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Research on the geography of rural revitalization in the new era
Urban-rural integration and rural sustainable development are not only the important strategic themes of China's modernization, but also the main frontier topics of rural regional system research in geography. Facing the problems of urban-rural segregation, human-land segregation and increasingly severe rural diseases in the process of rapid urbanization in . . .
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2019 Vol. 38 (3): 461-466    DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190133
 
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  20 May 2019, Volume 38 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
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Urban Research
Spatial structure and evolution mechanism of municipal districts in China
ZHU Jianhua,QI Wei,XIU Chunliang
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1003-1015.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020180868
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It is a law that different urban scales have different modes of administrative division in the development of cities. In China, with the rapid development of urbanization, the number of municipal districts in the city increased quickly, and meanwhile, the spatial structure of municipal districts changed continuously. However, the related research is scare. In this paper, six theoretical spatial structure models of administrative division of municipal districts were generalized, including circle type, combination type, parallel type, independent type, enclosed type and enclave type. Besides, main characteristics of the six types of municipal districts spatial structure were summarized. Through the analysis of the distribution pattern and evolution of China's current municipal districts, we find that the larger the scale of China’s cities, the greater the number of municipal districts, at the same time, the greater the population density. In terms of spatial distribution, we find cities of circle type gather in the eastern region, the cities of combination type are densely distributed in the northeast region, the cities of independent type are mostly distributed in the central and western regions, the cities of enclosed type are mostly distributed in the central region, and the cities of parallel type and enclave type are evenly distributed in the whole country. The general evolution path of municipal district spatial structure is “independent type - parallel type - combination type - circle type”. Spatial structure of cities of circle type will continue to be optimized. Through “the merger of inner city, the expansion of outer city”, the city transforms second circle to third or fourth circle. Finally, the paper analyzes the factors which influenced the adding, splitting and merging of the administrative division adjustment. The main factors of adding municipal districts include the level of economic development, the increase of urban population and land demand, traffic location, topography and administrative status and boundary. The main factors of splitting municipal districts include too large an area and a population, natural geographical conditions and transformation of new district and the open economic zone to municipal districts. The main factors of merging municipal districts include small-scale municipal district, functional orientation and policies.

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Evaluation of the service of parks in Chinese urban areas
XU Zening,GAO Xiaolu,WANG Zhiqiang,MA Yan,DENG Yu,LONG Ying
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1016-1029.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170683
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Previous evaluation of the service of urban parks has always based on a given city spatial range and given green parks. This means that the evaluation subject and the spatial range for evaluation is often chosen randomly, which makes it very hard to decide whether the spatial distribution of urban green parks is appropriate or not on the basis of the evaluation results, and also it is hard to make comparisons between different cities. This paper collected and studied the data, model and method on the evaluation of the service level of urban green parks, and researched from the perspective of the category, degree, service range and the availability of alternative choices of urban green parks, and based on the research, an evaluation indicator system and model is proposed which is centered on the accessibility of the residents living in urban built-up areas to surrounding green spaces. This paper also employs open source POI (point of interest) and the analysis method of Densi-Graph, which provides solution to the extraction of spatial data of urban green parks, the definition of the urban built-up range, the construction of specific indicators and other key technical problems. In this way, the objectivity and integrity of the evaluation of city green parks is guaranteed, and the evaluation results of different cities can also be compared. The evaluation results for 273 prefecture-level cities in China, demonstrate that the average service coverage rate of the urban green parks in prefecture-level cities in China reaches 64.8%. And there are still more than 20% of prefecture-level cities which have a service coverage rate less than 50.0%, indicating that there is a gap between the actual service level of urban green parks and the current national standards. In addition, there are significant differences of service level of urban city parks between different regions. Cities with higher service level are often megacities with population over one million and cities in developed eastern and northeastern China. At the same time, the service level is co-related with the population scale of a city in an S-shaped curve. In order to avoid incoordination of regional development, it is suggested that more resource should be input to the public service of urban green parks in middle and small cities and cities in central and western China.

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Determinants of the urban spatial network in China: An analysis through the lens of corporate networks within electronic information industry
SHENG Kerong,ZHANG Hongxia,ZHAO Chaoyue
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1030-1044.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171009
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The identification of factors underlying the spatial structure of urban network and the analysis of its mechanism is the key to establishing theoretical models of urban network. Based on the ownership linkage model, the urban network in China is specified through the lens of top 100 corporate networks within the electronic information industry in the years of 2005 and 2017, and its structural characteristics are described from three aspects of centrality, linkages and triad census. Then, by using the exponential random graph models (ERGMs), an econometric analysis is conducted to identify the influencing factors, and the micro processes in the spatial growth of urban network are examined. Finally, by combining theories of resource dependence and transaction cost, a conceptual framework for comprehensively understanding the mechanisms driving urban network growth in China is suggested for further discussion. Three main findings are concluded. First, the preference attachment effect and the receiver (GDP) effect constitute the micro basis of centrality pattern of the urban network in China. Outdegree centrality is mainly affected by expansionary effect, and indegree centrality is affected by both convergent effect and receiver (GDP) effect, which has caused urban network growth to be a process of preferential selection. The economic mechanism of this process can be interpreted as the dependence of enterprise on specific assets, market thickness and other specific resources. Second, the influencing factors of city linkages tend to be diversified. While reciprocity remains the important mechanism in the linkages of urban network, network closure mechanism has gradually become an important factor in the relationship between cities. The reciprocity effect and the network closure mechanism constitute the micro basis of coherent subgroups in the urban network in China, which can be explained by the restrictive function of transaction cost. Third, geographical distance does not have a significant effect on the urban structure within the network of electronic information industry. The location of electronic information industry is more flexible, which makes the urban network grow in a “space of flows”. Cities between long distance established linkages from the first beginning of urban network development, promoting the expansion of urban network over a large spatial scale.

