20 December 2019, Volume 38 Issue 12 Previous Issue   
Perspectives and Contention
Targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization in poverty-stricken areas: Internal logic and mechanism
GUO Yuanzhi, ZHOU Yang, LIU Yansui
2019, 38 (12):  2819-2832.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190644
Abstract ( 145 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF (3213KB) ( 150 )  

Targeting at the needs of Two Centenary Goals, rural development in poverty-stricken areas of China is gradually transforming from poverty alleviation to rural revitalization. Since there is a close relationship between these two stages, targeted poverty alleviation practices in rural areas are of great significance to promote the realization of rural revitalization. This study analyzed the connotations of targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, and investigated the internal logic between them. Then it discussed how antipoverty practices promote the rural revitalization in poverty-stricken areas. Results show that targeted poverty alleviation aims at taking countermeasures to help those who truly need them based on scientific diagnosis of the factors leading to poverty, thus all kinds of factors causing poverty can be eliminated fundamentally. The key of rural revitalization lies in establishing the system and mechanism for urban-rural integrated development, eventually realizing the modernization of agriculture and countryside. In term of the relationship between targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, the former is the key and basic premise of the latter since poverty reduction guided by targeted poverty alleviation makes up the shortboard of rural development, and the latter is the higher stage and guarantee of the former since it steadily improves the abilities of rural sustainable development. Therefore, it can be said that the process of poverty alleviation in rural areas is also a process of gradual rejuvenation of the countryside. Through the rational flow and allocation of factors, such as human, land and capital, poverty-stricken areas have constructed a benign rural regional system with enough elements, proper structure and multiple functions to promote the revitalization of industries, talent, culture, ecology and organizations. Eventually, it helps to achieve the goals of strong agriculture, beautiful countryside and well-off farmers. Rural development has obvious path dependence; thus, its cyclic accumulation effect determines that the current antipoverty in poor areas should focus on the effective connection with rural revitalization, laying a solid foundation for rural sustainable development.

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Rural restructuring and transformation: Western experience and its enlightenment to China
HU Shuling, YU Bin, WANG Mingjie
2019, 38 (12):  2833-2845.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181133
Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (971KB) ( 108 )  

Rural restructuring and transformation has been frontier in Rural Geography studies of Western countries since the 1980s. Our objective in this paper is to draw lessons from the rural development of Western countries for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy of China. The paper reveals the rural restructuring process, the characteristics of rural transformation, and the driving factors of Western countries, and summarizes the rural development practice in Western countries and its enlightenment to China. The energy crisis and post-industrialization in the 1970s, and technological progress (especially the rapid development of the Internet) since the early 1990s constituted important contexts for the rural restructuring and transformation in Western countries in three phases. The first phase is the economic dimension of restructuring dominated by "capital, land, and property rights". The second phase is the social dimension of restructuring dominated by "discourse, otherness, and construction". The third phase is the comprehensive dimension of restructuring dominated by "subject, culture and network", the essence of which is the reorganization of rural elements and their relationships as a result of the insertion of the exogenous subject, or urban area, capital and culture. The transformation characteristics have been concluded in a logic line which starts from productive countryside to consumptive countryside, then to multifunctional countryside, and lastly, to current global countryside. Rural transformation, of which the substance is the change of rural nature, is the direct result of rural restructuring. Post-industrialization, counter-urbanization, and globalization are the main factors that drive rural restructuring and transformation. Meanwhile the evolution of global geopolitical pattern has an impact on rural restructuring. Finally, despite the difference of background and characteristics of rural development between China and Western countries, it is believed that the experience from Western countries can contribute to providing enlightenment for understanding the practice of rural China's development and promoting its theory construction. In consideration of the issue that there is not unified conceptual framework for rural restructuring and transformation in China, which is a disadvantage of the relevant studies on rural China, the rural development practice and theoretical understanding in Western countries can provide some beneficial help for deepening the recognition of rural restructuring and transformation. It is noteworthy that because of different contexts between China and Western countries, Western practice and experience should not be directly copied by China without taking the differences into account. In addition, rural restructuring and transformation in contemporary China can be discussed from the perspectives of factors, reconstruction, process and function, transformation, consequence. Specifically, the paper proposes a rural revitalization blueprint for China, which sets global countryside, productive countryside, and multifunctional countryside as development orientations for eastern, central and western China, respectively.

