成一致的观点。“区位机会窗口”的理论认为,区域新产业发展独立于区域产业知识积累和既有产业结构,尤其在经济全球化时代,产业资本具有高度流动性,导致了很多“松脚型”产业[3]。区域通过吸纳流动性资本引入全新产业,从而创造新发展路径。然而,一些学者则认为区域经济景观是历史活动的产物,区域经济发展遵循路径依赖[4,5]。近年来演化经济地理学逐步兴起,学者们在分析企业的进入、成长、衰落和退出等动态过程的基础上,重点阐释了企业、产业、网络、城市和区域的协同演化规律[6],认为区域产业演化不是偶然的,而是基于一系列区位特定的资源条件发展而来,区域倾向于发展与本地产业结构存在较强技术关联的产业,因此,区域发展是一个由产业技术关联决定的路径依赖过程。

源于发达国家的演化经济地理学认为区域产业发展演化是个内生过程,强调内生变量如知识创造与溢出、产业间技术关联等重要性。对于中国区域发展来说,内生因素固然重要,但是中国存在更多创造新发展路径的机会:① 改革开放以来,中国主要依托外生发展模式,“两头在外”,利用国内外两种资源和两个市场推动中国经济发展,区域发展主要依赖外部资本、知识和资源等,内部知识创造还不构成主要发展驱动力;② 在以经济建设为中心的大方针下,加之财政分权的制度背景,各级政府发展经济的积极性和能动性不可忽视,依托“有效市场”和“有为政府”,为区域发展引入新产业,创造新路径;③ 中国采取了区域渐进性的改革开放模式,造就了显著的制度性区域差异性,为创造不同的区域发展路径创造了制度条件。因此中国区域产业发展可能超越路径依赖,并创造各自发展路径。本文目的是梳理演化经济地理学及其主要研究进展,并以中国区域产业动态演化为例探讨区域产业演化的路径依赖和路径突破,挑战基于内生演化路径,指出中国的外生性发展模式以及剧烈制度变化创造了更多路径创造的可能,推动区域产业多元化发展。最后讨论演化经济地理学的局限性,并结合文献展望演化经济地理学的发展方向及其在中国的应用前景。

2 演化经济地理学的兴起

自1980年代以来,关于经济地理学的研究不断开拓创新,理论基础超越新古典经济学,并走向多元化发展。经济地理学一方面从非主流经济学如制度经济学、演化经济学、政治经济学等吸纳营养;另一方面从非经济学科如社会学、人类学、文化学、管理学等寻找理论的出发点[7]。经济地理学者对于区域发展的制度、文化和社会基础的关注,推动了经济地理学“制度转向”“文化转向”和“关系转向”。以克鲁格曼为代表的主流经济学家开始强调“地理”的重要性,发现规模报酬递增与市场潜力的相互作用是经济活动空间集聚的内生驱动力[8]。无论是经济地理学的“新经济地理”,还是经济学的“新经济地理”,两者都没有引入时间因素,无法揭示经济系统随时间的演化。经济地理学与演化经济学的结合催生了演化经济地理学[9,10,11,12]。在1990年代中后期,经济地理学者开始将演化经济学的基础理论引入到研究之中,探索区域经济活动本身的历史演化规律,逐步构建演化经济地理学的基本理论框架。演化经济地理学的这一历史视角有助于将时间与空间要素联系起来,从而揭示经济活动空间分布的渐进演化机制[13]。对此,学者们多从企业的进入、增长、衰退和退出及其区位行为入手,探寻企业、产业、网络和区域的协同演化规律,不仅关注演化过程本身对产业地理的影响,也关注经济系统对演化过程的影响[7]

演化经济地理学主要建立在四个基本假设的基础上。① 反对完全理性人假设,支持“有限理性”;② 动态性和过程不可逆;③ 演化结果非最优化;④ 创新是自我转型的终极原因[14]。其理论的来源主要包括广义达尔文主义、路径依赖理论以及复杂性理论[15]。演化经济学大部分研究是基于广义达尔文主义现代进化生物学的理论与观点,特别是解释多样性、创新、记忆、变异和适应性时主要基于这一理论框架。广义达尔文主义的 提倡者引入多样化、选择等概念作为理解社会经济演化的核心定义,建立空间经济演化视角,研究产业如何在特定区域出现和发展、区域经济作为“选择”环境如何发挥作用、各种维持机制以何种方式导致特定区域模式的锁定、经济关系的空间网络和空间经济集聚的形式如何随时间变化等。

路径依赖演化理论是演化经济学另外一个重要理论来源,代表性学者是Paul David和Brian Arthur,他们从历史视角解释经济增长,强调偶然性、自我强化和锁定的重要作用。这种将历史纳入到区域发展框架的路径依赖理论是演化经济地理学最受关注的理论框架。他们认为经济系统并不趋近于单一均衡状态,而是一个开放的系统,其演化依赖于系统过去的发展路径,即使新路径也是源于已有路径的发展,因此经济系统的发展路径是内生过程。近年来学者从认知距离和技术关联角度解读区域经济增长路径、产业和创新路径的演化规律,对演化经济地理学利用区域、企业、专利等大样本数据进行系统实证研究做出了重要贡献。

与广义达尔文主义和路径依赖理论相比,复杂性理论很少受到关注。受复杂性理论的启发,演化经济地理学者倡导将集群、城市与区域等看作是一个复杂适应系统,将要素的多尺度相互作用、微观相互作用的中观和宏观特征、系统自组织和适应过程纳入到分析框架之中,以创新和新奇为核心解释其与经济社会空间结构的共同演化[16]。与广义达尔文主义将创新、新奇、变异等看作是被动的和偶然的不同,基于复杂系统理论的演化经济地理学突出的主体在一个可以实现自我转型系统中的战略选择行为和主动创造环境的能动性。

3 演化经济地理学研究进展

3.1 企业惯例空间演变

演化经济地理学关注企业对经济空间结构的影响[17]。为了规避风险,企业行为一般受限于其惯例(routine),惯例是企业对每次决策的结果进行经验总结后所形成的历史记忆,具有传递信息的功能,具有累积性质,不易改变,其他企业很难模仿。演化经济地理学从微观视角研究新惯例如何产生以及如何进行时空演变[18]。每个新企业都会在初期选择更适应市场竞争的惯例,这些企业就是“适者”,而一些不适应市场竞争的企业即退出市场。企业如何选择惯例,取决于市场和制度;当制度发生巨大变化时,企业惯例随之改变。企业家对于惯例的成败有很大影响,新企业选址会受到企业家籍贯、社会网络、经验与能力等因素影响。成功企业的惯例通过企业内部与企业间的学习与复制而得到传播。但是学习与复制并不是完全的,其结果会受到企业间地理距离、企业学习能力、企业认知相似程度、企业间关系等因素影响。企业惯例依赖地理距离扩散,属于传染扩散;当成功企业改变空间战略而发生位移时,其惯例也随之进入迁入地,这是迁移扩散,同时开启了迁入地的累积循环的过程。

3.2 产业集群演化

企业集聚可以在共享劳动力、供应商和专业知识中受益[19],然而这种解释没能揭示产业集群的发生过程。产业集群的形成原因是企业进入,本地企业越多,新进入企业越多[20]。企业高进入率具有示范效应引导潜在企业家在本地创业[21]。衍生企业从母企业继承了优秀的能力,会比其他进入者更有竞争力。通过企业衍生,集群就会形成[22]。因此,产业集群源于成功企业的衍生过程。

演化经济地理学还探讨集群的生命周期,尤其是研究成功集群如何衰落的内生变化过程。当一个产业集群形成后,企业能力异质性提高,但随后下降,因为企业参与竞争、企业间学习和网络构建,企业能力趋同。如果这种趋同一直持续,集群活力就会下降[23]。一个衰落的集群有几种方式实现再生:通过集群外信息的流入升级知识储备;整合本地知识库;以本地知识储备为基础向新产业衍生[24]。产业集群生命周期动态变化也来源于企业区位选择的从众行为,企业聚集于产业集群,是因为“地理的魅力”[25]。一些产业集群的口碑很好,因为成功企业对于其他企业具有吸引力,与成功企业在一起会提高其知名度和区位选择的“合法性”。

衍生过程与集聚经济是知识和惯例形成与扩散的两种机制。衍生将知识和惯例从母企业传播到子企业;而一旦产业集群出现后,集聚经济效应就显现出来。两种机制互补,一个区域的衍生过程会强化集聚经济的力量,反过来,集聚力量也会提高衍生过程的效率[18]。衍生与集聚经济两种效应在产业生命周期的不同阶段的影响力不同[26]。总之,演化经济地理学对于产业集群研究的主要贡献在于挑战了马歇尔外部性对于集群产生和发展的权威解释[27],认为即使不存在集聚效应,集群也会凭借企业衍生而出现。

3.3 企业网络演化

演化经济地理学研究网络的形成与演化[17]。网络演化源于网络中新节点的出现或进入,这些新节点与已有节点之间存在一定的联系,从而改变了网络结构[28]。产业集群中并非所有的企业都彼此相联,集群中一些企业之间的知识联系比其他企业之间更紧密,有较高吸收能力的企业在本地知识网络中占据核心地位[29]。这些企业能吸收来自集群内外其他企业的知识,掌握本地核心知识。这一发现挑战了马歇尔关于集群中企业同质性假设。

相同的区位、相似的知识、规范和价值、相似的组织边界或相似的社会联系等有助于异质性主体形成合作伙伴或进行知识交流与集体学习,这些相似性分别被称为地理临近、认知临近、制度临近、组织临近和社会临近等[30]。临近性可以解释为什么集群内网络不是均质的,为什么一些企业可以与集群外企业有更多联系。然而,尽管临近性提高企业合作的可能性,但并不必然提升合作质量,有时还可能有负面作用,这被称为“临近悖论”[31]。例如,认知临近有利于企业间交流和知识转移,但也缩小了学习范围,提高了不情愿知识溢出风险。认知距离太远或太近都不利于企业间知识溢出。高或低的社会临近有利于企业提高合作效果,因为一些关系需要较高信任,而另一些则需要保持距离。对于地理临近,研究强调本地和非本地知识的组合对于集群长期发展的重要性[32]以及企业通过会议和贸易展览会等临时临近交流知识的重要性[33]

3.4 制度与企业惯例协同演化

演化经济地理学认为创新过程是根植于区域制度,本地制度与文化很难被其他区域模仿,区域成为创新的重要力量[34]。尽管如此,学者们仍然批判演化经济地理学对制度的忽略[35],因为许多实证研究并没有讨论制度对演化过程的重要性。

