10 March 2023, Volume 42 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
The evolution of the spatial structure of global integrated circuit trade network and its relational upgrading
LI Tingzhu, DU Debin, HUANG Xiaodong
2023, 42 (3):  597-616.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220527
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As the core of information technology industry, integrated circuit industry has become the commanding elevation of science and technology competition between countries around the world. The international trade system of integrated circuits is an important manifestation of the evolution of its vertical division of labor production mode. Based on the global integrated circuit trade data, this paper establishes the trade network matrix, quotes the concept of relational upgrading, and pays attention to the spatial pattern of global integrated circuit trade network, as well as the upgrading of national positions, from a geographical perspective. To theorize relational upgrading, we have conceived a relational model of global trade network structure based on the clustering of individual countries into the five positions of isolated, peripheral, satellite, sub-core and core countries. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2019, the global integrated circuit trade tends to be complex and networked, coexisting with the characteristics of polarization. (2) The spatial distribution center of gravity of global integrated circuit trade has shifted to the southeast, basically forming a northwest-southeast spatial distribution pattern. (3) Along with the global industrial transfer and the change of international division of labor system, the rise of newly industrialized economies has promoted the evolution of spatial structure from a single center dominated by North America to a multi-center pattern dominated by East Asia, Southeast Asia and North America. (4) Based on the perspective of relational upgrading, the core-periphery system has a clear hierarchical structure, and the geographical pattern of countries has significant spatial heterogeneity. The core position has always been dominated by developed countries, and the developing countries with huge trade volume have been in satellite and sub-core positions for a long time. (5) Relational upgrading is the main path of national positions adjustment. It presents the evolutionary characteristics of "gradual upgrading dominated, supplemented by leapfrogging", accompanied by path dependence and path locking effect. A total of 26 countries, including Korea, the Netherlands, Russia, Vietnam, have achieved gradual upgrading; China, Spain, Slovenia, the United Arab Emirates have completed the leapfrog upgrade. Furthermore, China has become the only developing country in the core position.

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Geographical evolution and driving mechanism of global value chains of Apple's parts
KANG Jiangjiang, NING Yuemin
2023, 42 (3):  617-635.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220536
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Using Apple's supplier companies and their subsidiaries in 2012, 2015, 2018 and 2020, this paper examines the geographic distribution characteristics and the trend of changes of global value chains of Apple's parts. Then we analyze the driving mechanisms from four aspects: Globalization, marketization, localization, and technology control. This study reached four major findings. Firstly, the distribution of supplier's subsidiaries of Apple's parts are highly concentrated in a few countries or regions, particularly in the middle and low-value links. The United States, Germany, Japan, South Korea, China's Taiwan, and a few Southeast Asian countries have significant distribution advantages in the middle and high-end links of global value chains of Apple's parts, and China has clear distribution advantages in the middle and low-end links. Secondly, the broad pattern of global value chains of Apple's parts is that the high-value links of suppliers are led by the United States and Japan, the medium-value links of suppliers are from Japan, Chinese mainland and China's Taiwan, and the low-value suppliers are led by the Chinese mainland and China's Taiwan, which forms a new type of linked "dragon-shaped" growth pattern, with China advancing progressively toward the "body" of the dragon. Thirdly, the global production map of Apple's parts mainly shows the geographical pattern of "R&D on the east coast of Pacific and manufacturing on the west coast". The middle and high-value links of supplier's subsidiaries are tending to be located in urban areas in North America, Western Europe, East Asia and Southeast Asia, while the low-value links of supplier's subsidiaries mainly spread to large cities in and around the southeast coast of China, such as Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. The emerging urbanized areas in Vietnam and India have released strong signals of "diversion" of middle and low-end links of supplier's subsidiaries. Fourthly, globalization has produced the basic form of global value chains of Apple's parts, which is dominated by marketization includes demand responsiveness in end markets and customer intimacy in intermediate markets, while local comparative advantage and reconstruction of comparative advantage and enterprise technology protection control and technology blockade control between countries are constantly constructing new forms, and through comprehensive interaction, the global value chains of Apple's parts are primarily concentrated in the major urbanized regions of East and Southeast Asia, North America, and Western Europe, but new changes are also arising.