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Articles
Study on the relationship between comprehensive endowment and rural revitalization in Nihewan Basin
LIU Yuan, YAO Haifang, LIU Jinsong
2019, 38 (12):  2846-2858.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181309
Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (5586KB) ( 50 )  

Endowment indexes, such as land relief, farmland fertility, annual precipitation, land cover, climate suitability, traffic accessibility and economic location were selected to conduct the principal component-cluster analysis, and Nihewan Basin is divided into bare rock alluvial area, alkaline land area, thin loess area and thick loess area. Based on endowment partition and field investigation, the relationship between regional endowment and rural revitalization was discussed. The results are as follows: (1) The industrial structure was single. Constrained by natural endowment, relying solely on agricultural progress, the impetus of rural revitalization development is insufficient in Nihewan Basin. (2) Due to the great loss of rural labour, the agricultural production mode based on household tend to be disintegrated. It is urgent to foster new agricultural production organization (cooperatives). (3) New energy enterprises, such as photovoltaic and wind power have effectively improved the efficiency of rural land production, which is an effective force to overcome the double locking of natural and economic endowments on rural revitalization development. (4) Village committee should base on their own endowment conditions, compile and implement the planning of rural revitalization, and coordinate relationships among all partners.

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Spatial-temporal characteristics and the influencing factors of the ride destination of bike sharing in Guangzhou city
GAO Feng, LI Shaoying, WU Zhifeng, LV Dijiang, HUANG Guanping, LIU Xiaoping
2019, 38 (12):  2859-2872.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190081
Abstract ( 91 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (9299KB) ( 96 )  

Since the emergence of dockless bike sharing in China, it has provided convenience and non-motorized travel mode for residents' short distance trips. Bike sharing plays an important role in improving the accessibility of public transportation and reducing the motorized pollution. At the same time, it also brings out urban issues, such as excessive amount of bike sharing, and mismatch between supply and demand of bike sharing. The main reason for these problems is the lack of accurate prediction and effective scheduling for bike sharing ride. Exploring the spatial and temporal characteristics of bike sharing ride and detecting the influencing factors can provide scientific decision-making basis for precise prediction and effective scheduling of bike sharing. Even though some studies have paid attention to the influencing factors of bike-sharing ride behaviors, most of them focused on the starting point but neglected the destination. Moreover, the temporal difference of influencing factors and the interaction between the factors were seldom revealed in the previous studies. Taking mobike in Guangzhou city as an example, this study aims to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of the ride destination of bike sharing. We detect the temporal differences of the influencing factors of bike sharing ride destination, and further explores the interaction between the determinants by using geographical detector. The results show that: (1) The usage of bike sharing in morning-peak time is greater than that in evening-peak time, and the spatial distribution of bike sharing ride destination has obvious temporal differences. The ride destinations of bike sharing at morning peak period are mainly distributed at CBD, zone of information industry and job-housing balance areas. While the ride destinations at evening peak period are mainly distributed along Metro Line 3 from Tiyuxi station to Huashi station as well as high-density residential areas. (2) The element of service facilities has the greatest impacts on the ride destinations of bike sharing, followed by the accessibility, land use and natural environment elements. To be more specifically, the influencing degree of the factors ranks as follows: residential communities distribution, catering facilities distribution, corporate distribution, shopping facilities distribution, road density, distance to metro station entrances and POI diversity. (3) The influence of each factor has remarkable temporal differences, for example, the influence of corporate distribution factor grows rapidly during the morning peak period. (4) The interaction effect of any two factors on the ride destinations of bike sharing is greater than the effect of one single factor. Among them, the interaction effect of factors which belong to service facilities elements are the greatest, followed by the interaction effects between factors of service facilities and accessibility.