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The spatial pattern of urban areas and urban system of Yangtze River Delta in the past 600 years
QIN Lijun,JIN Xiaobin,JIANG Yuchao,XUE Qiaofeng,CHENG Yinong,LONG Ying,YANG Xuhong,ZHOU Yinkang
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1045-1062.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170862
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Based on the data extracted from historical documents, ancient maps and remote sensing, quoting the reconstruction method of ancient city from history study, this study reconstructed urban areas of 113 cities and towns from the Ming Dynasty in the Yangtze River Delta. Aiming to analyze the expansion progress of urban areas and the spatial pattern of urban system of this region since the Ming Dynasty, we took the years of 1461, 1820, 1930, 1970, 1980, 2000 and 2010 as time sections, and adopted the urban expansion rate, urban expansion efficiency, urban primacy index and rank-size rule. The results are as follows: (1) The urban area of 113 cities increased markedly in the past 600 years. The average increment is 31.27 times as 1461’s, from 205.98 km2 to 6442.19 km2, and Shanghai region has the greatest increment, 63.41 times as 1461’s. The urban expansion of the past 600 years can be divided into four processes: the embryonic stage (Ming and Qing dynasties), the starting stage (from the Republic of China to the early Reform and Opening-up), the growing stage (from the Reform and Opening-up to 2000) and the rapid development stage (21st century). The urban expansion rate was accelerating while the efficiency of urban expansion needs to be improved. (2) As for spatial pattern of the city size distribution, cities of Suzhou and Nanjing were the largest ones in the region in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and Shanghai substituted Suzhou and Nanjing and became the largest city in the Yangtze River Delta since the Republic of China. Large and medium scale cities were mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Basin and the Taihu Lake Basin, while the small-scale cities were mainly in Anhui Province. The city size distribution in urban system appeared to be the first-place pattern. The urban primacy index was high and the urban primacy index was lower in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The large-scale cities had more advantages and they developed faster, resulting in a wider gap between different scale cities.

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The expansion and driving forces of the functional space land: A case study of Changsha from 1979 to 2014
YE Qiang,MO Zhengxi,XU Yiqing
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1063-1079.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171193
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The expansion of urban functional space has always been a core issue in the study of urban geography and urban planning. In this paper, we mainly focus on the following three types of urban functional spaces: residential space, industrial spaces and service space, and we take the central city of Changsha as our study area. Based on the land use map covering the years of 1979, 1989, 2003, 2011 and 2014 as well as corresponding statistical yearbooks, in combination of taking GIS and SPSS statistical tools, this article analyzed the dynamic features and driving forces of the functional space evolution of Changsha by citing a variety of models such as sector fractal, “center-periphery” spheres density, expansion intensity, coupling degree and axial sprawl index. The results were obtained as follows: (1) The urban functional space of Changsha's central city expanded rapidly between 1979 and 2014. And the pattern of extension was still displaying the “circle mode” and “axis belt mode”, but gradually transited to “polycentric structure”. In the process of quick external expansion, the urban land also filled internally in the study period. The direction of functional transformation presented a phase difference clearly, which had experienced the process of “east, south and southeast” from 1979 to 1989 to the “northwest, east, southeast and north” during 2011 to 2014. Meanwhile, it showed some differentiation of different types of functional land. (2) Residential space showed excessive expansion and guided other spaces extension, which was incompatible with other functional urban spaces, causing an imbalance in urban functional space. Some zones even showed serious contradiction with city planning during the process of expansion. (3) Functional spaces coupling showed significant “core-peripheral” geographic differentiation, and mainly focused on the core area. Functional space types in peripheral area were relatively single, which means that the level of alignment was insufficient. To strengthen urban comprehensive competitiveness, local government should improve service function and promote functional integration. (4) This study also probes the dynamic driving forces of the evolution of the functional space in Changsha City, mainly including economic, administrative, ecological and social factors. And the administrative factor played a significant role in the evolution. (5) We propose the basic research framework for the study of urban functional land expansion from "problem orientation -phenomenon induction - essential analysis - strategy response", which can provide theoretical guidance for optimizing the internal space structure and improve the functional efficiency of the central city.

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Study on ecological environment effects of urban spatial expansion: Taking Inner Mongolia Hohhot City as an example
ZHEN Jianghong,WANG Yafeng,TIAN Yuanyuan,HE Sunpeng,WANG Jinli
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1080-1091.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171036
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The impact of urban spatial expansion on the ecological environment and its response has aroused much attention. The paper selected Hohhot city of Inner Mongolia as the research object, based on the remote sensing image during 1977 to 2014 as the source of information, and analysed the dynamic change of urban land expansion in this city. Based on the quantitative analysis of urban land expansion, the paper used the relevant assessment method and model to analyse the ecological environment effect of urban spatial expansion in the study area from a perspective of changes in resources, environment, landscape, value of ecosystem service, ecological environment quality and ecological risk. Results show that in the study period, the area of the built-up area in Huhhot increased from 34.59 km2 to 229.98 km2 and it expanded 5.65 times, while the ecological land area decreased from 2008.30 km2 to 1643.21 km2, down by 18.18%. The total pollutant discharge of urban areas increased 1.62 times, with the living garbage, the discharge of domestic sewage, the industrial waste water emissions, the industrial waste gas emissions, the industrial dust emissions, the industrial sulfur dioxide emissions, the industrial solid waste emissions increasing 0.41 times, 0.72 times, 3.91 times, 1.61 times, 1.12 times, 0.61 times and 1.32 times, respectively. The area of high temperature region of the urban area of Hohhot increased from 254.64 km2 to 325.60 km2. The heat island ratio index increased from 0.21 to 0.29 and it increased 0.40 times. The patch number and marginal density increased 1.12 times and 0.49 times, respectively, while the dominance index reduced by 11.76%. The value of ecosystem services reduced from 35.03 hundred million yuan (RMB) to 32.13 hundred million yuan (RMB), down by 8.30%. The biological abundance index, the vegetation coverage index, and the ecological environment quality index decreased by 8.04%, 6.10%, and 8.37%, respectively. The average per capita ecological footprint increased by 3.70 times, the per capita ecological carrying capacity reduced by 33.88% and the ecological pressure index rose 6.11 times. In summary, urban spatial expansion in Huhhot has led to the eco-environmental effects such as the loss of ecological land, the increase of environmental pollution, significant urban heat island effect, fragmented landscape pattern, degraded ecological service function, declined environmental quality, and exacerbated ecological risk. The research results have important theoretical significance and practical value to effective mitigation in the negative impact of urban land expansion on the eco-environment.