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Product relatedness, regional institutional proximity and industrial path creation in China
XU Qingwen, HE Canfei
2023, 42 (3):  636-659.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220280
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In the new era of risks, it is important for a region to dissolve them and sustain long-term economic development. Whether a region can achieve such a goal or not depends on its ability to create new industrial paths. Researchers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) claim that regions are more likely to enter industries that are technologically related to the ones that are already present in them because they can make effective use of local knowledge base. Nonetheless, economic activities are embedded in territorial capabilities, which means that knowledge is not sufficient and institutions should be paid much more attention in the regional diversification literature. Here, based on the export data during 2000-2015 compiled by the Chinese Customs Trade Statistics (CCTS) and the Outline of Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development in each provincial-level region, we study how product relatedness (including technological relatedness and institutional relatedness) and regional institutional proximity (including intercity dual openness and financial development proximity) as well as their interactions affect the entry of new industries in Chinese cities. The main findings are as follows: (1) From 2001 to 2015, the number of new products generally showed an upward trend with a significant increase after 2011. Most of the new products were developed by cities in provincial-level regions of central and western China. The new products also became increasingly high-end. (2) At the product level, cities tend to diversify into new products that have strong technological and institutional relatedness with their existing industrial base. At the regional level, the greater the gap between the city and the cities that have already developed target products in terms of dual openness and financial development levels, the harder it is for the city to develop these products. (3) Intercity institutional proximity weakens the path dependence of urban product space evolution, as it is beneficial for the city to establish interregional linkages and so on. Our findings also have some policy implications. It is suggested that local governments can play an important role in promoting regional industrial path breakthrough by establishing communication platforms and forming proper institutional environments for new industries. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of institutions in the diversification of economy.

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Research on the evolution process and dynamic mechanism of urban spatial growth in the Three Gorges Reservoir area
WANG Hua, ZHAO Wanmin, ZHOU Guohua
2023, 42 (3):  660-681.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020221154
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Urban space growth is a complex dynamic process. Based on the theory of man-land relationship regional system, an analysis framework of urban spatial growth is constructed. By means of field survey, text analysis and spatial pattern analysis of construction land expansion, the urban spatial growth process, periodic evolution characteristics and dynamic mechanism in the Three Gorges Reservoir area are analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) Before the relocation of the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA), due to the ecological constraints of regional natural environment, the cities in the Three Gorges region gradually developed from a compact cluster living by river and growing naturally to a compact ribbon-like structure extending along the river and growing vertically. After the relocation of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the rapid agglomeration of urban population in a short period of time of unnatural growth, and the strong demand for land resources due to the rapid social and economic development prompted the cities in the TGRA to overcome the constraints of topography and river environment, presenting complex spatial and temporal patterns and diversified forms. (2) There are three positive feedback paths and three negative feedback paths between urban spatial growth and regional natural environment in the TGRA. The periodic evolution of urban space growth in the study area is comprehensively driven by "the phased evolution of artificial forces", "the continuous effect of natural forces", "the transition of special events" and "the influence feedback of environmental changes", so as to realize the threshold transition and structural evolution of urban space growth. (3) The interaction between urban space growth and regional natural environment in the TGRA is a two-way interactive and spiraling cycle evolution process. The urban space growth cycle before the relocation and the urban space growth process after the relocation constitute a unique "double-ring structure". The periodic evolution characteristics of spatial growth are different in semi-submerged cities, fully submerged cities and unsubmerged cities. There is not only the repeated multi-cycle growth and evolution, but also the overlapping phenomenon of multiple old and new cycles.