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Research on spatio-temporal pattern of the urban registered poor: A case study of Nanjing
XU Di, ZHANG Weifei, WANG Yi, CHEN Peiyang
2019, 38 (12):  2873-2888.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181290
Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (16599KB) ( 64 )  

Urbanization has exprienced rapid development in China since 2000. In the course of time, urban social space has been changed and reconstructed, which means that the urban poor is demonstrating a new spatial pattern. At present, significant portions of domestic urban poverty space studies mainly remain in the period of 2000 or so. Based on the MLSPU (Minimum Living Standard Programme for Urban residents) recipient data, this paper explores spatio-temporal pattern of urban registered poor of Nanjing in the new period by the method of ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis). On this basis of previous related studies, this paper summarizes spatial evolutionary process and mechanism of urban registered poverty of Nanjing in the perspective of residential differentiation. The results are obtained as follows. (1) Spatial distribution of the urban registered poor has followed the pattern of dispersion globally and concentration locally of 2000, which tends to be further dispersive. Spatial agglomeration of the urban registered poor presented a core-periphery structure while the core namely hotspot region was located within Nanjing belt highway. (2) In the context of high-speed growth of national economy, both urban poor population composition and urban poverty space governance have witnessed a transformation process. The underage, unemployed, employable (not yet formally employed) and released poverty groups, especially the unemployed as well as released poverty group, are the focus of urban poverty space governance at present. (3) Compared with the year 2000, urban registered poverty-stricken area of Nanjing has obvious differentiation in the new period, which can be divided into three types: concealed, resettled and mixed. It is the consequence of urban expansion and reconstruction. (4) Under the interaction of government functions, market mechanism and social behavior, urban registered poverty space of Nanjing has emerged at the turning point form visible to invisible while it has been reconstructed. On the hand, the original dilapidated shanty towns or old neighborhoods have been renovated to a certain extent, and hidden between modern city landscapes. On the other hand, urban poor almost have migrated to security housing, where the living condition is quite different from that of commodity housing.

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The effects of regional geographical factors on children's respiratory diseases in Jingyuan, Ningxia
LI Hao, ZHANG Mingxin, WANG Ran
2019, 38 (12):  2889-2898.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181236
Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (5426KB) ( 37 )  

Respiratory diseases are the main problems affecting children's health and the most common cause of hospitalization. In recent years, the burden of children's respiratory diseases in China is very heavy, and the government has also increased the attention to the health of the people, especially children and other disadventageous groups. In this study, children's respiratory diseases in Jingyuan county of Ningxia were selected as the research objects. Time series analysis and spatial analysis method were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of children's respiratory diseases. Geodetector was used to study the relationship between regional geographical environment and children's respiratory diseases, and to explore the regional environmental impact factors. The results show that: Temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and socio-economic factors can affect the incidence of children's respiratory diseases. In terms of time, there is a significant negative correlation between the incidence of children's respiratory diseases in Jingyuan county and the monthly average temperature and precipitation. The seasonal difference between temperature and precipitation leads to obvious seasonal characteristics of children's respiratory diseases in the study area. In terms of space, children's respiratory diseases show the characteristics of "high in the middle, while low in the north and south", and the center of gravity of overall incidence shifted to the south. There are spatial differences in the influence of geographical environment factors on children's respiratory diseases, which shows that the regional temperature, humidity, wind speed and local socio-economic factors affect the spatial distribution of children's respiratory diseases to varying degrees.

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Comparative study on land use complementarity of China: Taking 14 urban agglomerations as an example
YAN Manjiao, CHEN Ligen, LONG Kaisheng, LAN Minjun
2019, 38 (12):  2899-2912.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180986
Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (8153KB) ( 59 )  