理论上,制度与演化的结合一直是演化经济地理学讨论的问题[36]。制度对于区域产业演化可能是激励,也可能是阻碍[37]。制度与企业惯例进行着协同演化,并在这一过程中创造新的产业[38]。新产业形成的机会依赖于支持性制度的时效性和方向性[39,40]。制度变化受到很多条件的影响,包括危机所带来的冲击、新产业对已有秩序的挑战和低水平的制度化。制度不能完全被视为是外生的,它会与企业惯例进行协同演化,尽管这一过程受到技术和市场制约[41]。一些研究关注私有或公共部门如何参与集体行动改变知识、资源和公共规范从而建立新制度,关注政府在区域经济发展中所起作用[42]。各种制度往往表现出一定的相对独立性,因而在一个总体的制度框架内,企业可以根据自身的情况自主的选择演化路径,即企业的演化路径并不是唯一[43]。区域制度变迁与产业演化之间具有十分密切的联系,区域内的相关主体需要在不同情况形下主动调整制度体系,这有助于为新产业发展和成熟产业的再次突破创造条件[44]。近年来,一些学者将制度变量引入到演化经济地理学的定量研究之中。如研究发现巴黎严格的设计职业管制严重阻碍了广告设计新企业的诞生[21],与社会市场经济的制度相比,自由市场经济相关的制度能给不相关行业更多的发展空间[45]

3.5 区域产业衍生与区域韧性

演化经济地理学最近聚焦的区域如何通过发展新的产业来维持长期发展。熊彼特把创新灵感的来源归结为知识组合[46],即已经存在的技术以一种新奇的方式实现部分重组,从而获得创新[47]。因此,一个区域产业的多样性是创新的前提条件,知识更能够跨产业溢出[48]。然而,产业的多样性必须具有关联性,知识更容易在具有关联性的产业间溢出[13]

区域产业发展演化是个区域衍生过程[13]。如果新产业与本地在位产业具有较高的关联度,则这个新产业获得比较优势的概率会很高,因为关联产业可以为新产业的发展提供其所需要的能力、知识和潜在的企业家[49]。在国家层面那些在“产品空间”中与已存在出口产品高度关联的新产品更容易出现[50];在区域层面、产业层面以及技术层面,技术关联的重要性也得到了验证[51,52,53]

区域韧性一般被机械地定义为对外界干扰的一种回应和自动恢复到稳定状态。演化经济地理学者基于演化的视角将区域韧性重新概念化为区域不断重构其社会经济结构的能力,或者说是区域不断形成新的增长路径的能力[54]。当然这并非否定区域发展的路径依赖性,而是在承认区域发展的路径依赖性的基础上,挖掘路径突破的可能性与潜在条件。演化经济地理学者还提出了新的概念框架,试图将区域产业发展、网络联系和制度等维度统一起来,从而找出区域之间存在韧性差异的原因及其影响。产业、网络和制度是影响区域韧性的重要因素,探讨产业结构、网络结构和制度结构中的冲击如何影响区域开发新增长路径的能力是理解“区域韧性”的关键。

4 路径依赖与路径创造

路径依赖指某一事件是其自身历史结果的现象。这个概念最早可以追溯到卡尔·门格尔[55]对新制度演化的分析和Thorstein Veblen[56]对习俗和传统的累积循环机制的探讨。但路径依赖这个概念真正引起学术界的重视是源于Paul David关于技术经济史以及Brian Arthur关于非线性经济过程的研究。关于路径依赖的机制,经济学中主要有三个解释,即Paul David的技术锁定(technological lock in)、Brian Arthur的动态规模效应(dynamic increasing returns)以及Douglas North等的制度依赖性(institutional hysteresis)[57]。Paul David认为历史偶然事件对技术、组织和系统具有长期的影响,而技术、组织和系统可以被锁定在某个特定形式,技术锁定的原因包括技术关联性、规模经济以及投资不可逆转性等[58]。Arthur主要聚焦于不同类型的规模递增效应,包括大规模固定资产启动投资、动态学习效应、协调效应以及自我强化预期等[59]。正式和非正式制度随时间变化比较慢,制度与社会组织互为影响,制度演化具有路径依赖特征[60]。认为制度与经济共同演化。短期内,制度是经济系统的外生力量;长期而言,制度内生于经济系统,制度安排会锁定一段时间[61]。新贸易理论和新经济地理也探讨了路径依赖对专业化和产业集聚的影响,突出规模经济效应的作用[62]

自1980年代以来,路径依赖被广泛地应用于人类学、历史学、社会学、经济学和管理学等学科。经济地理学者也陆续引入路径依赖的概念,经济地理学的文化、制度和关系转向以及演化经济地理学甚至认为经济景观的基本特征是路径依赖[2]。区域经济是历史活动叠合的产物[5],产业区位受到历史决策的影响,即路径依赖[63]。解释经济景观需要借助路径依赖式的经济演化理论[64]。路径依赖的演化理论从历史维度解释经济增长,强调偶然性、自我强化和锁定的重要作用,认为经济系统并不趋近于单一均衡状态,而是一个开放的系统,其演化依赖于系统过去的发展路径,即使新路径也是源于已有路径的发展,因此经济系统的发展路径是内生的过程。区域路径依赖由诸多原因造成,包括自然资源,区域发展路径依赖于某种自然资源及其引致的相关产业;地方资产和基础设施的沉没成本;产业专业化引致的地方外部经济;区域技术锁定效应;集聚经济,如劳动力、市场规模、投入—产出网络关系、供应商、服务业等;区域制度、社会习俗与文化传统等以及区际联系和区际相互依赖性[2]

路径依赖是经济地理学关于区域产业发展的重要理论视角,但是有些区域能够突破现有路径,甚至创造新路径[1,2]。经典的路径依赖模型为四个阶段[1]:① 历史偶然性,由某个历史偶然事件或随机事件导致了企业最初区位;② 初始路径创造,自我强化的区位选择;③ 路径依赖和锁定,规模效应递增导致锁定;④ 路径解锁,不可预测、非预期的外部冲击导致产业衰退与消失。

路径解锁以后,区域如何创造新路径?文献中关于路径创造有不同理论视角。其一、路径创造是纯粹的随机过程。阿瑟的路径依赖模型就强调历史偶然性,即企业随机区位决策决定了产业区位。其二、区位机会窗口理论认为基于新技术的新产业具有大量符合其发展要求的区位可供选择,具有一定区位自由选择权,即所谓的区位机会窗口[3]。新企业可以选择他们满意的任何地方,而这种选择受到偶然性事件影响[18]。其三、有针对性的战略性行动能够创造新路径[65]。这种战略性行动可能源于企业家和地方政府的决策者[66]。区域产业发展的路径创造有很多种方式,如通过本地创造培育完全新技术和产业;提升产业、技术与组织的异质性与多元性,促进创新和经济重组;从区域外部引进新产业和新技术,创造区域路径;基于核心技术的相关产业多元化;引入新技术、新产品和服务,升级现有产业等[67]

演化经济地理学基于认知邻近性开展了区域产业发展的路径依赖探讨。在传统集聚经济中,企业地理邻近性促进知识溢出,特别是非编码的隐性知识的传播[68]。隐性知识的溢出需要通过交互式或面对面的学习,因此地理上邻近更有利于此类知识的溢出。然而地理邻近性不是知识溢出的充分必要条件,产业间的认知距离直接影响知识溢出的效应[69]。不同产业间存在认知距离,认知距离太远不利于产业间的相互学习,认知距离太近则没有新的知识可以学习,产业间的认知距离只有在合适范围内才能进行有效的学习和知识溢出。因此,技术关联性强的产业之间才会发生知识溢出,属于不同产业但却存在技术关联的本地企业之间更容易从知识溢出中获益[6,30]

技术关联也广泛被用于解释新技术、新产品、新产业和新集群产生。这些研究强调“认知邻近”的重要性,发现技术关联对于国家和区域产品演化具有显著影响[70]。Hidalgo等[50]认为关联产品的生产往往需要较为相识生产要素禀赋(劳动力、土地、资本等)、技术、制度等,因而国家新产业的发展往往跟当前已具备比较优势的产业相关。Hausmann等[71]、Hidalgo[72]进一步基于产品空间研究国家比较优势的演化,认为由于技术关联的产品对劳动力、土地、资本等生产要素以及生产技术和管理经验的要求较为相似,因此产品距离会对国家或区域产业演变产生重要影响。Neffke等[73]发现瑞典的区域产业发展具有强烈的路径依赖性,即如果一个产业与区域现有生产能力有紧密联系,则它更可能进入该区域。

5 中国区域产业演化:路径依赖还是路径创造?

近几年来,新兴经济体的逐步崛起对路径依赖理论提出了挑战。经济地理学家发现新兴经济体的产业发展时常体现出路径突破的特点。一些外生的力量或突变为路径突破提供了很多机会,例如全球性或国家层面的技术革新、经济危机以及政府刺激性发展政策等。

改革开放以来,中国采取了一条渐进式的转型之路,实现了市场化、全球化和区域分权。中国经济从计划经济迈向市场经济,从封闭经济走向开放经济。经济转型也是经济决策权力从政府交还给企业和市场,经济管理权从中央政府下放给地方政府的过程,在此基础上形成了所谓的区域分权式威权体制。经济决策权还给了企业和地方,激励了市场竞争和地方竞争,构成中国经济快速增长的制度基础。在以经济建设为中心的经济转型中,地方官员有很强烈的动机支持经济发展。因此,经济转型改变了区域经济发展的微观决策主体和决策机制,通过建立市场经济和开放经济,拥抱经济全球化,引入了全球力量和外部联系,强化市场力量的作用,而区域分权唤起了地方力量。

在计划经济体制下,政府在资源配置过程中发挥主导作用,市场机制缺失导致要素无法自由流动,知识也没有渠道在行业间溢出。与私有企业追求利润和效率最大化不同,国有企业作为市场活动的主要参与者,其企业管理人员同时又是政府官员[74],需要承担大量社会责任[75]。随着市场经济体制的逐步确立,资本和劳动力在中国得以更加自由的流动,产业间联系不断增强和企业家精神不断发展,这些推动了企业间知识溢出以及新产业产生[76]。研究发现,市场化水平高的地区更容易吸引新产业进入或衍生出新产业[77]。而在市场化水平较低的地区,新产业的产生往往需要政府干预[78]