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Spatial distribution pattern and influencing factors of innovation and knowledge-intensive services based on POI data: A case study of Hefei, China
YANG Chengfeng, YANG Huiru, HAN Huiran, YANG Gang
2023, 42 (3):  682-698.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220550
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The Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development (2021-2025) and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 of the People′s Republic of China states that "We will deeply implement the strategy of reinvigorating China through science and education, the talent powerhouse strategy, and the innovation-driven development strategy, refine the national innovation system, and speed up the effort to make China into an S&T powerhouse." With the development of information technology and artificial intelligence revolution, knowledge plays a leading role in the development of industrial economy. Innovation and knowledge-intensive service industry is a high-end core service industry with strong technological relevance, high-tech content and high added value, which will promote the future industrial transformation, upgrading and innovative development. As a key constituent of the modern service industries, innovation and knowledge-intensive services and their high-quality development have been vigorously underpinning the optimization of urban industrial structure and improvement of urban innovation capability. Therefore, based on POI data, this study deploys the kernel density estimation method to delineate the spatial distribution pattern of innovation and knowledge-intensive services in Hefei, China. Furthermore, it synthetically applies the OLS model, spatial lag model and spatial error model to examine the influencing factors of the spatial distribution of innovation and knowledge-intensive services. The empirical results indicate that: (1) The spatial distribution of innovation and knowledge-intensive services is characterized by "dispersion in agglomeration". More specifically, network information services are geographically dispersed, and the distribution of R&D services and universities tend to be spatially related, while specialized services are prone to be located in the downtown area. (2) The spatial distribution of innovation and knowledge-intensive services is primarily shaped by the market potential, innovation-based agglomeration environment and surrounding built environment. It is evidenced as well that a large population size, convenient transportation conditions, policy support, and geographical proximity to gazelle companies, public facilities, cultural facilities, leisure and catering facilities, and office facilities will promote the agglomeration of innovation and knowledge-intensive services. (3) There are differences in the influencing factors of the spatial distribution of innovation and knowledge-intensive services. Network information services have rather high requirements for traffic convenience; R&D services is spatially associated with the distribution of universities; specialized services prefer to locate in the areas equipped with well-performed office facilities.

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A perspective of geographical thoughts in the learning of royal officials contained in Rites of Zhou
DONG Jinshe
2023, 42 (3):  699-712.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220520
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Rites of Zhou has been proved an important works recorded from the Western Zhou Dynasty in social statues of the time, and it is the representative of the learning of ancient royal-official, which contains rich geographical knowledge and thoughts that have not yet been fully interpreted so far. As an classical literature produced before pre-Qin dynasty that followed geography book of Yugong, it is a proven key to understand ancient geography thought of China with the dynastic geography characteristic recognized long before. Considering the relevant research achievements concerning Rites of Zhou, the geographical basis of the six-official framework is analyzed, the geographical content, methods and ideas involved in each official are recognized, and understandings regarding to the geographical knowledge, methods and ideas of Rites of Zhou are improved systematically, so that we can understand geography learning of ancient China endowed in regional management officials that were responsible for the regional geography research and segmentation of royal soil to rule the kingdom orderly. By studying the originating environment of the official of Rites of Zhou and exploring the relationship between the official and the "Identifying the region and order, shaping cities and the countryside", the geographical knowledge and thought contained in Rites of Zhou are interpreted. Additionally, by the textual research and interpretation of the official such as Zhifangshi, Tuxun and Songxun, the significance and present situation of ancient geography are explored and understood. With the help of the charts made according to Rites of Zhou, the geographical ideas, methods, spatial patterns, and the etiquette order that ensures the harmonious operation of the system of human-land relationship are highlighted. By sanctification of the natural features, we realized the unity of man and nature. Initial forms of modern applied geography, such as urban geography, rural geography, political geography and physical geography, can be found in Rites of Zhou. In conclusion, Rites of Zhou is an important document for contemporary geography to understand and draw experiences from ancient royal-officials' geographical thinking. Contrast to traditional views that ancient geography of China had no scholarship or study, Rites of Zhou shows us a treasury of thoughts and techniques that led us to pay more attention to the "royal learning" instead of the text labelled "geography". This paper also analyzes and explains the rheology of geographical thought of China and refutes some concerning views.