Complementarity is based on interregional endowment differences, which promotes regional advantages by virtue of flow factors. The complementarity of land use is the basis of complementarity of city functions, and the reasonable division of labor in urban agglomeration makes the overall benefit greater than the sum of the parts. This paper starts from the concept of complementarity, taking 14 agglomerations in China as case study areas. Firstly, we perfect the connotation of the complementary. Secondly, with the aid of correspondence analysis of SPSS and ArcGIS platforms, combining complementary statistic index of total inertia, this paper analyzed land use complementary of urban agglomerations in China on space-time dimensions. Results show that the complementary of land use differences between agglomerations, urban agglomerations along the Yangtze River Economic Belt presents a pattern of latitude distribution. The comprehensive characteristics of urban land use types in China's super large urban agglomerations are significant, but the level of land use complementarity between these cities is mostly lower than that in China's important regional urban agglomerations. The complementarity of most urban agglomerations has declined in five years. Industrial structure is similar between cities, and lack of unique characteristics. In the future, we should coordinate the land supply and demand relationship between regions, accelerate the cooperation of relevant people's livelihood policies across administrative regions and break down administrative barriers, so as to promote the overall development of urban and rural areas, and form a coordinated and complementary development pattern between cities.

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Effect of land use change on gully erosion in black soil region of Northeast China in the past 50 years: A case study in Kedong county
LI Maojuan, LI Tianqi, ZHU Lianqi, ZHANG Shuwen, ZHU Wenbo, ZHANG Jingjing
2019, 38 (12):  2913-2926.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181234
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (9256KB) ( 33 )  

The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important grain producing areas in China. However, increasingly severe gully erosion has destroyed much farmland and reduced grain production. In this paper, a typical black soil region, located in Kedong county, Heilongjiang province of Northeast China, was chosen as the study area. Based on Corona imagery in 1965, SPOT 5 imagery in 2005 and Gaofen-1 imagery in 2015, the distributions of gullies in 1965, 2005 and 2015 were obtained by visual interpretation. Based on relief maps in 1954, MSS imagery in 1975 and Corona imagery in 1965, the land use data in 1965 were obtained. Based on TM imagery in 2005 and 2015, the land use data in 2005 and 2015 were obtained. Then by using erosion density as the main indicator, the change of erosion gully was analyzed from the perspective of land use change. The results revealed that the gully erosion in the study area deteriorated in the past 50 years. The area of severe erosion greatly increased and showed a contiguous development trend. The cultivated land was the most important type of land use in the study area, and gully erosion on the cultivated land was the most serious. With the increased gully erosion on cultivated land, grassland and construction land, forest land and unused land were constantly reclaimed. The gully density increased the most during the interchange between cultivated land and grassland. The gully density was still very high and changed greatly after cultivated land was returned to forest land and grassland in the short term. However, with the implementation of “returning farmland to forest” and the improvement of land use, the gully erosion is still developing, but it changed slower over the ten years. By analyzing gully density change in the process of land use conversion on different slopes from 2005 to 2015, we found that the development of gully erosion is prone to occur after the forest land, grassland and unused land are cultivated on higher slopes, and it is more difficult to manage gullies with higher slopes.

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Reconstruction of cropland distribution in the Late Neolithic period in Northern China
CHEN Qiangqiang, LIU Fenggui, FANG Xiuqi, ZHOU Qiang, CHEN qiong, CHEN Ruijie
2019, 38 (12):  2927-2940.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181293
Abstract ( 38 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (3692KB) ( 39 )  