中国经济转型为区域路径创造提供了机会和制度环境。全球化过程加强了区域与外部的经济联系,这些联系带来了新知识,是区域产业发展出新路径的重要渠道[2]。外商直接投资和国际贸易是建立全球联系的重要手段,它们有助于为区域带来新的产业知识,打破现在产业发展路径,创造新产业演化路径[32]。外商直接投资往往包含了一个技术扩散过程[79],东道国可以获得先进技术[80]。国际贸易还可以促进产业间和产业内国际分工,这有助于为本地带来了新的发展机会,促进本地产业演化。

中国经济转型还伴随区域分权过程。1994年中国开始实行分税制,中央和地方的财政关系极大改变[81]。区域权力下放一方面扩大了地方政府自主决策的空间,但另一方面也导致了的地方政府间的激烈竞争。以GDP为导向的官员晋升评价体系和财政激励制度相结合,使地方政府为促进区域经济增长盲目建设,倾向于引进中央产业政策鼓励发展的产业,在一定程度上导致重复建设、产业结构趋同和产业分散布局[82]。此外,地方政府往往通过税收减免和低价土地等手段吸引企业入驻,而不充分考虑区域的现有能力和知识基础,导致区域产业发展偏离了自身的比较优势。因此,政府干预会弱化产业关联的作用,促进新产业进入政府干预强的区域。

近年来,我们针对中国区域产业发展演化发表了一系列成果,主要回答了几个问题。① 中国区域产业演化是否受制于技术关联,是表现出路径依赖还是路径创造的特征?② 什么产业更依赖技术关联而进行区域拓展,什么产业可以创造新路径?③ 什么企业更容易在区域内引入相关或不相关新产业?④ 什么区域制度激励路径创造?⑤ 区域如何突破技术关联的约束?借鉴Hidalgo等[50]的产品空间方法,绘制了1999和2007年的地级单位的四位数产业空间[83]图1)。在1999-2007年间,更多产业进入了中国产业空间,新产业与原有产业的联系十分紧密,表明随着区域产业演化,产业关联得到强化,区域产业演化具有一定路径依赖特征。进一步分区域考察发现,沿海地区的产业演化更加依赖于产业关联强度,而西部地区出现的一些新产业则与现有产业关联性不大,说明西部地区创造了新路径。基于中国海关贸易产品出口数据,绘制了2001年和2013年的四位数产品空间[84]图2)。结果再次表明中国的产品关联性得到了显著提升,新出现优势产品与现有产品关联性较强。2001-2007年四大区域的出口产品空间演化受到技术关联的显著影响,2008-2013年间,东部、中部和东北地区的产品空间演化仍然受到技术关联影响,西部地区则技术关联不重要。因此总体上,中国区域产业演化发展受到原有产业结构的影响,表现为路径依赖。但是这种路径依赖发展模式存在显著的区域差异。

图1   1999年、2007年中国产业空间演化[83]

Fig.1   The production space of China in 1999 and 2007[83]

图2   2001年、2013年中国产品空间演化[84]

Fig.2   The evaluation of the production space of China in 2001 and 2013[84]

建立计量模型探讨中国区域产业演化的影响因素。无论是产业层面还是产品层面,模型统计分析都发现区域转型产业或者新产业都与现有产业结构存在显著关联性,验证了区域产业衍生过程,即区域倾向于发展与原有产业关联性较强的产业,显示中国区域产业演化具有路径依赖性[83,84]。路径依赖强度还取决于产业特征和区域制度,如市场化程度、参与全球化程度等[85],并且与区域现有产业关联性较弱的产业退出市场的概率也较大[86]。但同时也发现,中国区域有很多机会发展不相关产业。Guo和He[83]发现企业贷款、企业补贴以及中央财政支持等能够催生不相关产业;贺灿飞等发现“十一五”规划中对特定产业的支持也能够推动其发展壮大[87]。He等[88]发现在模型中控制产业技术关联后,外商直接投资和出口贸易能吸引新产业进入。新产业更容易进入市场化程度较高,财政状况较好以及土地财政活跃的区域[89]。Zhu等[90,91]则直接探讨中国区域在产业演化上如何能够跳得更远,摆脱技术关联的约束,发现政府补贴支持对区域路径突破发挥了重要作用,提高区域对外联系强度和广度,改善基础设施、提升人力资本、研究开发投入以及培养开放的社会制度环境都有利于区域实现路径突破。中国是转型发展中国家,在建立社会主义市场经济的同时,也认可“有为政府”的重要性,在制度上政府积极介入经济发展创造了经济激励和政治激励,其产业政策、税收政策、金融政策、贸易政策、土地政策以及地方化的国家经济政策,如国家级高新技术开发区、经济技术开发区等成为区域新产业的落脚地,也是区域路径创造的催化剂。中国经济转型得益于积极融入经济全球化,发展外生主导型发展模式,开拓了国际市场,引进了先进技术和跨国公司直接投资,为区域带来了新知识、新技术,乃至新产业,创造了新的路径。

6 结论与讨论

演化经济地理学借鉴演化经济学的理论与方法,探索空间经济活动不均衡分布的历史演进问题,将经济活动空间分布视为一个历史进化过程[92]。演化经济地理将区域发展视为内生发展过程,强调区域产业发展的路径依赖性。源于发达市场经济的演化经济地理学具有显然的局限性。区域,尤其是后发达区域,实际上存在很多路径创造的机会。演化经济地理学研究过于重视内生因素,忽略了外生因素。目前演化地理学还处于创立和探索阶段,研究内容广泛而分散,相互联系不紧密,还没有形成统一的研究范式。演化经济地理学研究中没有实现多尺度交互作用和企业在演化框架中的嵌入性,从企业的微观行为切入点解释中观和宏观层面的空间经济结果,忽略了其他空间尺度的影响。过分强调企业作为经济变化的原动力,忽略其他主体作用,例如国家、劳动力、公民社会组织,进而无法识别企业在更大网络中的定位,例如在全球生产网络的嵌入[35]。但实际上企业和制度在多个尺度上强烈地相互作用,一方面,企业合作或区位决策离不开地方外部性、国家或国际规则和国际市场的作用;另一方面,制度本身也存在于多个尺度上。目前演化经济地理对多尺度交互作用在理论上有一些讨论,但是仍然缺乏实证研究手段和方法。

虽然制度一直没有离开演化理论的视野,许多经济地理学家都承认制度对区域发展的重要性[52,93],但是当前演化经济地理学者还没有很好的将制度纳入自己的研究框架。在实证研究中,学者们通常把制度看作为一个影响因素,但制度其实是个人和组织之间复杂的交互作用所形成的社会上层建筑,同时它又通过向下的作用力影响和限制社会中各个主体的行为,尽管制度对微观异质性个体和企业的作用并非完全相同。所以需要一个更宽的视角来理解制度,既要强调它对微观个体的重要作用[94],又要注意到多尺度的相互作用,而不是仅仅将组织惯例和制度之间的关系简单地线性化[35,95]

鉴于演化经济地理学的局限性,一些学者建议加强演化经济地理学与地理政治经济学的融合[35,95];另外一些研究认为制度经济地理学和关系经济地理学可以完善演化经济地理学[96]。最近全球生产网络研究也引入了动态观,试图与演化经济地理学的结合[97]。德国学者Hassink等[96]梳理了演化经济地理学与相邻学科的关系,指出了演化经济地理学的发展方向(图3)。地理政治经济学探讨资本主义与政府、劳动力和资本的关系如何导致区域不平衡性。通过与地理政治经济学的融合,演化经济地理学可以强化外部投资、跨国公司与本地企业的不对等权力关系、劳资关系和政府管制[35,95]。路径创造和路径依赖嵌入在区域制度中,通过与制度经济地理学的结合,演化经济地理学可以强化区域中个体能动性的分析,制度之间的相互作用及其演化,包括内生和外生制度因素,强调不同地理尺度的差异性[52]。关系经济地理学能够更综合地讨论制度、权力、行为主体及其在不同尺度上的互动关系[98,99]。关系经济地理学认为企业是嵌入在不同尺度的社会关系和制度安排中,进而探讨正式和非正式制度对产业演化和区域经济发展的影响[98]

图3   演化经济地理学与其他理论框架的联系[96]

Fig.3   The connections between Evolutionary Economic Geography and other theoretical frameworks[96]

基于演化经济地理学对中国区域产业发展的研究,融合地理政治经济学、制度经济地理学和关系经济地理学是非常重要的拓展方向。目前演化经济地理学实证研究主要基于案例研究和基于产品、企业和产业的定量研究,将来需要强化质性研究与定量模型研究的结合。为中国区域产业演化的路径依赖和路径创造提供系统深入的解释,需要在几个方面深入讨论,包括:① 企业和政府的能动性和战略性行为。企业有目的的行动包括创新行为、产品多元化战略、空间市场拓展和衍生过程等是区域产业演化的微观机制,而中央政府和地方政府的政策制度会给企业和政府创造经济激励和政治激励。② 不同行为主体的权力关系。包括企业与政府的权力关系,跨国公司与地方政府的权力博弈,跨国公司与本地企业的权力关系,这些权力关系对区域产业演化有重要影响。③ 内生的和外生的区域制度。企业嵌入在区域社会文化制度中,其行为受到制度的规制,内生的制度与企业惯例共同演化,外生的制度对企业带来冲击。④ 行为主体与区域环境互动模式。区域环境包括市场环境、产业集聚、制度环境以及社会网络等。⑤ 来自不同地理尺度的资源、资本、知识与制度的互动关系对区域产业演化的影响。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


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经济学和地理学长期以来互动并不明显.文中首先对经济学与地理学忽视以及可能的合作进行了分析.如果说新经济地理学构筑了经济学和地理学的第一座桥梁,那么演化经济地理学则构筑了经济学和地理学之间的第二座桥梁.随着演化经济学的逐渐成熟,以演化经济学为基础的演化经济地理这一新兴学科逐步发展起来.文中对演化经济地理的形成、优势以及应用进行详细的阐述.演化经济地理继承了演化经济学中的时间和历史的因素,将演化经济学和经济地理加以融合.演化经济地理在微观、中观以及宏观方面都有着广泛的应用,同时演化经济地理对中国经济社会的发展有着一些重要的启示:① 产业的动态化认为产业梯度转移并不能实现区域协调发展;② 关系网络指出户籍制度放开的必要性与无效的可能;③ 多样性则认为单一产业发展战略具有风险性;④ 再演化的政策则指出政策需要具有“连贯性”.
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Abstract We use new data on the location and background of entrants into the US tyre industry to analyse why the industry became so regionally concentrated around Akron, Ohio, a small city with no compelling advantages for tyre production. We analyse where the Ohio entrants originated and conduct various analyses of how proximity to other tyre firms affected the longevity of tyre producers. We also examine how the heritage of the Ohio entrants influenced their origin and longevity. Our findings suggest that the Akron tyre cluster grew primarily through a process of organisational reproduction and heredity rather than through agglomeration economies.
[23] Rigby D L, Essletzbichler J.