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Influence of mass elevation effect on diurnal atmospheric temperature differences in the near-surface layer over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
ZHANG Wenjie, ZHANG Baiping, ZHAO Fang, TANG Xiaolu, GAO Ang, LI Wuyang, LAN Xincan, TANG Jiale
2023, 42 (3):  713-727.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220502
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The towering Tibetan Plateau not only shaped the climatic patterns of the Eurasian continent, but also profoundly influenced the geo-ecological patterns of the plateau. The mass elevation effect (MEE) of the massive uplift of the Tibetan Plateau not only has a significant effect on near-surface temperatures, but also on the vertical atmosphere, yet there is still a lack of research in this area. MODIS atmospheric profile data product (MOD07_L2) provides air temperature data for 20 pressure surface layers in high spatial resolution (5 km*5 km), which provides a new perspective for estimating temperature variations in and outside the mountains/plateau and offers the basis to study the impact of MEE on the vertical atmosphere in different seasons. Therefore, this study analyses the diurnal temperature range (DTR) among different seasons and different pressure heights (500-200 hPa) on the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings based on MOD07_L2. In order to explain the mechanism behind this, this paper examines the seasonality of the relationship between altitude, solar radiation and DTR at different pressure heights respectively. The results show that: (1) DTR at different seasons and different pressure heights (500-200 hPa) on the Tibetan Plateau is greater than that of the external areas, which is overall consistent with the pattern of mass elevation effect. (2) The higher altitude on the Tibetan Plateau, the greater DTR in the vertical layer in different seasons. (3) The control of altitude on DTR in winter gradually decreases as the pressure height increases (500-200 hPa), and the degree of influence on spring, summer and autumn first increases and then decreases, with the greatest influence occurring at 300 hPa, 250 hPa and 300 hPa, respectively. In this study, the pressure surface of 500-200 hPa on and around the Tibetan Plateau, which is usually higher than the near-surface elevation, is theoretically able to reduce the uncertainty caused by the influence of the substratum of the plateau and local climatic conditions on DTR. The DTR on the pressure surface of 500-200 hPa can overall reflect the MEE by comparing the plateau areas and the peripheral lower elevation areas, and therefore can be used as a measure of MEE in the future.

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Study on the identification of human-natural transitional zone based on big data of human activity in the Taihang Mountains
SHENG Anjie, HU Maogui, DENG Wei, ZHANG Shaoyao, QI Fei, YANG Fei
2023, 42 (3):  728-746.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220517
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Mountainous areas are important carriers of transitional geospatial space. China's mountainous areas cover a large area and are widely distributed, and it is important to carry out research on the identification of mountainous transitional zones for optimizing territorial spatial planning and promoting the quality and efficiency of ecosystem services. The characteristics of temporal dynamic is less considered in current research on the identification of transitional zones. In this paper, from the perspective of crowd activities, three indicators characterizing the gradual change of transitional zones attributes, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics are extracted in the typical transitional geospatial space—the Taihang Mountains, based on Tencent location request data. The change of the three crowd activities characteristics along the human-natural gradient are analyzed. The human-natural transitional zones in the Taihang Mountains are classified by using sliding threshold of landscape metrics, spatio-temporal unsupervised classification methods. The classification results are recognised as human-natural transitional zones by their distribution patterns combined with the data of land use/cover, night lighting, impervious surface, potential crop yield, vegetation net primary productivity and value of ecosystem services. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) In the Taihang Mountains, the degree of temporal dynamics in transitional zones is greater than that of urban areas, where the degree of temporal dynamics in natural areas is the smallest. The temporal dynamics of crowd activities can be used in the classification of human-natural transitional zones. (2) The degree of temporal dynamic distribution of crowd activities along the human-natural gradient may reflect that different human-earth areal systems have different characteristics of crowd behavior patterns. (3) The Taihang Mountains are mainly dominated by natural areas. The urban areas, urban-rural transitional areas and agricultural dominated areas in the study area have changed stably in recent years, while the natural areas and agricultural-natural transitional areas show trends of expansion and contraction, respectively, with changes accounting for about 5.3% and 6.27% of the total area of the study area. (4) Topographic and geomorphologic conditions constrain the distribution of different human-natural transitional zones, and as elevation rises and slope increases, from plains to large undulating mountains, transitional areas shift from urban areas to natural areas.