Since the Holocene, the origin of agriculture has contributed to the intensification of human activities across the globe, and its development in the Late Neolithic period (about 7-5 ka B.P. in China) was in the transition from slash-and-burn agriculture to lei-and-si ploughing, which was considered to be the key period for human activities to change the natural environment. Fortunately, the rich archaeological sites in Northern China documented various human activities during this period. In this study, we choose the archaeological data and using the archaeology associated modeling method to calculate the size of the population and the cultivated land area of the settlement sites in Northern China in the Late Neolithic period, and then to reconstruct the spatial pattern of the cultivated land. The results showed that: (1) There were at least 506 100 people in Northern China in the Late Neolithic period, and Henan province had the largest population (about 304 600), followed by Shandong and Hebei provinces (about 137 200 and 64 300 people, respectively). (2) In the study period, the area of cultivated land was 102.22×10 4 hm 2, which accounted for 4.6% of the modern cultivated land. For the whole study area, the average reclamation index reached 1.99% in this period. Like the pattern of population size, the cultivated land area and the reclamation rate for Henan province were the largest, reaching 61.52×10 4 hm 2 and 3.68%, respectively, followed by Shandong and Hebei provinces, both the cultivated land area and the reclamation rate were approximately 27.72×10 4 hm 2 and 1.75%, and 12.98 ×10 4 hm and 0.69%, respectively. (3) In the 3-km range of the historical sites, the main distribution area of individual settlement cultivated land accounted for about 83.43% of the total cultivated area; (4) On spatial scale, 63.36% of cultivated land was located in the low-altitude plain and platform areas, and only 2.43% was located in the higher-altitude areas (above 1000 m). In terms of slope, 81.55% of cultivated land was located in areas less than 2°, 16.61% was found between 2°~6° of the gentle slope, and in the 6°~15° slope areas, the cultivated land area only accounted for 1.84%.

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Review for the effects of urban topsoil on the ecological health
XU Guoliang, WEN Ya, CAI Shaoyan, LUO Xiaofeng
2019, 38 (12):  2941-2956.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190240
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (833KB) ( 35 )  

Human-land relationship is one of the core fields for the integrated geographical studies in the new era. The rapid urbanization has promoted the outbreak of human-land conflicts. Pedosphere, the most active part in the earth's critical zones, is the key ecological factor for the active man-land relationships in urban environments. Urban topsoil plays a key role in man-land relationships at regional scale, however, few previous studies discussed its ecological roles. Many studies have reported soil property changes, heavy metal and organic pollutions during urbanization, but the positive or negative feedback effects in the sink-source procession remains unclear. Meanwhile, despite numerous assessments about the urban ecosystem heath, few studies have been done about the responses of soil fauna as an important indicator for urban environmental change and ecological health risks considering its diversity and sensitivity to environmental changes. This study discussed the impacts of urban topsoil on ecological health. Urban topsoil, as a crucial ecological habitat and a crucial interplay with the atmosphere and the water, can make active positive or negative responses to urban anthropogenic activities. Thus, it is a critical interface for man-land interaction in the urban ecosystems. The changes in organisms as well as physical and chemical properties during urbanization, can diversely impact the health of soil and increase the health risks of human beings. Some perspectives on future studies were also proposed in this study, including more concerns on the interface effects of the urban topsoil, long-term, multiscale and systematic research programs, and biological and ecological studies on urban topsoil animals.

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Impact assessment of antecedent soil moisture conditions and rainfall variability on flash flood warning index at catchment scale
ZHAI Xiaoyan, GUO Liang, LIU Ronghua, ZHANG Yongyong, WANG Yali
2019, 38 (12):  2957-2965.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181338
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (5021KB) ( 23 )  

Flash flood disaster warning index is highly influenced by many factors, especially the antecedent soil moisture condition and the rainfall variability. In this study, the rainfall threshold assemble is determined in Yuexi catchment of Anhui province based on the distributed hydrological model and scenarios analysis. Moreover, the impact of these factors is assessed on the variation of the rainfall threshold assemble. The results showed that: (1) China Flash Flood-Hydrological Modelling System presented preferable performances in the study area. During the calibration and validation periods, the average relative errors of runoff and peak flow were less than 15%, the average errors of time to peak flow were no more than 1 h and the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. (2) The rainfall threshold assemble at Chidunzu village was determined as 141-528 mm under the 60 scenarios designed. (3) Both the antecedent soil moisture condition and rainfall pattern highly influenced the rainfall threshold assemble. The decrease ratios of rainfall threshold were in a range from -13.7% to -16.2% and from -26.8% to -31.8% as soil saturation increased from 0.2 to 0.5 and from 0.2 to 0.8. As for the early warning within 6 hours, the advanced rainfall patterns yielded the maximum rainfall threshold, followed by the intermediate pattern and delayed pattern. All studies are expected to provide theoretical supports for flash flood early-warning and forecasting, and also provide references for the national flash flood prevention and control in China.