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A review of spatial microsimulation approach and its application in urban research
MA Jing
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1092-1102.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170890
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Individual agent-based microsimulation might be an important research direction for future urban modeling. However, possibly due to confidentiality issues, the spatially detailed microdata sets with a wide range of individual or household characteristics are usually not publicly accessible in many countries. There is a strong demand for the development of small area estimates of socio-demographics and the potential effects of policy changes, which could help the government acquire detailed information on population’s attributes at a fine geographic scale, better allocate the limited resources to the most needed places, and evaluate the potential impacts of policy decisions. Using individuals or households as the basic analytical unit, spatial microsimulation can synthesize much individual-level spatial microdata for large populations through combining different data sources, such as household activity diary survey and aggregate population census tabulates. Spatial microsimulation can simulate the virtual populations in a spatial setting, and it involves three major procedures, including the construction of small area microdata, static what-if simulations for one time point and dynamic microsimulation over a period. This approach can simulate the synthetic population’s behavior at fine geographic resolution, and perform different what-if simulations to explore the impacts of policy scenarios. In general, spatial microsimulation has multiple advantages for urban research, spatial analysis and policy evaluation, and thus has been increasingly applied in the fields of geography, transport, and social sciences, particularly in developed countries. However, in China, microsimulation studies has been very scarce to date, possibly due to the fact that the microsimulation development is challenging requiring a high level of programming skills, there is little publicly available software suited to microsimulation models, and there is a lack of data at an appropriate scale. This paper aims to first provide a comprehensive review of spatial microsimulation techniques, including conditional probability, deterministic reweighting, and simulated annealing, which have been widely used for creating synthetic populations in microsimulation studies. Further, this paper also reviews the recent applications of spatial microsimulation approach in urban research worldwide, focusing on income distribution and deprivation evaluation, travel behavior and transport carbon emission, and health behavior and outcomes. The paper ends with the discussion and conclusion.

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Mechanisms and spatial pattern of land use changes of the urban tourism complex: A case study of Qujiang, Xi’an
LI Weiwei,CHEN Tian,MA Xiaolong
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1103-1118.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171047
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Identifying the evolution mechanisms and law of the urban tourism complex’s land use pattern plays an important role in optimizing urban spatial structure, improving the comprehensive service functions of urban tourism and constructing modern urban service system. Taking a case study of Qujiang urban tourism complex in Northwest China's Xi’an, and based on the land-use change index model and the GIS spatial analysis technology, this paper explores the spatial differentiation process of urban tourism complex’s land use pattern by obtaining and analyzing the basic data about the land use change intensity, speed, benefit and function transformation of Qujiang urban tourism complex. The results show that, firstly, Qujiang urban tourism complex evolves from a township settlement to a modern and integrated tourism development area. Secondly, the dominant land use functions of Qujiang have changed significantly. Specifically, the core land use functions have transformed from agricultural production and village residence to tourism leisure and high-end residence. Thirdly, Qujiang urban tourism complex’s land use pattern is a layout like circles, whose core layer is tourism integrated land, and the outer layers are landscape residential land, commercial land, public management and public service land, common community residential land and industrial land in turn. Fourthly, the evolution of urban tourism complex’s land use pattern has experienced three stages including homogeneous and disordered stage, convergence–diffusion stage and balanced intensive stage. In essence, the evolution process of urban tourism complex’s land use pattern is just the spatial structure development process of its own, namely its spatial structure has gone through the homogeneous disorder phase in the beginning to the polarization stage and then to the equilibrium stage. And this evolution process is actually the results of rational participation and collective choice of multiple stakeholders who make decisions under the action of differential land rent caused by land conversion increment and land capitalization increment. Therefore, the article points out that more attention should be attached to ensuring the rational development land of UTC, increasing the land revenue value in an orderly way and giving full play to the dynamic regulation of land price leverage, which would be effective in achieving intensive land use and functional synergy of the urban tourism complex.

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Articles
Spatial coupling between rapid traffic superiority degree and tourist flow intensity in tourist destinations
GUO Xiangyang,MU Xueqing,MING Qingzhong,DING Zhengshan,HU Meijuan
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1119-1135.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020181347
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Rapid transportation is a convenient channel for connecting space elements in the new era, as well as for increasing the vitality of regional development. Tourist flow is a phenomenon of collective spatial movement of tourists, which relies on traffic due to the similarity of tourist demand. Due to the non-transferability of tourism products and the rapid traffic dependence of tourism flow space displacement, rapid traffic has a major impact on the transfer flow, scale and spatial distribution of tourism flows. Therefore, revealing the spatial coupling relationship between rapid traffic and tourist flow has become an important issue. In this study, taking a typical tourist destination, Yunnan Province, as a research case, and based on multi-data such as Gaode traffic big data and statistical data, according to the thought process of “road network and site density + traffic size + traffic function + location superiority + transfer convenience”, a rapid traffic superiority model is constructed. In addition, based on the diachronic dimension of “scale → consumption → benefit →effect” of the tourist flow, a tourist flow intensity model is built. The weighted TOPSIS method is then used to measure the two evaluation values, and the coupling four-quadrant model is used to divide the coupling types. The results showed the following: (1) There is a significant spatial difference between the rapid traffic and tourist flow coupling. Kunming, Honghe and Lijiang showed strong coupling and coordination. The coupling type is “high tourist flow - high rapid traffic superiority”, while at the fringe region with a low level of tourism, away from the transportation hub and main traffic arteries, the coupling effect of tourist flow and rapid traffic is characterized by “low tourist flow - low rapid traffic superiority”. (2) There is a positive correlation between rapid traffic superiority and tourist flow intensity, and the goodness of fit between different rapid traffic modes and tourist flow intensities showed the characteristics of “air transport > highway > high speed railway”. (3) The coupling level of rapid traffic superiority and tourist flow intensity in Yunnan Province is generally low, and the dominant mode of rapid traffic development is coordinated and complementary mode. In addition, due to the “time-space convergence” effect and “organization-space synergy” effect of rapid traffic, there is a positive correlation between the rapid traffic combination type diversification and the tourist flow intensity. The contribution effect of different rapid traffic development modes to the intensity of tourist flow showed the characteristics of “multiple symbiosis mode > coordination complementary mode > single class isolation mode > low speed traffic maintenance mode”. From a spatial perspective, this paper explores the coupling and coordination situation between rapid traffic dominance and tourism flow intensity, and the results can be used to identify the bottleneck of regional tourism development. It is important for the promotion of regional rapid transit facilities construction and improvement of tourism performance level to achieve synergy between rapid traffic and tourism flow intensity. At the same time, the results also provide references for other similar areas.