Evolution, process variety, and regional trajectories of technological change in US manufacturing

. Economic Geography, 1997, 73(3): 269-284.

https://doi.org/10.2307/144484      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[24] Menzel M, Fornahl D.

Cluster life cycles: Dimensions and rationales of cluster evolution

. Industrial and corporate change, 2009, 19(1): 205-238.

https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtp036      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

We present a model that explains how a cluster moves through a life cycle and why this movement differs from the industry life cycle. The model is based on three key processes: the changing heterogeneity in the cluster describes the movement of the cluster through the life cycle; the geographical absorptive capacity enables clustered companies to take advantage of a larger diversity of knowledge and the stronger convergence of clustered companies compared to non-clustered companies results in a reduction of heterogeneity. We apply these processes to four stages of the cluster life cycle: emergence, growth, sustainment and decline.
[25] Suire R, Vicente J.

Why do some places succeed when others decline? A social interaction model of cluster viability

. Journal of Economic Geography, 2009, 9(3): 381-404.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

One of the most convincing explanations papers generally provide concerning clusters in knowledge-based economies refers to the geographically bounded dimension of knowledge spillovers. Here, we shall underline that location decision externalities precede local knowledge spillovers in the explanation of cluster aggregate efficiency, which thus requires us to focus on the sequential process of location and the nature of interdependences in location decision-making. To that end, we mean to associate cluster emergence with the formation of locational norms, and to study the critical parameters of their stability. These parameters relate to the type of decision externalities among more or less cognitively distant firms, which influences the weight and the resulting ambivalent role of knowledge spillovers at the aggregate level of clusters. We suggest two theoretical propositions which we test within a simple and general norm location dynamics modeling framework. We then proceed to discuss the results so obtained by comparing them with an emerging related literature based on the life cycle and viability of clusters.
[26] Boschma R A, Wenting R.

The spatial evolution of the British automobile industry: Does location matter?

. Industrial and Corporate Change, 2007, 16(2): 213-238.

https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtm004      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This article aims to describe and explain the spatial evolution of the automobile sector in Great Britain from an evolutionary perspective. This analysis is based on a unique database of all entries and exits in this sector during the period 1895–1968, collected by the authors. Cox regressions show that spinoff dynamics, agglomeration economies and time of entry have had a significant effect on the survival rate of automobile firms during the period 1895–1968. Copyright 2007 , Oxford University Press.
[27] 刘志高, 尹贻梅, 孙静.

产业集群形成的演化经济地理学研究评述

. 地理科学进展, 2011, 30(6): 652-657.

https://doi.org/10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.06.002      URL      Magsci      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

20 世纪80 年代以来,产业集群成为一种新的区域发展模式,受到理论工作者和政策制定者越来越多的关注。近些年来,从演化经济地理学理论学派的视角研究产业集群形成的动力、演化路径成为集群研究中的热点之一。本文首先介绍了产业集群形成的传统解释及其不足,然后回顾了演化经济地理学视角下的产业集群形成的研究进展,并总结了研究特点和主要研究思路,最后指出了在中国应用研究中需要注意的问题。

[Liu Zhigao, Yin Yimei, Sun Jing.

A review of the research progress on industrial cluster formation from the perspective of evolutionary economic geography

. Progress in Geography, 2011, 30(6): 652-657.]

https://doi.org/10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.06.002      URL      Magsci      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

20 世纪80 年代以来,产业集群成为一种新的区域发展模式,受到理论工作者和政策制定者越来越多的关注。近些年来,从演化经济地理学理论学派的视角研究产业集群形成的动力、演化路径成为集群研究中的热点之一。本文首先介绍了产业集群形成的传统解释及其不足,然后回顾了演化经济地理学视角下的产业集群形成的研究进展,并总结了研究特点和主要研究思路,最后指出了在中国应用研究中需要注意的问题。
[28] Barabási A, Albert R.

Emergence of scaling in random networks

. Science, 1999, 286(5439): 509-512.

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5439.509      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[29] Giuliani E, Bell M.

The micro-determinants of meso-level learning and innovation: Evidence from a Chilean wine cluster

. Research Policy, 2005, 34(1): 47-68.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2004.10.008      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[30] Boschma R.

Proximity and innovation: A critical assessment

. Regional Studies, 2005, 39(1): 61-74.

https://doi.org/10.1080/0034340052000320887      URL      [本文引用: 2]      摘要

Boschma R. A. (2005) Proximity and innovation: a critical assessment, Regional Studies39, 61-74. A key issue in economic geography is to determine the impact of geographical proximity on interactive learning and innovation. We argue that the importance of geographical proximity cannot be assessed in isolation, but should always be examined in relation to other dimensions of proximity that may provide alternative solutions to the problem of coordination. We claim that geographical proximity per se is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for learning to take place. Nevertheless, it facilitates interactive learning, most likely by strengthening the other dimensions of proximity. However, proximity may also have negative impacts on innovation due to the problem of lock-in. Accordingly, not only too little, but also too much proximity may be detrimental to interactive learning and innovation. This may be the case for all five dimensions of proximity discussed in the paper, i.e. cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical proximity. Finally, the paper presents a number of mechanisms that offer, by their own, or in combination, solutions to the problems of coordination and lock-in. That is, they enhance effective coordination and control (solving the problem of too little proximity), while they prevent actors to become locked-in through ensuring openness and flexibility (solving the problem of too much proximity). Boschma R. A. (2005) La proximité et l'innovation: une évaluation, Regional Studies39, 61-74. Dans la géographie économique, la détermination de l'impact de la proximité géographique sur l'apprentissage interactif et l'innovation est capitale. Cet article affirme que l'on ne peut évaluer l'importance de la proximité géographique isolément. Plut00t, on devrait l'examiner toujours par rapport à d'autres dimensions de la proximité qui pourraient fournir des réponses alternatives à la question de la coordination. On affirme que la proximité géographique en soi ne constitue une condition ni préalable, ni suffisante, pour que l'apprentissage ait lieu. Néanmoins, elle facilite l'apprentissage interactif en renforcant, très vraisemblablement, les autres dimensions de la proximité. Cependant, il se peut que la proximité ait des retombées négatives sur l'innovation, à cause du problème de l'enfermement. Par la suite, non seulement trop peu de proximité, mais aussi trop de proximité pourraient s'avérer nuisibles à l'apprentissage interactif et à l'innovation. Cela vaudrait pour toutes les cinq dimensions de la proximité présentées dans cet article, à savoir la proximité cognitive, organisationnelle, sociale, institutionnelle et géographique. Pour finir, on présente quelques mécanismes qui fournissent, indépendamment ou conjointement, des réponses aux problèmes de la coordination et de l'enfermement. C'est-à-dire, ils font valoir la coordination et le contr00le effectifs (ce qui répond à la possibilité qu'il y ait trop peu de proximité), tout en empêchant l'enfermement des agents en assurant l'ouverture et la flexibilité (ce qui répond à la possibilité qu'il y ait trop de proximité). Boschma R. A. (2005) N01he und Innovation: eine kritische Beurteilung, Regional Studies39, 61-74. Vom Standpunkt der Wirtschaftsgeographie gesehen, spielt die Bestimmung der Auswirkung geographischer N01he auf interaktives Lernen und Innovation eine Schlüsselrolle. Der Autor vertritt die Auffassung, da08 die Bedeutung der geographischen N01he nicht isoliert werden kann, sondern immer in Bezug auf andere Dimensionen der N01he untersucht werden sollte, die alternative L02sungen für das Problem der Koordination liefern k02nnten. Der Autor behauptet, da08 geographische N01he an sich weder eine notwendige noch eine ausreichende Bedingung dafür ist, da08 Erwerb von Kenntnissen stattfindet. Nichtsdestoweniger erleichtert es interaktives Lernen, h02chstwahrscheinlich dank Festigung der anderen Dimensionen der N01he. Das Problem des Sich-gebunden-fühlens kann sich jedoch auch negativ auf Innovation auswirken. Dementsprechend kann sich nicht nur zu wenig N01he, sondern auch zu viel N01he nachteilig auf interaktives Lernen und Innovation auswirken. Dies k02nnte auf alle fünf in diesem Aufsatz besprochenen Dimensionen der N01he zutreffen, d.h. auf kognitive, organisatorische, gesellschaftliche, institutionelle und geographische N01he. Abschlie08end werden verschiedene Mechanismen vorgestellt, die selbst oder in Verbindung mit anderen, L02sungen für die Probleme der Koordination und Bindungen anbieten. Das hei08t, sie best01rken effektive Koordination und Steuerung (und l02sen damit das Problem zu geringer N01he), und verhindern zugleich, da08 Spieler in Bindungen geraten, indem sie Offenheit und Flexibilit01t garantieren (das Problem überm0108iger N01he l02sen). Boschma R. A. (2005) Proximidad e innovación: un examen crítico, Regional Studies39, 61-74. Uno de los asuntos clave dentro de lo que es la geografía económica es determinar el impacto que la proximidad geográfica tiene en el aprendizaje interactivo y en la innovación. Argumentamos que la importancia de la proximidad geográfica es un hecho que no se puede examinar de forma aislada, si no que siempre debería ser analizado en relación a otras dimensiones de proximidad que pueden ofrecer soluciones alternativas al problema de co-operación. Sostenemos que la proximidad geográfica per se no es una condición ni necesaria ni suficiente para que el aprendizaje tenga lugar. No obstante, facilita el aprendizaje interactivo, con mayor probabilidad mediante el reforzamiento de las otras dimensiones de proximidad. Sin embargo, la proximidad también puede tener impactos negativos en la innovación, debido al problema de lock-in. Así pues, no sólo una escasa proximidad, sino también una proximidad excesiva puede perjudicar el aprendizaje interactivo y la innovación. Esto puede ser el caso en lo que respecta a las cinco dimensiones de proximidad que se discuten en este artículo, esto es, proximidad cognitiva, organizacional, social, institucional y geográfica. Por último, exponemos una serie de mecanismos que ofrecen, o bien por sí solos o en combinación, soluciones a los problemas de coordinación y de lock-in. Esto es, mejoran la coordinación efectiva y el control (solucionando así el problema de escasa proximidad), mientras que previenen que los actores se vuelvan locked-in mediante la garantización de claridad y flexibilidad (solucionando así el problema de proximidad excesiva).
[31] Broekel T, Boschma R.

Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

. Journal of Economic Geography, 2011, 12(2): 409-433.>

[本文引用: 1]     

[32] Bathelt H, Malmberg A, Maskell P.

Clusters and knowledge: Local buzz, global pipelines and the process of knowledge creation

. Progress in Human Geography, 2004, 28(1): 31-56.

https://doi.org/10.1191/0309132504ph469oa      URL      [本文引用: 2]     

[33] Torre A.

On the role played by temporary geographical proximity in knowledge transmission

. Regional Studies, 2008, 42(6): 869-889.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400801922814      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Torre A. On the role played by temporary geographical proximity in knowledge transmission, Regional Studies. This paper defends the thesis that geographical proximity remains essential for knowledge transfer, but not often implies the co-location of innovation and research activities. The need for geographical proximity now mostly affects certain stages of the process of production, research or development. Short- or medium-term visits are often sufficient for the partners to exchange the information needed for cooperation. The mobility of individuals makes it possible to implement this mechanism. Temporary geographical proximity implies a strong relation to space, but one that differs in nature from that described by the traditional approaches. Torre A. R00le de la proximité géographique temporaire dans la transmission de la connaissance, Regional Studies. Dans cet article, nous défendons la thèse selon laquelle la proximité géographique demeure essentielle au transfert des connaissances mais qu'elle n'implique pas souvent la co-localisation d'activités d'innovation et de recherche. La nécessité de la proximité géographique affecte surtout, aujourd'hui, certaines étapes des processus de production, de recherche et de développement. Les visites à court ou moyen terme suffisent souvent aux partenaires pour échanger des informations nécessaires à leur coopération. La mobilité des individus permet de mettre en 04uvre ce mécanisme. La proximité géographique temporaire induit une forte relation à l'espace mais une relation qui diffère en nature de celle qui est décrite par les approches classiques. Proximité géographique69Proximité organisée69Ubiquité69Agrégats Torre A. Die Rolle der vorübergehenden geografischen N01he zur Wissensübertragung, Regional Studies. In diesem Artikel verteidigen wir die These, dass eine geografische N01he zur Wissensübertragung nach wie vor unverzichtbar ist, aber oft keinen gemeinsamen Standort der Innovations- und Forschungsarbeit voraussetzt. Die Notwendigkeit einer geografischen N01he betrifft heute meistens bestimmte Phasen im Produktions-, Forschungs- oder Entwicklungsprozess. Oft sind kurze oder mittellange Besuche für die Partner ausreichend, um die für eine Zusammenarbeit ben02tigten Informationen auszutauschen. Die Mobilit01t der einzelnen Personen macht eine Umsetzung dieses Mechanismus m02glich. Eine vorübergehende geografische N01he setzt eine enge Verbindung zum Raum voraus, deren Beschaffenheit jedoch von den Beschreibungen der traditionellen Ans01tze abweicht. Geografische N01he69Organisierte N01he69Ubiquit01t69Cluster Torre A. El papel desempe09ado por la proximidad geográfica temporal en la transmisión de conocimiento, Regional Studies. En este artículo defendemos la tesis de que la proximidad geográfica sigue siendo un factor fundamental para la transferencia de conocimientos aunque esto no suele implicar la ubicación conjunta de las actividades de innovación y las de investigación. La necesidad de proximidad geográfica ahora afecta sobre todo a ciertas fases del proceso de producción, investigación y desarrollo. Las visitas a corto o medio plazo son con frecuencia suficientes para que los socios intercambien la información que necesitan para cooperar. La movilidad de los individuos facilita la aplicación de este mecanismo. La proximidad geográfica temporal entra09a una estrecha relación en el espacio pero que difiere en naturaleza de la que se describe en enfoques tradicionales. Proximidad geográfica69Proximidad organizada69Ubicuidad69Agrupaciones
[34] Storper M.

The limits to globalization: Technology districts and international trade

. Economic Geography, 1992, 68(1): 60-93.

https://doi.org/10.2307/144041      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

The proportion of traded goods in world output has been rising steadily over the past several decades. When we look at specific products exported by the advanced industrial nations, increasing export specialization is evident. Such specialization cannot be explained by conventional notions of comparative advantage, nor entirely by the new trade theory based on economies of scale. Rather, a significant proportion must be due to technological or 090008absolute090009 advantages on the part of the specialized exporter, and a significant dimension of technological advantage is product-based and renewed through learning, giving rise to dynamic economies of variety as a source of export specialization. Industries characterized by such product-based learning and absolute advantage tend to have important developmental effects on their host economies because they earn quasi-rents. Such industries also tend to be organized into production networks combining the advantages of specialization and flexibility, which are key to technological learning. These export-oriented absolute advantage industries tend to be found in one or a few subnational regions of their host countries. In this way, the global economy may be thought of as consisting, in important part, of a series of 090008technology districts.090009 Unlocking the organizational secrets of technological learning in these places is now a key task for understanding the dynamics both of these localities and of the global economy as a whole. I give examples from studies in France, Italy, and the U.S.
[35] Mackinnon D, Cumbers A, Pike A, et al.

Evolution in economic geography: Institutions, political economy, and adaptation

. Economic Geography, 2009, 85(2): 129-150.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01017.x      URL      [本文引用: 5]      摘要

Economic geography has, over the past decade or so, drawn upon ideas from evolutionary economics in trying to understand processes of regional growth and change. Recently, some researchers have sought to delimit and develop an "evolutionary economic geography" (EEG), aiming to create a more systematic theoretical framework for research. This article provides a sympathetic critique and elaboration of this emergent EEG but takes issue with some aspects of its characterization in recent programmatic statements. While acknowledging that EEG is an evolving and pluralist project, we are concerned that the reliance on certain theoretical frameworks that are imported from evolutionary economics and complexity science threatens to isolate it from other approaches in economic geography, limiting the opportunities for cross-fertilization. In response, the article seeks to develop a social and pluralist conception of institutions and social agency in EEG, drawing upon the writings of leading institutional economists, and to link evolutionary concepts to political economy approaches, arguing that the evolution of the economic landscape must be related to processes of capital accumulation and uneven development. As such, we favor the use of evolutionary and institutional concepts within a geographical political economy approach, rather than the construction of some kind of theoretically separate EEG evolution in economic geography, not an evolutionary economic geography.
[36] Boschma R, Frenken K.

Some notes on institutions in evolutionary economic geography

. Economic Geography, 2009, 85(2): 151-158.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01018.x      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

abstract Within the evolutionary economic geography framework, the role of institutions deserves more explicit attention. We argue that territorial institutions are to be viewed as orthogonal to organizational routines since each territory is characterized by a variety of routines and a single firm can apply its routines in different territorial contexts. It is therefore meaningful to distinguish between institutional economic geography and evolutionary economic geography as their explanans is different. Yet the two approaches can be combined in a dynamic framework in which institutions coevolve with organizational routines, particularly in emerging industries. Furthermore, integrating the evolutionary and institutional approach allows one to analyze the spatial diffusion of organizational routines that mediate conflicts among social groups, in particular, those between employers and employees. An evolutionary economic geography advocates an empirical research program, both qualitative and quantitative, that can address the relative importance of organizational routines and territorial institutions for regional development.
[37] Malmberg A, Maskell P.

An evolutionary approach to localized learning and spatial clustering

. In: Boschma R, Martin R. The Handbook of Evolutionary Economic Geography. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2010: 391-405.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This wide-ranging Handbook is the first major compilation of the theoretical and empirical research that is forging the new and exciting paradigm of evolutionary economic geography.
[38] Nelson R R.

The co-evolution of technology, industrial structure, and supporting institutions

. Industrial and corporate change, 1994, 3(1): 47-63.

https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/3.1.47      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

There is a large intellectual discrepancy between most formal growth models described by economists and descriptions of growth in economic history. This paper draws on an evolutionary theory of economic growth that brings together appreciative theorizing regarding growth and formal theorizing. It aims to piece together a relatively coherent appreciative theoretical account of economic development at a sectoral level by laying out a story of the growth, and development, of a manufacturing sector, from birth to maturity, and perhaps until death, that seems to fit many cases and which can serve as a target for formalization. The paper first describes and tries to link two broad bodies of appreciative evolutionary theoretic writing. The first proposes that a new technology develops along a relatively standard track from the time it is born, to its maturity, and that firm and industry structure ‘coevolve’ with the technology. The other is concerned with the development of institutions in response to changing economic conditions, incentives, and pressures. The paper then considers ‘punctuated equilibrium’ before concluding with a consideration of two economic developmental implications that appear to flow from the analysis. One concerns the pattern of change of productivity, of capital intensity, and relative variables associated with economic growth, as a technology and industry structure develop. The other is concerned with implicitly cross-country comparisons, and is focused on how ‘comparative advantage’ develops in a new industry.
[39] 汪明峰, 郗厚雪.

城市新兴技术产业的演化路径比较分析: 以长三角物联网产业为例

. 地理研究, 2015, 34(9): 1697-1707.

https://doi.org/10.11821/d1yj201509008      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

1990年代后期以来,经济地理学出现了演化思潮,一些新的概念为分析产业的空间演化提供了有效的理论工具。基于演化经济地理学中的路径依赖理论,以长三角地区的物联网产业为例,探讨了新兴产业兴起和演化过程的地方差异。重点选取无锡、上海、南京和杭州四个城市,采用多案例比较的方法,从产业发展的历史基础、集群状况、政府政策,以及主要动力机制等方面,分析了4个案例的异同点,并突出这些城市在区域经济和制度环境方面的差异。对产业演化机制的讨论还发现,技术基础、政策推动和偶然性事件是新兴技术产业初始发展阶段的主要动因。

[Wang Mingfeng, Xi Houxue.