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A comprehensive assessment of political, economic and social risks and their prevention for the countries along the Belt and Road
LIU Haimeng, HU Senlin, FANG Kai, HE Guangqiang, MA Haitao, CUI Xuegang
2019, 38 (12):  2966-2984.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181321
Abstract ( 61 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (14384KB) ( 48 )  

Assessing and preventing national risks along the Belt and Road are of great importance to the realization of the “Five Connectivity” goal and “Go Global” strategy. China had signed cooperation documents with more than 120 countries and 29 international organizations on jointly constructing the Belt and Road by March 2019. However, most regions along the Belt and Road are developing countries and emerging economies, with immature market economic system and relatively backward infrastructure. Some countries are suffering from a lack of stable political situation, high governance efficiency, complete legal systems and ideal trade patterns. Moreover, religious and refugee issues in some of these countries are prominent, which pose many potential risks to foreign investment, business exchanges, outbound tourism, cultural and scientific exchanges, etc. In this study, by choosing 18 indicators from the dimensions of politics, economy and society, an evaluation system was established to rank the overall risk of 74 countries along the Belt and Road. We analyzed the spatial-temporal evolution of different risks during 2001-2016 by Moran's I and hotspot analysis, and put forward suggestions for risk prevention and control. The results demonstrate that: (1) From 2001 to 2016, the overall risk of 74 countries along the Belt and Road shows a downward trend, of which the change to political risk is relatively small, economic risk experienced a fluctuation of "down-up-down-up", and social risk generally shows a downward trend. The overall risks are very volatile in some countries particularly in West Asia, Europe and Southeast Asia; (2) The political, economic and social risks of 74 countries along the Belt and Road show significant spatial agglomeration and regional differences during 2001-2016. The countries with high risk levels are mainly distributed in North Africa, Central Asia, West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia; (3) The political, economic and social risk subsystems are significantly correlated with each other, and countries with high political risk are often accompanied by high economic and social risks; and (4) There is an "investment paradox" in some countries, namely, large amount of investment and high risk level coexist in the Belt and Road region. As such, the governments and enterprises should make joint efforts to establish dynamic rating and early warning mechanism to prevent and control risks. We should better align our policies with existing regional strategies such as the Eurasian Economic Union, the Bright Road of Kazakhstan, and the Mongolian Grassland Road, establish the mechanism of offshore financial risk control, participate more actively in the formulation and application of international and regional rules, and pay more attention to corporate social responsibility. By doing so, we will gradually achieve a Belt and Road community with shared interests, shared responsibilities and shared future.

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Spatial characteristics and influencing factors of E-shopping development in China's counties
SONG Zhouying, YU Yang, ZHU Qiaoling, CHE Shuyun
2019, 38 (12):  2997-3009.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190098
Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (9275KB) ( 72 )  

It is now widely accepted that the world is moving rapidly into the information age and electronic commerce is a major component of this historic transformation. As the most important part of the electronic commerce, E-shopping has been expanding in the last decade, which has pushed forward China into the stage of nationwide online shopping. In recent years, the development of E-shopping is in its heyday, and the research of online shopping and online consumption became more and more popular. County is the new growth point of China's E-shopping and online consumption, but the relevant research is still very deficient. Under this background, based on data from Alibaba Group, this paper tries to analyze the spatial pattern of E-shopping development in China's county applying spatial autocorrelation method, and then discusses its impact factors using Geodetector method. The results show that: (1) The development of E-shopping declined from southeastern coastal counties to the inland counties. On one hand, the counties with high SI concentrated in coastal China, especially in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. There are some high SI counties located along the strips extending from eastern coastal region to north China, and few high SI counties are scattered in inland China. On the other hand, the counties with low SI are concentrated in southwestern and northeastern China. (2) Geodetector results show that, the first-level significant influencing factors of counties' E-shopping pattern are the development of E-business (bi), regional urbanization (urb) and resident income (inc); the second-level factors are population education level (edu), regional information development level (ict) and local logistic system (lgt); while other factors have negligible impacts. (3) There are notable differences in the main influencing factors of county's E-shopping level in different regions. Except that regional urbanization (urb) and population education level (edu) are the main influencing factors of all counties in China, counties in Central China are also impacted by resident income (inc) and regional information development level (ict); counties in Western China are also impacted by local logistic system (lgt), economic development (eco) and local retail industry (ret); counties in Eastern China are also impacted by local E-business (bi). Overall, with the decline of county's SI value from Eastern to Western China, the impact of regional urbanization (urb) and population education level (edu) has increased, while the impact of resident income (inc), local logistic system (lgt), information development level (ict) and local E-business (bi) has decreased.