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Controlling influences and models of river pattern transformation in the upstream of the Nenjiang River
HU Saiyin, LIU Zongbao, LU Zhilin
2023, 42 (3):  747-760.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220597
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River pattern transformation is a comprehensive reflection of the evolution of rivers and the whole basin from quantitative to qualitative change, and is valuable in terms of both scientific research and production service. Taking the upper reaches of the main stream of the Nenjiang River (hereinafter referred to as the upstream of the Nenjiang River) as the study area, this study depicts the morphological characteristics of the upstream of the Nenjiang River from 1985 to 2020 using remote sensing images, geomorphological data, vegetation coverage data and climate data. Then it analyzes the morphological characteristics of the river, types of rivers, the controlling factors and models of river pattern transformation. The study shows that: (1) The upstream of the Nenjiang River is stable on the whole, and the overall stability first increases and then decreases. It is developed with three river patterns in the river direction: low-slope, high-curvature, stable meandering river (Stream I), high-slope high-curvature, stable meandering river (Stream II), and low-slope, less stable anastomosing river (Stream III). (2) The river width increases in the direction of the river, the slope increases and then decreases, the curvature index is greater in single-channel areas than in multi-channel areas, and the stability of plain rivers is lower than that of mountain rivers. (3) Weak tectonic activity is a prerequisite for river stability, and temperature and precipitation variability are controlling factors of stability change. The contribution of temperature variability is greater. (4) The transformation from Stream I to Stream II is controlled by faults and permafrost, with soil acting synergistically. By contrast, the transformation from Stream II to Stream III is controlled by landform and river boundary lithology, with soil and vegetation acting synergistically. (5) The river pattern transformation in the upstream of the Nenjiang River is a pattern under mid-latitude semi-humid-humid climate, where meandering river in the mountains changes into anastomosing river in plain constrained by tectonism within the basin scale. It is common in Northeast Asia, especially in areas where permafrost is more developed. Variations in the contribution of three types of controls-tectonic, climatic and river boundary properties, contribute to the spatiotemporal variability and complexity of river pattern transformations.

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Competition and cooperation of multiple airport system from air transport network perspective: An empirical study on Shanghai
MO Huihui, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Han, XIAO Fan
2023, 42 (3):  761-774.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220439
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Multiple airport system, where market competition and cooperation often occur, plays a key role in the global air transport market. The research object of this paper is on competition and cooperation of the air transport network within the multi-airport system. Based on graph theory, set theory and statistical correlation methods, we construct three models to estimate network′s competition and cooperation within the multiple airport system, from the perspectives of airport, route and network. Specifically, the model from the airport perspective focuses on network′s breadth or coverage (i.e., interaction space or target), and the model from the routing perspective focuses on interaction frequency (i.e., competition and cooperation within a specific route); the model from the network perspective is an integrated one considering the above-mentioned factors. Then, we put forward the theoretical mode and relevant thresholds of spatial competition and cooperation. In this context, we process an empirical study in Shanghai Multiple Airport System (SMAS), using the data from 2015 to 2019. Empirical results are as follows. (1) From the airport′s perspective, the intensity of competition in the market tends to weaken. In other words, two airports in Shanghai tend to flight from/to different places. At the same time, the competition and cooperation index of the domestic market is significantly higher than that of the international market. (2) From the route′s perspective, the competition and cooperation in the market is becoming more and more complex. On the one hand, the competition in the head market with concentrated business volume is becoming more intense. On the other hand, the short-haul route market is an important field for the coordinated development of the SMAS. (3) From the network′s perspective, the competition and cooperation relationship depends on the competition and cooperation degree of the domestic market, and the overall level of competition keeps increasing slowly. Strategic positioning/planning, airport capacity and market size are the key factors affecting the evolution of the competition and cooperation relationship on the air transport network. The proposed evaluation method (system) and empirical evidence provide an important theoretical and practical basis for the coordinated development of air transport network and airport strategic positioning/planning of multiple airport system in the metropolitan area.

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The form of global aviation market space in the context of the epidemic
YAN Yuhang, LU Zi, DONG Yaqing, ZHANG Yinuo, DU Xinru, FENG Fujing
2023, 42 (3):  775-788.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220105
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There are many mismatches between international aviation circuit breakers/maintenance and the stringency index and severity of the outbreak in the origin or destination country in the context of COVID-19. Under the background of the global outbreak of COVID-19, in addition to the reasons for the stage of epidemic transmission, prevention-control environment and testing/treatment methods, the underlying impact on the global aviation market its own cannot be ignored. Based on market space theory and market network relationship analysis methods, as well as the international routes, flight volume/frequency/seat capacity and airport operation data of the six major global airline markets for four representative periods from 2019 to 2020, this paper intends to analyze the form of the global aviation market space under the background of the epidemic. The conclusions are as follows. In the process of shrinking the global route network, the original major aviation connections from Western Europe to North America and those from China, Japan to South Korea and the United States have not changed. The developed economies/emerging economies have shown the existence of spatial aggregation. South America has maintained a clear-pointed route to North America and at the same time, a large number of routes to Europe have been cut off. Oceania has increased the use of hub airports in Southeast Asia to maintain routes to Europe and the United States. Market-dependent countries have shown the existence of spatial duality. Aggregate and dual markets highlight the dominant role of the economic landscape. The relatively independent existence of space is strongly influenced by the "regional model", and the aviation market shaping inside and outside the regional alliance is completely different with the European Union, the African Union, and the ASEAN as typical cases. Culturally neighboring countries show the existence of compact connected communities. There are clear manifestations between China-Japan-South Korea, ASEAN to China-Japan-South Korea and Northeast Africa to Arab countries, which are supported by the potential support of cultural and local sensitivity to maintain a high frequency of flights. The above changes in aviation connectivity demonstrate the persistence of inherent aviation value chains and their reinforcing effect on the forms of existence of global aviation market space. It is necessary to explore the economic-geographical implications of the forms of existence of the global aviation market space in depth under the background of the COVID-19 epidemic reinterpret the assertions related to the market space existence forms dominated by globalization in recent years.