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The power of space: Socio-cultural implication of square dancing and its effects of place identity
YAO Huasong,ZHOU Chunshan,HUANG Gengzhi,CHEN Kunlun,SHAO Xiaowen
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1136-1146.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020180750
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As a social phenomenon, square dancing has emerged around the world, marking the booming development of public private life. The existing research on square dancing focused on the social survey of square dancers in different cities and regions, the spatial tension and social conflict caused by square dancing, and strategies to guide the healthy development of square dancing. It was rare to study the social and cultural implications of square dancing and its spatial practice from the perspective of social geography. Secondly, relevant studies in a certain sense homogenized the social effects of square dancing. In fact, from the composition of square dancers, square dancing had a huge difference in the construction significance between local people and floating population, which made it vitally necessary to conduct in-depth discussion. In addition, square dancing highly affected the residents' own identity and the identity of their city and community where they lived and stayed. Systematic research on the relationship between square dancing and group identity as well as local identity was extremely rare. Based on this, this study, from the theoretical perspective of production of space and identity of place, by the method of questionnaire and depth interview on Guangzhou's three typical square dancing communities, focused on two core issues, namely, "different significances of square dancing to local people and floating population" and "square dancing's shaping process of self-identity and place identity", and analyzed the social and cultural implications of square dancing. We found that square dancing is not only a fitness and entertainment space, but also a social space with social and cultural meanings. Research findings included: (1) As a way of life and a kind of physical practice, square dancing was gradually changing self-identity of square dancers; (2) Square dancing had different meanings for different groups. For the locals, square dance remade socialist collective life and interrelationship of social space, alleviated the negative effect led by decayed and dissolved unit community. For foreign immigrants, square dancing accelerated local reconstruction of adaptation and social relations, and played vital significance of reshaping local community in their hometown. (3) As an incubator of social relations, square dancing spawned many adjunctive spaces which could reproduce social capital. (4) Square dancing enhanced self-identity and local identity of residents, and provided possibilities for building autonomous communities. The study provided a basis for understanding the transformation of public private life, promoting "people-oriented" urbanization, and consolidating social construction and community development.

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Driving mechanism of tourism entrepreneurial migrants’ settlement in natural sightseeing places: A case study of Tangkou
YANG Zhao,CHENG Hao
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1147-1161.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170764
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With the evolution of tourism migration phenomenon and further research, scholars at home and abroad have focused on the temporary or permanent settlement of massive tourism labor migrants. Tourism labor migrants include employee migrants and entrepreneurial migrants. With a case study of Tangkou county in Huangshan, this paper mainly takes tourism entrepreneurial migrants (TEMs) as the research objects and applies multiple linear regression analysis to find supportive elements on migrants’ settlement intention. Based on this, we build a structural equation model to explore the impact of the following factors on migrants’ willingness to settle down, which are life and business satisfaction, continuous business intention, social integration intention, and overall perception on business objectives and motivations. Then we analyze the driving mechanism of settlement of tourism labor migrants in China. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) Compared with developed countries, China's migrants are much younger and the proportion of males is significantly higher. Given that the main household incomes of migrants are highly dependent on current work, economic benefit is the key precondition for their consideration of subsequent settlement. Based on regression analysis, the settlement intention of Chinese tourism labor migrants can be identified as the willingness to purchase second-home for settlement and to settle down after retirement. (2) Exploratory analysis shows that the TEMs’ settlement intentions are influenced by factors of operating satisfaction, life satisfaction and social integration. (3) The fitting process of the structural model shows that the overall perception variable can replace continuous business intention. Path analysis confirms that business satisfaction is the essential driving force of migrants’ settlement intention. (4) Both of social integration intention and overall perception are direct driving forces of willingness to purchase second-home. Besides business satisfaction, it is whether migrants are satisfied with living factors such as climate, natural environment and living conditions or not that has an indirect effect on willingness to purchase second-home. The strongest direct force for willingness to settle down after retirement is the willingness to purchase second-home. The overall perception variable is not only the relatively weak direct force for willingness to settle down after retirement but also has an indirect effect on it, while others are indirect driving forces.

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Analysis on characteristics of vegetation landscapes basedon tourism development in Wutai Mountain scenic area
NIU Liqin,CHENG Zhanhong
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1162-1174.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170710
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Vegetation landscape is an important factor for indicating the change of ecological environment, and it is beneficial to the ecological construction and the scenic area management to identify the types and characteristics of vegetation landscape under the influence of tourism development. The ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetation landscapes is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), and Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) in Wutai Mountain. The results show that: (1) There are 9 types of vegetation landscapes under the influence of tourism development, i.e., the single tree area, the herb area, the poor class area for tree-herb, the intermediate area for tree-herb, the intermediate area for shrub-herb, the good level area for shrub-herb, the good level area for tree-shrub-herb, the best level area for tree-shrub-herb, and the temple and the residential area. By using the TWINSPAN, the results show that from right to left, tourism influencing index and the proportion of species companying with human being show a decreasing trend, and landscape value importance, species diversity, the proportions in community structure, and negative species proportion are in the increasing trend. Accordingly, the structure of the plant community changes from simplicity to complexity. (2) By adopting the DCA, the result shows that the first axis is greatly correlated with all factors, revealing a comprehensive environmental gradient. The second axis has significant negative correlation with elevation and tourism disturbance degree. All types have their distribution range in the ordination figure, which are determined by the pattern rule of main indices to a large extent. (3) Compared with DCA, DCCA can improve greatly the correlation between geographical factors and vegetation landscape characteristics, which can be directly reflected in the ordination figure. As for the correlation between vegetation landscapes and geographical factors, the ordination of their coefficients is 0.858DCCA>0.828DCA on the first axes, and 0.583DCCA >0.501DCA on the second axes, which shows that the DCCA is better.