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Analysis of urban network structure of the economic zone on the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait: A study through the lens of functional networks and innovation cooperation networks
MA Yan, XUE Feng, SUN Wei, LI Miaoyi
2019, 38 (12):  3010-3024.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190362
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (10392KB) ( 38 )  

Globalization and informatization have promoted the complication of urban network. Inter-city relations are constantly being reconstructed, and often need to be fully expressed through various factors. However, the study of urban network characteristics in the past tends to focus on the structure of urban network from a single perspective, and less considering of the direction of connections. So, to some extent, it is lack of disclosure of its complexity. Based on the inter-city mobility data and co-patent data, the study characterizes the urban network structure of the economic zone on the West Coast of the Taiwan Straits from the perspective of functional networks and innovation networks. The results show that: (1) The region has formed the multi-level pattern, and the provincial capital and sub-provincial cities (Fuzhou and Xiamen) constitute the first class of centrality. The important prefecture-level cities (Quanzhou, Wenzhou, and Zhangzhou) constitute the second class of centrality, the general node cities (Zhangzhou, Shantou, etc.) constitute the third class of centrality. (2) Among the cities with high centrality, Xiamen, Fuzhou and Wenzhou have significant spillover effects on other cities, and regional small and medium-sized cities are main beneficiaries. (3) The rank of cities in the two types of networks is generally similar, and several cities such as Zhangzhou and Longyan are in poor consistency. (4) Inter-city innovation cooperation relationship is weak and uneven, and the regional functional network is characterized by "overall balanced and partially imbalanced".

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Population and economic coupling coordinated evolution and spatial differences at county level in Northeast China during 2000-2015: Taking Liaoning province as an example
HAN Zenglin, ZHAO Qihang, ZHAO Dongxia, GUAN Dunyi
2019, 38 (12):  3025-3037.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181154
Abstract ( 55 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (8533KB) ( 78 )  

China attaches great importance to the strategic deployment of revitalizing the old industrial bases in Northeast China. Especially after the emergence of the "New Northeast Phenomenon", the future development trend of Northeast China became the focus of attention at home and abroad again. This paper, selecting Liaoning province, which is featured by obvious change of population and economic development, as the research object, establishes the index system and coupling coordination model of population and economy system, and explores the spatial evolution and differences of population and economy coupling coordination in Liaoning province since the "Revitalization of Northeast China". The results show that, during 2000-2015, the coupling relationship between population and economy in Liaoning province was gradually strengthened, showing a high level development trend. However, there were obvious fluctuations in the coordination relationship. The number of moderately incoordinated counties had been increasing, and the primary coordination areas had declined, and the main incoordinated coupling areas were the inland border areas of Liaoning province. The counties and cities with enhanced coupling degree and reduced coordination degree shared common characteristics. Population and economic changes were not synchronized, and the population composite index had been declining, while the economic composite index increased or decreased, which is also the main cause for regional imcoordination. In Liaoning province, where population and economy are both coupled and coordinated, there still exists a certain spatial structure of "circle + axis", in which circle refers to the three-circle structure (decreasing from center to surroundings) of Shenyang, Anshan and Dalian, and the farther away from the central area, the lower the level of coupling and coordination; the axis structure is the urban corridor of Shenyang-Dalian on the Harbin-Dalian High-speed Railway line, which forms a more obvious "gradient axis".

