[MAO Xiyan, HE Canfei.
Regional division of labour and its environmental performance in the context of trade liberalisation[J]. Geographical Research
Regional division of labour and its environmental performance in the context of trade liberalisation
MAO Xiyan1,, HE Canfei2,
1. School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Foreign trade can induce the regional division of labour in pollution-intensive sectors. There are also concerns on a likely polarisation of pollution emission in the wake of regional division. This study incorporates a dynamic perspective into the regional division of labour, which becomes a synergy of specialised agglomeration and industrial dynamics. The location quotient is applied to assess the level of specialised agglomeration. An index is also constructed based on co-occurrence probability to capture the route of industrial dynamics. Thus, a simultaneous equation model is constructed to empirically examine the linkage between local environmental performance and regional division of labour, and the role of foreign trade in such a linkage. An "industry-city-year" data panel is established to support the empirical study, which covers 261 prefectural-level cities and 30 industries at the two-digit level with the study period spanning from 2003 to 2009. The results show that an increasing scale of agglomeration is likely to generate various crowding-out effects, resulting in less co-agglomeration of related industries. It will, in turn, keep the industrial mix from moving towards a locked-in way. On the other hand, environmental regulation has been efficient in emission reduction, effectively reducing the probability of introducing new pollution-intensive sectors. To summarize, although the expansion of foreign trade can promote the level of specialised agglomeration, it is less likely to polarise the pollution emission among regions. The results may offer insightful references for managing the tradeoffs between foreign trade and the environment. First, there is a spatial asymmetry between pollution-intensive sectors and their non-pollution-intensive counterparts. The non-pollution-intensive sectors tend to avoid the co-location with the pollution-intensive sectors. In such cases, the co-agglomeration between pollution-intensive and non-pollution-intensive sectors can crowd out the non-pollution intensive ones in its early stage. The efforts on developing non-pollution-intensive sectors should pay off in the long run. Second, there are both active and passive ways to keep regions from being locked in pollution production. Previous efforts may focus on the role of active ways, such as the environmental regulation. However, it is also beneficial to take advantage of the passive ways.
Regional division of labour by air pollution-intensive sectors and water pollution-intensive sectors in China in 2007
污染排放方程的建构依托于STIRPAT模型（stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology）。该模型是Dietz等针对传统IPAT（impact of pollution, affluence and technology）框架所提出的基于随机过程的改进版本,在综合人口、富裕程度和技术等因素综合影响的同时,考虑了这些影响因素非单调、非等比例变化的可能性,在污染物和温室气体排放的驱动力研究中运用广泛[32,33]。其基本形式如下所示：
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For the last ten years environmentalists and the trade policy community have engaged in a heated debate over the environmental consequences of liberalized trade. The debate was originally fueled by negotiations over the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Uruguay round of GATT negotiations, both of which occurred at a time when concerns over global warming, species extinction and industrial pollution were rising. Recently it has been intensified by the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and proposals for future rounds of trade negotiations. The debate has often been unproductive. It has been hampered by the lack of a common language and also suffered from little recourse to economic theory and empirical evidence. The purpose of this essay is set out what we currently know about the environmental consequences of economic growth and international trade. We critically review both theory and empirical work to answer three basic questions. What do we know about the relationship between international trade, economic growth and the environment? How can this evidence help us evaluate ongoing policy debates? Where do we go from here?
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