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Jiaoyufication community: Its formation mechanisms and socio-spatial consequences
HU Shuju,LI Chenggu,ZHANG Jing,MA Zuopeng,LIU Wei
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1175-1188.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170968
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Jiaoyufication has become an important factor affecting urban residential differentiation in China. In this study, a Jiaoyufication community was taken as an example to explore how the construction of a school led to gentrification in Changchun’s suburbs and we also revealed its characteristics, formation mechanisms and demographic and socio-spatial consequences. Results showed that: (1) the combination of a private school and real estate speculations pawned a new variety of gentrification, which had different characteristics and formation mechanisms compared to classic school gentrification, which emerged in catchment areas of public schools. The Jiaoyufication community was a residential differentiation as well as the reconstruction of urban demographic and socio-economic space caused by educational inequality. (2) The community was built on a “real estate and elite school” model, and its participants included local government, real estate developers, schools and middle-class parents. Local governments played a pioneering role in the school gentrification process. The developer was the driving force behind promoting the physical upgrade of the community by investing heavily in constructing an upscale gated community and school. The school was the key to the successful development of the community, which attracted the incoming of the gentry. The school attracted the influx of the gentry to suburbs, promoted the suburb’s physical and socio-economic upgrade, thus, reconstructing the urban demographic and socio-economic space. (3) Contrary to the mainstream view that school gentrification would bring education unfair, the emergence of school gentrifying community led the capital, the middle class family and quality educational resources to suburbs, which was conducive to educational equality to some extent. However, Jiaoyufication community inevitably produced displacement and marginalization to the urban poor, as well as serious residential segregation and social stratification.

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The decoupling relationship between tourism development and multidimensional poverty in national-level poor counties: A case study of Southwest China
HE Jing,WANG Xia,LIU Danli,SUN Xin,DUAN Zhiyong
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1189-1207.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171246
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Poverty has always been the focus of people’s attention. The ways to alleviate poverty have become one of the hot topics of discussion. The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out that China’s strong fight against poverty has made decisive progress. Nevertheless, at the end of 2017, China’s rural impoverished population still had 30.46 million. The task of poverty alleviation is still arduous in China. For the sake of complete eradication of poverty in rural areas by 2020, China’s poverty alleviation work needs to be further advanced. Due to the high spatial consistency of China’s tourism resource-rich areas and poverty-stricken areas, and tourism industry’s characteristics of less investment, rapid effect, low threshold and high industry related degree, the development of tourism is considered as an important way to get rid of poverty in poor areas. Thus, tourism poverty alleviation has gradually received attention from governments at all levels and academic circles. From the current poverty situation, the country is transiting from widespread poverty to small-scale poverty. Poverty-stricken counties are the vital targets and crucial organizational units of poverty alleviation in rural China. In order to explore the status quo of tourism poverty alleviation, this paper takes 136 national-level poor counties in Southwest China as an example to study the decoupling relationship between tourism development and multidimensional poverty based on Tapio decoupling model. We got three research results. First, with the development of tourism, comprehensive poverty has been improved, but has shown instability and gradually slowed down. Second, with the development of tourism, economic poverty and social welfare poverty have been partly improved, medical poverty has been improved greatly, and education poverty has almost remained unchanged. Third, there are spatial differences in tourism poverty alleviation for different provinces, with the best performance in Guizhou province. This study is meaningful for understanding current situations about tourism poverty alleviation deeply and exerting the effect of multidimensional tourism poverty alleviation thoroughly.

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Side-bet theory: How do B&B owners make commitment to tourism development in outer suburbs of Beijing ?
ZHU Sha,JIANG Shan,TAO Li
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1208-1221.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020180048
Abstract   HTML   PDF (4508KB)

With traditional research focusing on the typology or complexity system approach to community participation in tourism development, little attention was paid to the process or mechanism of the residents’ sustainable participation behavior in tourism. Since the special emphasis on the process of consistent behavior, the conceptualization of commitment behavior provides a practical approach to explain the residents’ sustainable participation behavior in tourism. Based on the side-bet theory, this study collected data from B&B owners in outer suburbs of Beijing, and developed a conceptual framework that links residents’ tourism empowerment with tourism commitment behavior, to explain the dynamic process of residents’ sustainable participation behavior. The model also posits that the strength of this perceptual relationship is moderate by the stage of the tourism life cycle. Based on confirmation factor analysis and moderator effect analysis, this paper demonstrates that: (1) Generally, residents’ empowerment from tourism has positive and significant effects on tourism commitment behavior, while economic and political empowerments have negative significant ones on tourism commitment, and social empowerment exerts a positive significant effect on it. This replies that residents’ consistent participation behavior is mainly driven by social relationship in community but not economic or political factors in general. (2) The stage of tourism development shows a significant moderate effect between tourism empowerment and tourism commitment behavior; especially the moderate effect is stronger when residents recognize their community tourism as the stage of exploration, growth and revolution. (3) The relationship between tourism empowerment and tourism commitment behavior shows that there are differences in different grouped residents in the resident’s perception of community tourism stage. Tourism empowerment and its dimensions have different significant effects on residents’ consistent participation behavior regarding to the stage of tourism development. This paper demonstrates the theoretical basis in residents’ tourism commitment behavior research and provides a practical implication on improving resident re-participation enthusiasm for tourism development. Future research might explore more factors and relationships which influence residents’ tourism commitment behavior under the background of side-bet theory.

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Rename in county-to-city upgrading in China since the reform and opening-up
CHEN Bing
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1222-1235.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170997
Abstract   HTML   PDF (4023KB)

With the adoption of county-to-city upgrading policy, 75 cases of places have been renamed since 1978. Under current regulations on administrative divisions, namely ‘The Provisions on Administrative Division Management by the State Council’ and ‘Regulations of Place-name Management’, 49 cases have a requisite for the name change, whereas 26 cases do not. The circumstances of renaming a place with rationality in the county-to-city upgrading require special consideration: one is a county with a single-character place-name, the other is one sharing the same name with another one or causing homophone problems. There are five types of substitution: 38 cases are renamed after their historical administrative districts; 29 cases are named after their cities that house county government; 12 cases are in honour of well-known towns, ports, mountains, scenic spots or institutions within respective jurisdiction; and other instances including additional characters to pre-existing single-character name and substitute an inappropriate or embarrassing name with an elegant one. Principles that emerge out of previous experience come as follows: the stability of place-name should be maintained; renaming under requisite circumstances; to ensure full compliance with relevant laws and regulations when renaming; follow the principles which are prohibited and recommended; change the problematic place-names when administrative divisions will be adjusted, for example, by resolving the problem of simplifying Chinese characters in place-name, restoring and promoting place-names’ culture. Prohibition principles include that counties and cities should not share the same name or cause homophone problems; the names of crossing-district geographic entities, of towns without county seat, of no historical fact in administrative divisions, of historical periods without political stability, of aiming at undermining the territorial integrity of sovereignty and national unity are unacceptable and prohibited. Recommended principles of renaming a new city include: no implication of the seat of local government; no change of important historical place-names; no use of single-character name; no use of generic name as specific name; the application of historical place-name should be identical to the administrative area it represents. In the process of county-to-city upgrading, cautions should be taken on the basis of historical experience and scientific principles.