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Distribution pattern and formation mechanism of enterprise community in Xi'an, China
WU Wenheng, HUANG Kun, DING Zhuhui, SONG Yan
2019, 38 (12):  3038-3054.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180962
Abstract ( 53 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (9043KB) ( 39 )  

Urban renewal is the objective need of the new normal of China's urbanization development in the new era. The study on the distribution pattern of traditional enterprise community is helpful for better comprehensive understanding and scientific optimization of urban internal space. In this paper, main city zone of Xi'an, which consists of 6 districts and 54 subdistricts, is chosen as the study area. Further, based on point of interest (POI) and field survey data, distribution pattern and formation mechanism of urban enterprise communities are probed by spatial autocorrelation analysis and nuclear density analysis methods. The results show that firstly, enterprise communities are abundant in Lianhu, Xincheng, Beilin and Yanta districts, and the number is the largest in Lianhu district, where it is as many as 238. At the same time, enterprise communities mainly concentrate in subdistricts of Taoyuanlu, Tumen, Dianzicheng, Zhangjiacun, Hujiamiao, Hongmiaopo, Changlezhonglu, Hansenzhai, Fangzhicheng, Zaoyuan, and so on, and the number of communities in Taoyuanlu subdistrict reaches 70. The subdistricts with dense enterprise communities are mainly located in the near central area around the Bell Tower. Secondly, enterprise communities are mostly distributed between Ming city wall and the third ring road, which is about two to eight kilometers away from the Bell Tower and accounts for 78.59% of the total. At the same time, the community spreads east-west direction along the Longhai Railway. It concentrates in the width of 8 kilometers away from south side of the railroad, and presents the band and cluster distribution of spatial 'large dispersion and small aggregation'. It is distributed in the width of 2 kilometers away from north side of the railroad, and takes on the characteristics of exponential decrease outward. Thirdly, the Moran's I index for the community is 0.27, which indicates that the positive spatial autocorrelation is very significant. That is to say, the subdistricts with more communities tend to cluster in space, and the subdistricts with less community are adjacent. Fourthly, hotspot subdistricts of enterprise communities consist of Tumen, Zaoyuan and Taoyuanlu of Lianhu district, Changlezhonglu and Hansenzhai of Xincheng district, Fangzhicheng of Baqiao district, and Xiaozhai of Yanta district; cold spots chiefly concentrate in the north of main urban area and the central urban area, and Weiyang Lake subdistrict in Weiyang district, Beiyuanmen subdistrict in Lianhu district, and Jiefangmen, Xiyi Road, Zhongshanmen subdistricts in Xincheng district are particularly prominent. In addition, the analysis of kernel density shows that the spatial structure of enterprise community is also characterized by large scale dispersion and small scale agglomeration, and the subdistricts with high distribution density are basically consistent with the results of hotspot analysis. Finally, it should be said that the distribution pattern of traditional enterprise community is the result of historical and social development, and has the characteristics of times and places. It is jointly affected by many factors such as policy making, traffic routes, urban pattern, planning and design, enterprise location, natural conditions, urbanization, and marketization.

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Research on the coupling relationship and spatial-temporal evolution between industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern: A case study of the Yangtze River Delta
CAO Bingru, SUN Qiao
2019, 38 (12):  3055-3070.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180985
Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (6120KB) ( 120 )  

There is a close relationship between industrial agglomeration and changes in urban spatial patterns. This article is aimed at the coupling relationship between regional industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern, so as to construct comprehensive evaluation indicators of regional industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern evolution, and explore the interaction and spatial-temporal evolution between the two systems through the panel regression model and spatial center of gravity model by using statistics from 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta region from 1990 to 2016. The results show that there is a significant coupling relationship between industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern in the study area. Coordination degree and spatial matching degree of various urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta region are steadily increasing. However, the degree of coupling and coordinated development in this region is not balanced enough. The degree of coupling and coordination in the southern part of the Yangtze River Delta is slightly weaker than that in the northern part. In the development of recent decades, the northern part of the delta gradually formed a coupling and coordinated development area with Shanghai-Nanjing as the axis, and the coupling coordination of the entire Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by a "Z" shape.

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