The evolutionary paths of new emerging industry in cities: A case study of the Internet of things industry in the Yangtze River Delta region

. Geographical Research, 2015, 34(9): 1697-1707.]

https://doi.org/10.11821/d1yj201509008      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

1990年代后期以来,经济地理学出现了演化思潮,一些新的概念为分析产业的空间演化提供了有效的理论工具。基于演化经济地理学中的路径依赖理论,以长三角地区的物联网产业为例,探讨了新兴产业兴起和演化过程的地方差异。重点选取无锡、上海、南京和杭州四个城市,采用多案例比较的方法,从产业发展的历史基础、集群状况、政府政策,以及主要动力机制等方面,分析了4个案例的异同点,并突出这些城市在区域经济和制度环境方面的差异。对产业演化机制的讨论还发现,技术基础、政策推动和偶然性事件是新兴技术产业初始发展阶段的主要动因。
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[本文引用: 1]     

[41] Nelson R R.

Co-evolution of industry structure, technology and supporting institutions, and the making of comparative advantage

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[42] Sotarauta M, Pulkkinen R.

Institutional entrepreneurship for knowledge regions: In search of a fresh set of questions for regional innovation studies

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[本文引用: 1]     

[44] Maskell P, Malmberg A.

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. Journal of Economic Geography, 2007, 7(5): 603-618.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbm020      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This article aims to show how processes of knowledge development and their institutional underpinnings make up the core of evolutionary economic geography. We argue that micro level concepts-notabl ...
[45] Boschma R, Capone G.

Institutions and diversification: Related versus unrelated diversification in a varieties of capitalism framework

. Research Policy, 2015, 44(10): 1902-1914.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2015.06.013      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[46] Schumpeter J A.The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle Boston: Harvard University Press, 1912.

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[47] Fleming L.

Recombinant uncertainty in technological search

. Management Science, 2001, 47(1): 117-132.

https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.47.1.117.10671      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[48] Jacobs J.

The Economy of Cities

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[49] Klepper S.

Disagreements, spinoffs, and the evolution of Detroit as the capital of the US automobile industry

. Management Science, 2007, 53(4): 616-631.

https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1060.0683      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[50] Hidalgo C A, Klinger B, Barabási A, et al.

The product space conditions: The development of nations

. Science, 2007, 317(5837): 482.

https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1144581      URL      PMID: 17656717      [本文引用: 3]      摘要

Economies grow by upgrading the products they produce and export. The technology, capital, institutions, and skills needed to make newer products are more easily adapted from some products than from others. Here, we study this network of relatedness between products, or "product space," finding that more-sophisticated products are located in a densely connected core whereas less-sophisticated products occupy a less-connected periphery. Empirically, countries move through the product space by developing goods close to those they currently produce. Most countries can reach the core only by traversing empirically infrequent distances, which may help explain why poor countries have trouble developing more competitive exports and fail to converge to the income levels of rich countries.
[51] Essletzbichler J.

Relatedness, industrial branching and technological cohesion in US metropolitan areas

. Regional Studies, 2015, 49(5): 752-766.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2013.806793      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Essletzbichler J. Relatedness, industrial branching and technological cohesion in US metropolitan areas, Regional Studies. Work by evolutionary economic geographers on the role of industry relatedness for regional economic development is extended into a number of methodological and empirical directions. First, relatedness is measured as the intensity of input utput linkages between industries. Second, this measure is employed to examine industry evolution in 360 US metropolitan areas. Third, an employment-weighted measure of metropolitan technological cohesion is developed. The results confirm that technological relatedness is positively related to metropolitan industry portfolio membership and industry entry and negatively related to industry exit. The decomposition of technological cohesion indicates that the selection of related incumbent industries complements industry entry and exit as the main drivers of change in metropolitan technological cohesion.
[52] Boschma R, Minondo A, Navarro M.

The emergence of new industries at the regional level in Spain: A proximity approach based on product relatedness

. Economic Geography, 2013, 89(1): 29-51.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ecge.2013.89.issue-1      URL      [本文引用: 3]     

[53] Kogler D F, Rigby D L, Tucker I.

Mapping knowledge space and technological relatedness in US cities

. European Planning Studies, 2013, 21(9): 1374-1391.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2012.755832      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

The accumulation of knowledge is a key driver of technological change and economic growth. Significant attention has been directed to the processes of knowledge production in a spatial context, but little attention has been given to the type of knowledge produced within specific places. The objectives of the present study are to map the US technology/knowledge space, to examine the evolution of that space over the time period 1975 2005, and to investigate the character of knowledge cores within US cities. The knowledge space is based on the proximity of technology classes, utilizing measures derived from co-classification information contained in patent documents. Results show that over time, patents increasingly cluster within technology classes that are located close to one another in technology space. They also reveal considerable heterogeneity in measures of technological specialization across US metropolitan areas. In general, smaller cities tend to display higher levels of knowledge relatedness, often because invention is controlled by a small number of firms with a limited range of technological know-how. Larger cities generate knowledge that is more broadly dispersed across the US knowledge space. Some cities maintain their technological coherence over time, the technological trajectories of others fracture and dissipate, while yet in other cities new technology cores emerge and develop. Higher levels of technological relatedness (specialization) in cities are linked to faster rates of knowledge production and to distinctive trajectories of knowledge evolution.
[54] Boschma R.

Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience

. Regional Studies, 2015, 49(5): 733-751.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2014.959481      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Boschma R. Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience, Regional Studies. This paper proposes an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. It conceptualizes resilience not just as the ability of a region to accommodate shocks, but extends it to the long-term ability of regions to develop new growth paths. A comprehensive view on regional resilience is proposed in which history is key to understand how regions develop new growth paths, and in which industrial, network and institutional dimensions of resilience come together. Resilient regions are capable of overcoming a trade-off between adaptation and adaptability, as embodied in related and unrelated variety, loosely coupled networks and loosely coherent institutional structures.
[55] Menger C.

Untersuchungen über die methode der socialwissenschaften: Und der politischen oekonomie insbesondere

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[57] 尹贻梅, 刘志高, 刘卫东.

路径依赖理论及其地方经济发展隐喻

. 地理研究, 2012, 31(5): 782-791.

[本文引用: 1]     

[Yin Yimei, Liu Zhigao, Liu Weidong.

Path-dependence and its implication for regional development

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[本文引用: 1]     

[58] David P A.

Clio and the economics of QWERTY

. The American Economic Review, 1985, 75(2): 332-337.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-586X(85)90093-7      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

No abstract is available for this item.
[59] Arthur W B.Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1994.

[本文引用: 1]     

[60] North D C.Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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[61] Setterfield M.

A model of institutional hysteresis

. Journal of Economic Issues, 1993, 27(3): 755-774.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00213624.1993.11505453      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

No abstract is available for this item.
[62] Krugman P.

Increasing returns and economic geography

. Journal of Political Economy, 1991, 99(3): 483-499.

https://doi.org/10.1086/261763      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[63] Walker R A.

The Geography of Production

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[本文引用: 1]     

[64] Scott A J, Storper M. Production, Work,

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[65] David P A.

Why are institutions the 'carriers of history'?

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https://doi.org/10.1016/0954-349X(94)90002-7      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[66] Garud R, Karnøe P.

Path creation as a process of mindful deviation

. In: Garud R, Karnøe P. Path Dependence and Creation. London:Psychology Press, 2001: 1-38.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Entrepreneurs are embedded in structures from which they attempt to depart. It is to explicate this notion of agency that the authors offer path creation as a concept that lies in contrast to path dependence. Path dependence celebrates the role of chance historical events in shaping the flow of future events. Such a process perspective takes an outsider's view to the genesis of novelty. In contrast, path creators are boundary spanners who disregard myopic pressures from existing relevance structures by making mindful deviations with objects to create new futures. Time is a critical element in this process. Specifically, path creators negotiate the time required for their initiatives to mature and succeed. In doing so, they harness the dynamic efficiencies implicit in adopting a perspective that views the emergence of novelty ex-vizu of a point in time.
[67] Lester R.

Universities, innovation, and the competitiveness of local economies. A Summary Report from the Local Innovation Systems Project: Phase I

. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Industrial Performance Center,Working Paper Series, 2005.

URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[68] Gertler M S.

Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context, or the undefinable tacitness of being (there)

. Journal of Economic Geography, 2003, 3(1): 75-99.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/3.1.75      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[69] Lambooy J G, Boschma R A.

Evolutionary economics and regional policy

. The Annals of Regional Science. 2001, 35(1): 113-131.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s001680000033      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Our principal objective is to formulate some possible links between evolutionary economics and regional policy, a topic that has not (yet) been covered by the literature. To begin with, we outline what we take to be the essential arguments and components of evolutionary economics. More in particular, we focus attention on the economic foundation of technology policy from an evolutionary perspective, and how this deviates from the so-called `equilibrium' rationale. Then, we examine in what way evolutionary insights may be helpful for regional policy matters. Our emphasis is to investigate the degrees of freedom policy makers may have to determine the future development of regions. This is done by distinguishing between two ideal-types of regional development based on evolutionary principles. hen evolutionary mechanisms like `chance' and `increasing returns' are involved in the spatial formation of new economic activities, there are several, quite contradictory, options for policy makers. On the one hand, the importance of `chance events' implies that multiple potential outcomes of location are quite thinkable. This is a principal problem for regional policy because new development paths can not be planned or even foreseen. On the other hand, policy makers may have a considerable role to play. Since space exercises only a minor influence on the location of new economic activities, there is room for policy makers to act and to build-up a favourable local environment. In this respect, `urbanisation economies' may offer advantages of flexibility secured by a diversity of activities that may prevent a process of `negative lock-in'. hen evolutionary mechanisms like `selection' and `path dependency' largely determine the geography of innovation, the options for policy makers to change fundamentally the course of regional development are expected to be rather limited. Regional policy is likely to fail when local strategies deviate considerably from the local context. In such circumstances, policy makers have to account for the fact that adaptation to change is largely constrained by the boundaries of the spatial system laid down in the past. However, this also implies that the potential impact of regional policy may be quite large when the policy objectives are strongly embedded in the surrounding environment.
[70] Boschma R, Frenken K, Bathelt H, et al.

Technological relatedness and regional branching: Beyond territory

. In: Dynamic Geographies of Knowledge Creation, Diffusion and Innovation. London: Routledge, 2012: 64-81.

[本文引用: 1]     

[71] Hausmann R, Klinger B.