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The effect of expressway improvement on income level of residents in periphery regions: New evidence from expressway construction in Tokyo Bay Area
LEI Yunyan, DU Chaoyang, LI Hong
2023, 42 (3):  789-806.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220526
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For a long time, transportation infrastructure construction has been considered as an important measure to alleviate the imbalance and inadequacy of regional development. However, there are still some different opinions on the economic effects of expressways. Some scholars believe that expressways can promote the economic development of the periphery areas, therefore expressways have good and positive effects on narrowing differences among regional economic development. But, some scholars hold the opposite opinion. In recent years, some scholars proposed that the economic effects generated from constructing expressways may vary from stage to stage, with strong and positive economic effects during the mid-period of expressways construction and weak or even negative economic effects in both the beginning and the end period of construction, similar to an "inverted U-shape". This paper focuses on the economic effects during the late period of expressway construction at the periphery areas of the Tokyo Bay Area, and uses the heterogeneous staggered DID method to study the impact of expressway on the per capita income level from 2012 to 2020, and the mediating effect model is used to analyze its mechanism of impact. The result shows that: (1) The long-term impact of expressway construction on the per capita income of periphery areas is negative; (2) The construction of expressway caused the population loss in the periphery areas. At the same time, the land prices, manufacturing and wholesale industries were not positively affected; (3) According to the results of mediating effects, the diffusion effect is weak but the polarization effect is strong in the Tokyo Bay Area, therefore the construction of expressway does not play the expected role of contributing to common prosperity. Based on the history of expressway construction in the Tokyo Bay Area in the past 70 years and related studies, we believe that there is a "window period" for the effect of expressway construction on the per capita income level in the periphery areas. The periphery areas should timely adjust their development strategies according to the urban agglomeration in which they are located and their own conditions. This study, taking the example of the periphery areas of the Tokyo Bay Area with a long history of expressway construction and relatively sophisticated expressway network, shows new evidence for the economic effects of expressways, which can provide important reference for the periphery areas in China's urban agglomerations, and accelerate the realization of common prosperity.

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Construction of rural place brand from the perspective of "re-materialization": A case study of Beigou Village in Beijing
2023, 42 (3):  807-821.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220511
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In the context of rural revitalization, the construction of place brands helps to find a positioning for the rural that is different from other places. It can revitalize the resources and power within the village through marketing the place image, attract the return of the rural population, and enhance people's recognition of the value of the rural. Although the studies of place branding have begun to call for the knowledge of geography to focus on the impact of place-specific social relations, cultural contexts, and power operations on branding, place is more discussed in terms of discourses and narratives such as brand image, brand personality, and brand symbols. The process of branding relatively ignores the influence of the interaction and practice of material entities. The trend of "re-materialization" in human geography emphasizes that matter should not be simply reduced to symbols, texts or discourses, but needs to explore the dynamic and mobility in the interaction between people and matter, and pay attention to spatial practices, processes and changes led by materiality. This paper takes Beigou Village on Bohai Town in Beijing as a case, focuses on the two material elements of glazed tiles and red bricks, and explores how materiality participates in the construction of rural brands, in order to develop a dynamic, relational material meaning thinking. The paper found that the material meaning of glazed tiles and red bricks evolved during branding. They changed from worthless "waste" to the material carrier of homestay hotels, and then became an important cultural symbol of Beigou Village. The change of meaning of glazed tiles and red bricks also promoted the changes in the spatial practice of marketers and the embodied perception of audiences. As local traditional building materials, glazed tiles and red bricks are not only favored by external elites and operators, but also more easily accepted and recognized by local residents. The aesthetic value derived from the appearance of glazed tiles and red bricks can better attract the visual attention of tourists. In addition, the article also found that material can participate in the process of place branding as an active actor, which is not only beneficial to promote local economic development, but also becomes an intermediary for multiple stakeholder's communication and negotiation, so as to realize tourism to promote common prosperity of the countryside and the integration of culture and tourism.