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Spatial distribution pattern and influencing factors of manufacturing enterprises in Yangtze River Delta: Scale effects and dynamic evolution
XU Weixiang,ZHANG Xiaojuan,LIU Chengjun
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1236-1252.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170859
Abstract   HTML   PDF (13208KB)

With the assistance of micro data of manufacturing enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta in 2005 and 2013, this article combined the methods of the nearest neighbor index, Ripley’s K function and space hot clustering analysis to explore the spatial point pattern characteristics of manufacturing enterprises in this region, i.e., space distribution, agglomeration scale and hot spot areas. And then we used the negative binomial regression model to identify the influencing factors of location choice for manufacturing enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta in different spatial scales. The results are obtained as follows. Firstly, the spatial distribution of manufacturing enterprises in the study area is extremely uneven, and manufacturing enterprises overall are significantly space clustering, which applies to the labor-intensive manufacturing enterprises, capital intensive manufacturing enterprises, technology-intensive manufacturing enterprises and resource-intensive manufacturing enterprises. Besides, space agglomeration of manufacturing enterprises has scale effects, the degree of space agglomeration first enhanced and then weakened with the change of geographical distance. Hot spot areas of manufacturing enterprises are mainly distributed on the development axis shaped as a “Z”, which is connected by the nodes of Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Shaoxing and Ningbo. In addition, the suburbanization trend of manufacturing enterprises in Yangtze River Delta is fairly common, and for most cities, the manufacturing enterprises mainly cluster in the outer suburbs. Lastly, it is indicated that the effects of influencing factors on the location choice for manufacturing enterprises vary in different spatial scales, among all the influencing factors, the effect of industrial structure and financial environment is positive and stable in both city samples and county samples, while the industrial structure is dominant among the factors influencing the location choice for manufacturing enterprises, which has greater effects than other factors. For the county samples, the effect of wage on the location choice for manufacturing enterprises is obviously enhanced.

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The supply-demand and flow pattern of iron ore and its evolution in the world from 1971 to 2015
WANG Nuo,ZHANG Jin,LU Yike,WU Nuan
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1253-1264.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170751
Abstract   HTML   PDF (8131KB)

This paper studied the temporal and spatial variations of supply-demand and flow pattern of iron ore in the world from 1971 to 2015. The results show that: (1) The total production of iron ore in the world increased by 1.226 billion tons during this period and the average annual growth rate was 2.17%. Oceania and South America were major producers of iron ore and today accounted for more than 60% of the world's production. The consumption center of iron ore in the world was Europe before 1992, including the Soviet Union, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom and France; and then turned to Asia gradually after 1992, including China, Japan, India and South Korea. (2) The total output of iron ore in the world increased by 1.260 billion tons and the average annual growth rate was 3.7%. Oceania and South America were the main iron ore export regions. The proportions of iron ore output in the above two continents accounted for 53.73% and 26.23% of the total export in the world in 2015, respectively. Since the beginning of this century, China, Japan and Korea have become the largest iron ore input countries. And the proportions of iron ore input in the above countries accounted for 65.07%, 8.94% and 5% of the total input in the world in 2015, respectively. (3) Based on the field theory, the characteristics of resource field were analyzed from the perspective of resource potential, flow distribution, flow traces and change reasons. The “potential” of the iron ore flow in the world was lower in the Northern Hemisphere while it is higher in the Southern Hemisphere. Oceania and South America were the main field sources, while Asia and Europe were the main field convergences, forming the busiest route of global iron ore shipping, namely South America/Australia—Far East route. Space distance, trade policy and market are important factors affecting the flow of iron ore. This paper reveals the flow state and evolution process of iron ore in the world over the past half century, and it has great values for the government to formulate industrial policies scientifically.

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Research on spatio-temporal pattern of specialized development of Chinese planting industry
WANG Wulin,YU Cuichan,SHUI Wei,WU Pinqi,WANG Qianfeng
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2019, 38 (5): 1265-1279.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020180353
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Based on the specialized calculation of planting industry development from 1978 to 2017 in China, the paper reviews and evaluates the temporal and spatial features of Chinese planting industry, divides the development of Chinese planting industry into several stages by using cluster analysis creatively, and summarizes the development characteristics of each stage. The main contents and results are summed up as follows: (1) The specialization coefficient of the planting industry (FRi) increases gradually in each Province (Municipality, Municipality); compared to the national average of specialization coefficient, Northeast China and Eastern China with higher value of specialization coefficient also grow faster, Central China and Southeast China are just the opposite, and Northwest China closes to the foundation and growth rate of national average. (2) The planting areas for sugar crop, grain, cotton, vegetable, oil crop and fruit accounts for more than 91% of the total planting area of crops in China, so it is representative and feasible to choose these 6 agricultural crops as the research object. Location coefficient of the six agricultural products(FIj) increases in different degrees, while grain, cotton and oil crop grow faster and sugar crop, fruit, vegetable more slowly. Sugar crop is highly localized agricultural product, while cotton and fruit are characterized by highly localized agricultural products long term; grain, vegetable and oil crop belongs to agricultural product with low localization. (3) National specialization coefficient of planting industry (Fmn) keeps steady and slow growth with the average annual growth of 2. 83%, comparing with the total annual agricultural output value about 10. 66%. (4) The characteristics of policy system and emphases of Chinese planting industry are different in each development stage. It could be divided into four stages of planting industry development in China from 1978 to 2017, namely, the first stage from 1978 to 1983 characterized by laying the institutional foundation, the second stage from 1984 to 1995 characterized by steady recovery and expansion, the third stage from 1996 to 2014 with the in-depth phase of market-oriented reform and industrialization, the fourth stage from 2015 to 2017 accompanied by reforming and innovation of pursuing all-round development. This paper, meaning important guiding significance for sorting out Chinese planting industry development since the reform and opening-up, can provide reference for the development of relevant policies for specialization of planting industry.