The structure of the product space and the evolution of comparative advantage

. Center for International Development at Harvard University, 2007.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This paper establishes a robust stylized fact: changes in the revealed comparative advantage of nations are governed by the pattern of relatedness of products at the global level. As countries change their export mix, there is a strong tendency to move towards related goods rather than to goods that are farther away. The pattern of relatedness of products is only very partially explained by similarity in broad factor or technological intensities, suggesting that the relevant determinants are much more product-specific. Moreover, the pattern of relatedness of products exhibits very strong heterogeneity: there are parts of this ‘product space’ that are dense while others are sparse. This implies that countries that are specialized in a dense part of the product space have an easier time at changing their revealed comparative advantage than countries that are specialized in more disconnected products.
[72] Hidalgo C A, Hausmann R.

The building blocks of economic complexity

. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2009, 106(26): 10570-10575.

https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0900943106      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[73] Neffke F, Henning M, Boschma R, et al.

The dynamics of agglomeration externalities along the life cycle of industries

. Regional Studies, 2011, 45(1): 49-65.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343401003596307      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. and Olander L.-O. The dynamics of agglomeration externalities along the life cycle of industries, Regional Studies. This paper investigates the changing roles of agglomeration externalities along the industry life cycle. It is argued that industries have different agglomeration needs in different stages of their life cycles because their mode of competition, innovation intensity, and learning opportunities change over time. For twelve Swedish manufacturing industries, it is determined for each year between 1974 and 2004 whether the industry is in a young, intermediate, or mature stage. Whereas Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR) externalities steadily increase with the maturity of industries, the effects of local diversity (Jacobs’ externalities) are positive for young industries, but decline and even become negative for more mature industries. Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. et Olander L.-O. La dynamique des effets externes d'agglomération tout au long du cycle de vie des industries, Regional Studies. Cet article cherche à examiner l’évolution du r00le des effets externes d'agglomération tout au long du cycle de vie des industries. On soutient que les atouts de l'agglomération varient suivant la phase du cycle de vie parce que le mode de compétition, l'intensité de l'innovation, et les possiblités d'apprentissage des industries évoluent dans le temps. On détermine pour douze industries suédoises et pour chaque année de 1974 à 2004 si, oui ou non, une industrie est à un niveau naissant, intermédiaire ou avancé. Tandis que les effets externes Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR) augmentent régulièrement au fur et à mesure du développement des industries, les effets de la diversité locale (effets externes Jacobs) s'avèrent positifs pour les industries naissantes mais diminuent, voire s'avèrent négatifs, pour ce qui est des industries plus avancées. Cycle de vie des industries69Agglomération69Effets externes69Evolution69Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR)69Jacobs Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. und Olander L.-O. Die Dynamik von Agglomerationsexternalit01ten w01hrend des Lebenszyklus von Branchen, Regional Studies. In diesem Beitrag untersuchen wir die wechselnden Rollen von Agglomerationsexternalit01ten im Laufe des Lebenszyklus von Branchen. Wir stellen die These auf, dass die Branchen in verschiedenen Phasen ihrer Lebenszyklen verschiedene Agglomerationsbedürfnisse aufweisen, da sich die Art ihres Wettbewerbs, die Intensit01t der Innovationen und die Chancen zum Lernen im Laufe der Zeit ver01ndern. Anhand von zw02lf produzierenden Branchen Schwedens wird für jedes Jahr von 1974 bis 2004 festgestellt, ob sich die Branchen jeweils in einem jungen, mittleren oder reifen Stadium befinden. W01hrend die Marshall–Arrow–Romer-(MAR)-Externalit01ten mit zunehmender Reife der Branchen gleichm0108ig zunehmen, fallen die Auswirkungen der lokalen Diversit01t (Jacobs-Externalit01ten) für junge Branchen positiv aus, nehmen dann aber für reifere Branchen ab und werden schlie08lich sogar negativ. Lebenszyklus von Branchen69Agglomeration69Externalit01ten69Evolution69Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR)69Jacobs Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. y Olander L.-O. Las dinámicas de los efectos externos de aglomeración en el ciclo vital de las industrias, Regional Studies. En este artículo analizamos las funciones cambiantes de los efectos externos de aglomeración en el ciclo vital de sectores industriales. Argumentamos que las industrias tienen diferentes necesidades de aglomeración en distintas fases de sus ciclos vitales ya que su modo de competición, intensidad de innovación y oportunidades de aprendizaje evolucionan con el tiempo. En doce sectores industriales manufactureros de Suecia se determinó para cada a09o desde 1974 a 2004 si la industria estaba en una fase joven, intermedia o madura. Mientras que los efectos externos Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR) aumentan de forma constante con la madurez de las industrias, los efectos de la diversidad local (las externalidades de Jacob) son positivas en las industrias jóvenes, no obstante para las industrias más maduras los efectos entran en declive e incluso se vuelven negativos. Ciclo vital de las industrias69Aglomeración69Efectos externos69Evolución69Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR)69Jacobs
[74] Qian Y.

Enterprise reform in China: Agency problems and political control

. Economics of Transition, 1996, 4(2): 427-447.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.1996.tb00181.x      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

The past reforms of state-owned enterprises in China delegated many effective control rights to managers while maintaining ultimate control rights for the Party and government. The result is that either the agency costs are high because managers lack accountability or the political costs are high because the government causes political interference. Reform of state-owned enterprises in China should aim at reducing both political and agency costs, which can be done through depoliticization, effective corporate governance, and deserialization. In particular, China needs an ownership transformation with a combination of privatization, denationalization, and pluralization; a state assets management system to limit political influence from the government; and corporatization to establish effective corporate governance which may take a variety of forms.
[75] Li S, Xia J.

The roles and performance of state firms and non-state firms in China's economic transition

. World Development, 2008, 36(1): 39-54.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.01.008      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[76] He C, Pan F.

Economic transition, dynamic externalities and city-industry growth in China

. Urban Studies, 2010, 47(1): 121-144.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098009346865      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Using data on two-digit manufacturing industries for prefecture-level cities during the period of 200009”05, this study found a significant non-linear relationship between dynamic externalities and city-industry growth. Industrial specialisation and local competition may help city-industry growth, but may harm growth when they exceed a certain level. Diversity helps industry growth, but only when it reaches a certain level. Liberalised, globalised and locally protected industries are more likely to benefit from dynamic externalities. Industries located in cities with greater authorities are also found to grow faster. The empirical findings indicate that economic transition has created conditions to allow a larger role of dynamic externalities in stimulating city-industry growth.
[77] Zhu S, He C.

Geographical dynamics and industrial relocation: Spatial strategies of apparel firms in Ningbo, China

. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2013, 54(3): 342-362.

[本文引用: 1]     

[78] Qiu F, Zhang G, Zheng H.

Research on Problem of Industrial Structure in the Yangtse River Delta

. China Industrial Economy, 2005, (4): 77-85.

https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02873109      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

The academic circle and the departments of economic administration are paying close attention to the problem of same industrial structure and malignant competition in the Yangtse River Delta. This problem is not serious to that of the main current view. The assimilating extent of industrial structure with the subdivision of industry and the lapse of time is descending, which is the result of advancing complementarily of industry impelled by market power. Malignant competition exists mainly in the field in which the government controls the investment, which comes from the special system of promotion of governmental officials. Therefore, industrial cooperation in this area depends mainly on the market power, and the government must provide policy and surroundings to it. We have to start with the changes of supplying institution for resolving the malignant competition, promoting the regional cooperation, optimizing the spatial layout of industry.
[79] Grossman G M, Helpman E.

Trade, knowledge spillovers, and growth

. European economic review, 1991, 35(2-3): 517-526.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2921(91)90153-A      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

In this paper, we examine one channel through which the trade regime might affect growth in the long run. We model endogenous technological progress that results from profit maximizing investments by far-sighted entrepreneurs. Productivity in the research lab depends upon the "stock of knowledge capital", a variable reflecting the state of scientific, engineering and industrial know-how in the local economy. We argue that local knowledge capital is likely to vary positively with the extent of contact between domestic agents and their counterparts in the international research and business communities, and that the number of such contacts increases with the level of commercial exchange. We derive the implications of this for the relationship between trade and growth.
[80] Findlay R.

Relative backwardness, direct foreign investment, and the transfer of technology: A simple dynamic model

. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1978, 92(1): 1-16.

https://doi.org/10.2307/1885996      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[81] Zhang L.

Chinese central-provincial fiscal relationships, budgetary decline and the impact of the 1994 fiscal reform: An evaluation

. The China Quarterly, 1999, 157: 115-141.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000040224      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[82] Young A.

The razor's edge: Distortions and incremental reform in the People's Republic of China

. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2000, 115(4): 1091-1135.

https://doi.org/10.1162/003355300555024      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

In a partially reformed economy, distortions beget distortions. Segments of the economy that are freed from centralized control respond to the rent-seeking opportunities implicit in the remaining distortions of the economy. The battle to capture, and then protect, these rents leads to the creation of new distortions, even as the reform process tries to move forward. In this paper I illustrate this idea with a study of the People's Republic of China. Under the plan, prices were skewed so as to concentrate profits, and hence revenue, in industry. As control over factor allocations was loosened, local governments throughout the economy sought to capture these rents by developing high margin industries. Continued reform, and growing interregional competition between duplicative industries, threatened the profitability of these industrial structures, leading local governments to impose a variety of interregional barriers to trade. Thus, the reform process led to the fragmentation of the domestic market and the distortion of regional production away from patterns of comparative advantage.
[83] Guo Q, He C.

The evolution of production space and regional industrial structrues in China

. GeoJournal, 2017, 2(82): 379-396.

URL      [本文引用: 5]      摘要

A growing literature on evolutionary economic geography concludes that regional industrial evolution is path-dependent and is determined by the pre-existing industries. This study applies the co-occurrence approach to calculate the production relatedness and portrays the production space and then examines the impact of production relatedness on regional industrial evolution. The findings report that production relatedness does underscore the regional structure change in China but shows significant regional differences in the evolution path. The coastal region has strong tendency of path dependence in its industrial evolution, while North West and South West break the path-dependent trajectory and transition into high productive sectors distant from their own production network. The results suggest that national policies can play its crucial role in creating new paths in China's regional development. Institutions matter to allow the significant role of industry relatedness in driving regional industrial evolution.
[84] 贺灿飞, 董瑶, 周沂.

中国对外贸易产品空间路径演化

. 地理学报, 2016, 71(6): 970-983.

https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb201606006      URL      [本文引用: 4]      摘要

地区经济发展与其生产结构紧密相联。演化经济地理学认为,地区生产结构的演化受技术关联的影响,是一个路径依赖过程;一些研究也认为产业和区域政策等因素可能创造新路径,实现路径突破。本文沿用Hidalgo等定义的贸易产品空间方法,基于2001-2013年中国31个省区市的产品贸易数据,对中国出口产品空间(Product Space)的演化路径进行探讨。结果发现:中国四大区域—东部、中部、西部和东北地区的出口产品经历了较为明显的结构转型,不同区域的转型方向与路径各异。在2001-2007年间,四大区域的出口产品空间演化受到技术关联的显著影响,体现为路径依赖的过程。在2008-2013年间,东部、中部与东北地区的产品空间演化仍受技术关联的影响,而西部地区则更多受到产业和区域政策的推动,体现了路径突破的演化过程。本文研究启示,虽然中国区域生产结构演化一定程度上受制于现有区域能力、技术和知识积累,但是区域性制度政策创新可以突破原有路径,为区域发展创造新的机会。

[He Canfei, Dong Yao, Zhou Yi.

Evolution of export product space in China: Path-dependent or path-breaking?

. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2016, 71(6): 969-983.]

https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb201606006      URL      [本文引用: 4]      摘要

地区经济发展与其生产结构紧密相联。演化经济地理学认为,地区生产结构的演化受技术关联的影响,是一个路径依赖过程;一些研究也认为产业和区域政策等因素可能创造新路径,实现路径突破。本文沿用Hidalgo等定义的贸易产品空间方法,基于2001-2013年中国31个省区市的产品贸易数据,对中国出口产品空间(Product Space)的演化路径进行探讨。结果发现:中国四大区域—东部、中部、西部和东北地区的出口产品经历了较为明显的结构转型,不同区域的转型方向与路径各异。在2001-2007年间,四大区域的出口产品空间演化受到技术关联的显著影响,体现为路径依赖的过程。在2008-2013年间,东部、中部与东北地区的产品空间演化仍受技术关联的影响,而西部地区则更多受到产业和区域政策的推动,体现了路径突破的演化过程。本文研究启示,虽然中国区域生产结构演化一定程度上受制于现有区域能力、技术和知识积累,但是区域性制度政策创新可以突破原有路径,为区域发展创造新的机会。
[85] Zhou Y, He C, Zhu S.

Does Creative Destruction Work for Chinese Regions?

. Growth and Change. 2017, 48(3): 274-296.

https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12168      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

No abstract is available for this item.
[86] He C, Yang R.

Determinants of firm failure: Empirical evidence from China

. Growth and Change. 2016, 47(1): 72-92.

https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12116      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

No abstract is available for this item.
[87] 罗芊, 贺灿飞. 产业政策与区域产业演化. 2017年中国地理学会经济地理专业委员会学术年会论文集. 成都, 2017.

[本文引用: 1]     

[Luo Qian, He Canfei.

Industrial policy and regional industrial evolution

. In: Annual meeting of Association of Chinese economic geography. Chengdu, 2017]

[本文引用: 1]     

[88] He C, Yan Y, Rigby D.

Regional industrial evolution in China

. Papers in Regional Science, 2016.

https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12246      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Abstract Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) indicates that regional industrial development is path dependent. The empirical studies in EEG however have not paid sufficient attention to the importance of global linkages nor the role of regional institutions in driving industrial dynamics. Based on firm level data of four-digit manufacturing industries during 1998 to 2008 in China, we find that Chinese regions branch into new industries technologically related to the existing industrial portfolio and related industries are less likely to exit. Further analysis reveals that global linkages, economic liberalization and state involvement not only create favourable conditions to allow a larger role of technological relatedness but also generate opportunities for Chinese regions to create new paths of industrial development.
[89] He C, Zhou Y, Huang Z.

Fiscal decentralization, political centralization, and land urbanization in China

. Urban Geography, 2016, 37(3): 436-457.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2015.1063242      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

ABSTRACT This study investigates the driving forces of land urbanization in China. Drawing upon insights from the institutional perspective, this study argues that fiscal decentralization tightens local budget constraints, stimulating local governments to urbanize land to relieve fiscal distress. Political centralization triggers interregional competition among government officials for better economic performance, inspiring local governments to employ land development to mobilize more capital investment for growth. Based on official land-use change data from 2002 to 2008 for prefectural cities, and the application of spatial econometric models, this study presents empirical evidence to support these theoretical arguments. Results imply that fiscal and political incentives derived from land development drive China land urbanization process. This study enriches the urbanization literature by providing an institutional understanding of rapid land urbanization in a transitional economy.
[90] Zhu S, He C, Zhou Y.

How to jump further and catch up? Path-breaking in an uneven industry space

. Journal of Economic Geography, 2017, 17(3): 521-545.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbw047      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Recent studies have argued that regional diversification emerges as a path-dependent process. Developed countries that industrialize do so first from core areas in an uneven industry space and have more opportunities to jump to new related industries and sustain economic growth than do developing countries that jump from peripheral areas. Can developing countries/regions jump further to break these path-dependent trajectories? Based on China鈥檚 export data, we show that regions can make such a jump by investing in extra-regional linkages and internal innovation. The effects of these two sets of variables vary across regions and industries.
[91] Zhu S, Pickles J, He C.

Global and local governance, and industrial and geographical dynamics: A tale of two clusters

. In: Zhu S, Pickles J, He C. Geographical Dynamics and Firm Strategy in China, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2017: 143-167.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53601-8_7      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Abstract In the era of globalization, knowledge transfer through global value chains (GVCs) has been considered as a major engine of industrial upgrading for firms in developing economies. Increasing attention has been paid to how global economy has been coordinated and integrated; the actions and motivations of global lead firms are treated as the key causal force in the organization of global contracting systems and in developing country firms’ upgrading and relocation (Gereffi in J Int Econ 48(1):37–70, 1999a; Schmitz and Knorringa in J Dev Stud 37(2):177–205, 2000).
[92] Boschma R, Martin R.Constructing an Evolutionary Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

[本文引用: 1]     

[93] Rodríguez-Pose A.

Do institutions matter for regional development?

. Regional Studies, 2013, 47(7): 1034-1047.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2012.748978      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[94] Hodgson G M.

Institutional economics into the twenty-first century

. Studi E Note Di Economia, 2009, 14(1): 3-26.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

ABSTRACT This essay considers the nature and evolution of both the old and the new institutional economics and considers the possibility of dialogue or even con- vergence between these schools. It also considers shifts of thinking inside and outside mainstream economics that have altered the conception of the eco- nomic agent, even within mainstream theory. In particular, the stipulation of endogenous preferences, once a hallmark of the old institutionalism, is gain- ing legitimacy within mainstream economics. In this context, the new institu- tional economics is evolving in a direction that makes productive dialogue between the two institutionalist traditions more possible. (J.E.L.: B15, B25, B52)
[95] Pike A, Birch K, Cumbers A, et al.

A geographical political economy of evolution in Economic Geography

. Economic Geography, 2009, 85(2): 175-182.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01021.x      URL      [本文引用: 3]      摘要

Key themes for evolution in economic geography are identified that clarify and further refine and reinforce our argument for broader conceptions of institutions, social agency, and power and for the situation of the plural and emerging field of evolutionary approaches more fully within geographical political economy. We address the following issues: conceptual and terminological clarity; evolution and institutions within and beyond the firm; agency, bounded determinacy, and power; and research method and design. Our central contention is that geographical political economy provides a coherent and well-structured conceptual and theoretical framework with which to broaden and deepen our understanding, exploration, and practice of evolutionary thinking in economic geography.
[96] Hassink R, Klaerding C, Marques P.

Advancing evolutionary economic geography by engaged pluralism

. Regional Studies, 2014, 48(7): 1295-1307.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2014.889815      URL      [本文引用: 4]      摘要

Hassink R., Klaerding C. and Marques P. Advancing evolutionary economic geography by engaged pluralism, Regional Studies. Since 2006 economic geographers have been confronted with attempts to constitute a new paradigm of evolutionary economic geography. This paper aims at advancing evolutionary economic geography by reviewing its core critique and proposed solutions, particularly that of integrating the perspective of a geographical political economy. Although the authors sympathize with the identified shortcomings of evolutionary economic geography, the proposed alternative approach, geographical political economy, is regarded as being too narrow and reductionist. By combining evolutionary and relational economic geography in certain respects a plea is made for advancing evolutionary economic geography by engaged pluralism.
[97] Yeung H W, Coe N.

Toward a dynamic theory of global production networks

. Economic Geography, 2015, 91(1): 29-58.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ecge.12063      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Global production networks (GPN) are organizational platforms through which actors in different regional and national economies compete and cooperate for a greater share of value creation, transformation, and capture through geographically dispersed economic activity. Existing conceptual frameworks on global value chains (GVC) and what we termGPN 1.0tend to under-theorize the origins and dynamics of these organizational platforms and to overemphasize their governance typologies (e.g., modular, relational, and captive modes in GVC theory) or analytical categories (e.g., power and embeddedness in GPN 1.0). Building on this expanding literature, our article aims to contribute toward the reframing of existing GPN-GVC debates and the development of a more dynamic theory of global production networks that can better explain the emergence of different firm-specific activities, strategic network effects, and territorial outcomes in the global economy. It is part of a wider initiative PN 2.0 in short hat seeks to offer novel theoretical insights into why and how the organization and coordination of global production networks varies significantly within and across different industries, sectors, and economies. Taking an actor-centered focus toward theory development, we tackle a significant gap in existing work by systematically conceptualizing thecausal driversof global production networks in terms of their competitive dynamics (optimizing cost-capability ratios, market imperatives, and financial discipline) and risk environments. These capitalist dynamics are theorized as critical independent variables that shape the four main strategies adopted by economic actors in (re)configuring their global production networks and, ultimately, the developmental outcomes in different industries, regions, and countries.
[98] Yeung H W C.

Rethinking relational economic geography

. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2005, 30(1): 37-51.

https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.2005.30.issue-1      URL      [本文引用: 2]     

[99] Bathelt H, Glückler J.

Toward a relational economic geography

. Journal of Economic Geography, 2003, 3(2): 117-144.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/3.2.117      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

In this paper, we argue that a paradigmatic shift is occurring in economic geography toward a relational economic geography. This rests on three propositions. First, from a structural perspective economic actors are situated in contexts of social and institutional relations. Second, in dynamic perspective economic processes are path-dependent, constrained by history. Third, economic processes are contingent in that the agents' strategies and actions are open-ended. Drawing on Storper's holy trinity, we define four ions as the basis for analysis in economic geography: organization, evolution, innovation, and interaction. Therein, we employ a particular spatial perspective of economic processes using a geographical lens. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.


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