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2019
Vol.38
No.4 
2019-04-20
pp.743-1002
No.3
2019-03-20
pp.461-740
No.2
2019-02-20
pp.195-458
No.1
2019-01-20
pp.1-192
2018
Vol.37
No.12 
2018-12-20
pp.2363-2584
No.11
2018-11-20
pp.2127-2360
No.10
2018-10-20
pp.1879-2124
No.9
2018-09-20
pp.1673-1876
No.8
2018-08-20
pp.1477-1670
No.7
2018-07-31
pp.1253-1474
No.6
2018-06-10
pp.1049-1250
No.5
2018-05-10
pp.1009-1046
No.4
2018-04-20
pp.649-846
No.3
2018-03-26
pp.449-646
No.2
2018-02-05
pp.233-446
No.1
2018-01-20
pp.103-230
2017
Vol.36
No.12 
2018-01-18
pp.2279-2520
No.11
2017-12-21
pp.2029-2276
No.10
2017-10-20
pp.1819-2026
No.9
2017-09-20
pp.1603-1816
No.8
2017-08-10
pp.1401-1600
No.7
2017-07-15
pp.1203-1398
No.6
2017-06-15
pp.1003-1200
No.5
2017-06-01
pp.1-1000
No.4
2017-04-20
pp.605-800
No.3
2017-03-20
pp.407-602
No.2
2017-02-22
pp.205-404
No.1
2017-01-17
pp.109-202
2016
Vol.35
No.12 
2016-12-23
pp.2203-2406
No.11
2016-11-21
pp.2001-2200
No.10
2016-10-26
pp.1801-1998
No.9
2016-09-10
pp.1601-1798
No.8
2016-08-30
pp.1399-1598
No.7
2016-07-30
pp.1205-1396
No.6
2016-06-30
pp.1005-1202
No.5
2016-05-10
pp.805-1002
No.4
2016-04-20
pp.607-802
No.3
2016-03-20
pp.403-604
No.2
2016-02-20
pp.205-400
No.1
2016-01-23
pp.108-202
2015
Vol.34
No.12 
2015-12-24
pp.2207-2408
No.11
2015-11-24
pp.2005-2204
No.10
2015-10-15
pp.1809-2002
No.9
2015-09-15
pp.1607-1806
No.8
2015-08-25
pp.1409-1604
No.7
2015-08-16
pp.1205-1406
No.6
2015-07-19
pp.1005-1406
No.5
2015-06-12
pp.1001-1001
No.4
2015-04-10
pp.601-800
No.3
2015-03-26
pp.397-598
No.2
2015-02-10
pp.199-394
No.1
2015-01-10
pp.109-196
2014
Vol.33
No.12 
2014-12-10
pp.2217-2436
No.11
2014-11-10
pp.1995-2214
No.10
2014-10-10
pp.1793-1992
No.9
2014-09-10
pp.1778-1778
No.8
2014-08-10
pp.1395-1592
No.7
2014-07-10
pp.1195-1392
No.6
2014-06-10
pp.1003-1192
No.5
2014-05-10
pp.803-1000
No.4
2014-04-10
pp.603-800
No.3
2014-03-10
pp.403-601
No.2
2014-02-10
pp.203-401
No.1
2014-01-10
pp.3-198
2013
Vol.32
No.12 
2013-12-10
pp.2176-2377
No.11
2013-11-10
pp.1979-2175
No.10
2013-10-10
pp.1771-1976
No.9
2013-09-10
pp.1576-1769
No.8
2013-08-10
pp.1379-1577
No.7
2013-07-10
pp.1-0
No.6
2013-06-10
pp.984-1176
No.5
2013-05-10
pp.784-985
No.4
2013-04-10
pp.592-785
No.3
2013-03-10
pp.395-593
No.2
2013-02-10
pp.203-393
No.1
2013-01-10
pp.3-200
2012
Vol.31
No.12 
2012-12-10
pp.2123-2320
No.11
2012-11-10
pp.1929-2122
No.10
2012-10-10
pp.1737-1928
No.9
2012-09-20
pp.1547-1736
No.8
2012-08-20
pp.1355-1546
No.7
2012-07-20
pp.1163-1352
No.6
2012-06-20
pp.967-1162
No.5
2012-05-20
pp.771-966
No.4
2012-04-20
pp.579-770
No.3
2012-03-20
pp.389-578
No.2
2012-02-20
pp.197-388
No.1
2012-01-20
pp.1-196
2011
Vol.30
No.12 
2011-12-20
pp.2127-2318
No.11
2011-11-20
pp.1931-2126
No.10
2011-10-20
pp.1739-1930
No.9
2011-09-20
pp.1543-1738
No.8
2011-08-20
pp.1351-1542
No.7
2011-07-20
pp.1159-1350
No.6
2011-06-20
pp.965-1158
No.5
2011-05-20
pp.771-964
No.4
2011-04-20
pp.579-770
No.3
2011-03-20
pp.387-578
No.2
2011-02-20
pp.195-386
No.1
2011-01-20
pp.1-194
2010
Vol.29
No.12 
2010-12-20
pp.2109-2298
No.11
2010-11-20
pp.1921-2018
No.10
2010-10-20
pp.1725-1919
No.9
2010-09-20
pp.1538-1724
No.8
2010-08-25
pp.1345-1536
No.7
2010-07-20
pp.1153-1344
No.6
2010-06-20
pp.959-1152
No.5
2010-05-20
pp.767-958
No.4
2010-04-20
pp.575-766
No.3
2010-03-20
pp.383-573
No.2
2010-02-20
pp.191-381
No.1
2010-01-20
pp.1-190
2009
Vol.28
No.6 
2009-11-25
pp.1439-1730
No.5
2009-09-25
pp.1147-1438
No.4
2009-07-25
pp.853-1146
No.3
2009-05-25
pp.561-848
No.2
2009-03-25
pp.273-560
No.1
2009-01-25
pp.1-270
2008
Vol.27
No.6 
2008-11-25
pp.1225-1477
No.5
2008-09-25
pp.973-1224
No.4
2008-07-25
pp.725-974
No.3
2008-05-25
pp.481-727
No.2
2008-03-25
pp.241-477
No.1
2008-01-25
pp.1-240
2007
Vol.26
No.6 
2007-11-25
pp.1069-1303
No.5
2007-09-25
pp.857-1066
No.4
2007-07-25
pp.637-852
No.3
2007-05-25
pp.425-635
No.2
2007-03-25
pp.213-424
No.1
2007-01-25
pp.1-209
2006
Vol.25
No.6 
2006-12-15
pp.949-1142
No.5
2006-10-15
pp.753-952
No.4
2006-08-15
pp.561-740
No.3
2006-06-15
pp.369-559
No.2
2006-04-15
pp.185-371
No.1
2006-02-15
pp.1-181
2005
Vol.24
No.6 
2005-12-15
pp.825-1000
No.5
2005-10-15
pp.653-822
No.4
2005-08-15
pp.489-652
No.3
2005-06-15
pp.321-486
No.2
2005-04-15
pp.161-320
No.1
2005-02-15
pp.1-159
2004
Vol.23
No.6 
2004-12-15
pp.717-876
No.5
2004-10-15
pp.573-716
No.4
2004-08-15
pp.425-572
No.3
2004-06-15
pp.281-424
No.2
2004-04-15
pp.137-284
No.1
2004-02-15
pp.1-136
2003
Vol.22
No.6 
2003-12-15
pp.671-810
No.5
2003-10-15
pp.531-670
No.4
2003-08-15
pp.397-529
No.3
2003-06-15
pp.261-396
No.2
2003-04-15
pp.133-260
No.1
2003-02-15
pp.1-131
2002
Vol.21
No.6 
2002-12-15
pp.667-800
No.5
2002-10-15
pp.531-666
No.4
2002-08-15
pp.399-533
No.3
2002-06-15
pp.276-398
No.2
2002-04-15
pp.135-266
No.1
2002-02-15
pp.1-134
2001
Vol.20
No.6 
2001-12-15
pp.654-770
No.5
2001-10-15
pp.517-643
No.4
2001-08-15
pp.389-515
No.3
2001-06-15
pp.257-387
No.2
2001-04-15
pp.129-256
No.1
2001-02-15
pp.1-128
2000
Vol.19
No.4 
2000-12-15
pp.337-443
No.3
2000-09-15
pp.225-335
No.2
2000-06-15
pp.113-224
No.1
2000-03-15
pp.1-112
1999
Vol.18
No.4 
1999-12-15
pp.337-443
No.3
1999-09-15
pp.225-335
No.2
1999-06-15
pp.1-138
No.1
1999-03-15
pp.1-112
1998
Vol.17
No.4 
1998-12-15
pp.337-443
No.3
1998-09-15
pp.225-336
No.2
1998-06-15
pp.113-222
No.1
1998-03-15
pp.1-109
1997
Vol.16
No.4 
1997-12-15
pp.1-109
No.3
1997-09-15
pp.1-111
No.2
1997-06-15
pp.1-115
No.1
1997-03-15
pp.1-106
1996
Vol.15
No.4 
1996-12-15
pp.1-110
No.3
1996-09-15
pp.1-111
No.2
1996-06-15
pp.1-111
No.1
1996-03-15
pp.1-105
1995
Vol.14
No.4 
1995-12-15
pp.1-105
No.3
1995-09-15
pp.1-111
No.2
1995-06-15
pp.1-108
No.1
1995-03-15
pp.1-108
1994
Vol.13
No.4 
1994-12-15
pp.1-113
No.3
1994-09-15
pp.1-116
No.2
1994-06-15
pp.1-99
No.1
1994-03-15
pp.1-120
1993
Vol.12
No.4 
1993-12-15
pp.1-107
No.3
1993-09-15
pp.1-136
No.2
1993-06-15
pp.1-115
No.1
1993-03-15
pp.1-128
1992
Vol.11
No.4 
1992-12-15
pp.1-125
No.3
1992-09-15
pp.1-112
No.2
1992-06-15
pp.1-105
No.1
1992-03-15
pp.1-104
1991
Vol.10
No.4 
1991-12-15
pp.2-106
No.3
1991-09-15
pp.1-111
No.2
1991-06-15
pp.1-111
No.1
1991-03-15
pp.1-115
1990
Vol.9
No.4 
1990-12-15
pp.1-116
No.3
1990-09-15
pp.1-112
No.2
1990-06-15
pp.113-224
No.1
1990-03-15
pp.1-100
1989
Vol.8
No.4 
1989-12-15
pp.1-116
No.3
1989-09-15
pp.1-122
No.2
1989-06-15
pp.1-116
No.1
1989-03-15
pp.1-114
1988
Vol.7
No.4 
1988-12-15
pp.1-113
No.3
1988-09-15
pp.1-116
No.2
1988-06-15
pp.1-116
No.1
1988-03-15
pp.1-108
1987
Vol.6
No.4 
1987-12-15
pp.1-109
No.3
1987-09-15
pp.1-94
No.2
1987-06-15
pp.1-101
No.1
1987-03-15
pp.1-100
1986
Vol.5
No.4 
1986-12-15
pp.1-101
No.3
1986-09-15
pp.1-112
No.2
1986-06-15
pp.1-108
No.1
1986-03-15
pp.1-108
1985
Vol.4
No.4 
1985-12-15
pp.1-101
No.3
1985-09-15
pp.1-108
No.2
1985-06-15
pp.1-99
No.1
1985-03-15
pp.1-108
1984
Vol.3
No.4 
1984-12-15
pp.1-122
No.3
1984-09-15
pp.1-117
No.2
1984-06-15
pp.1-104
No.1
1984-03-15
pp.1-112
1983
Vol.2
No.4 
1983-12-15
pp.1-115
No.3
1983-09-15
pp.1-104
No.2
1983-06-15
pp.1-112
No.1
1983-03-15
pp.1-119
1982
Vol.1
No.4 
1982-12-15
pp.1-97
No.3
1982-09-15
pp.1-94
No.2
1982-06-15
pp.1-95
No.1
1982-03-15
pp.1-107


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