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The paths, effects and mechanism of farmers' livelihood transformation in the Shiyang River Basin under the background of ecological governance
TANG Honglin, CHEN Jia, LIU Qian, YANG Xinjun, ZHANG Xiaowen, YE Wenli
2023, 42 (3):  822-841.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220496
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The study on the farmers′ livelihood provides a new perspective for understanding the complex human-land relationship in the arid region of Northwest China from a microscopic perspective. Based on the social-ecological systems (SESs) theory and sustainable livelihood analysis framework (SLA), we take the Shiyang River Basin transect as the field survey object, and use Difference-in-Difference model, Ecological footprint method and Multiple logistic regression model to describe the transformation paths of farmers′ livelihood under the background of ecological governance, evaluate the transformation outcomes (socio-ecological effects), and explore the transformation mechanism. The main conclusions include: First, there are two paths of farmers′ livelihood transformation in the Shiyang River Basin: Type I and type II. Type I mainly diverges from the traditional agriculture-led type to the traditional non-agricultural type, new agricultural type and non-agricultural type, while type II mainly shifts from the traditional non-agricultural type to the non-agricultural-led type. Second, farmers′ livelihood transformation makes the social structure of the basin unstable, which is manifested by the decline of life satisfaction, the weakening of the support of local rural communities by farmers who expand their social network across the local area, and the loss of collective memory. The economic effects are differentiated, among which, type I path significantly increases the total household income and non-agricultural income, but significantly reduces the traditional agricultural income, while the new agricultural income only increases significantly when it turns to the new agricultural livelihood; type II path has significantly increased non-agricultural income, but reduced traditional agricultural income and new agricultural income, and promoted the adjustment of farmers′ income structure, but the increase of total household income was not significant. Livelihood transformation has reduced farmers′ ecological footprint, thus weakening the impact on the ecological environment. Third, geographical location, cognitive ability, natural capital, physical capital and financial capital are the main factors affecting type I path, and human capital, natural capital, financial capital and cognitive ability are the main factors affecting type II path. Last, the geographical environment and policy change are important prerequisites and causes of farmers′ livelihood transformation, and affect the process of livelihood transformation from a macro scale. Rational choice of farmers is the internal motivation (micro) of livelihood transformation. The transformation outcomes (socio-ecological effects) will provide a feedback to policy makers and farmers, and influence farmers′ subsequent livelihood choices and management decisions for regional development.

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Research of the carbon governance of global low carbon technology financing under the carbon neutrality constraints
GU Gaoxiang, SHEN Siyi, HE Xiangqi, WANG Zheng
2023, 42 (3):  842-856.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220512
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Climate financing supported by the developed countries has been considered the key issue for the developing countries to realize their mitigation and adaption goals. This paper built an integrated assessment model named CIECIA-TD-F by introducing an international climate finance and investment module into the CIECIA-TD model. Based on this model, we designed carbon neutrality pathways of countries according to their national determined contributions (NDCs) and carbon neutrality targets, and studied the effects of implementation of global low carbon technology financing and its policy combinations with technology sharing. Their effects on surface temperature mitigation, low carbon technology progress, and carbon neutrality cost reduction under the carbon neutrality constraints were studied by scenario simulation, Furthermore, their global carbon governance meanings were discussed. The results show that the current carbon neutrality pledges are insufficient for the 1.5°C mitigation target, indicating the climate ambitions of countries should be improved immediately for achieving the climate protection goals. Under the current pledged scale of global climate financing from the developed to developing countries, the low carbon technology financing can neither promote the low carbon technology progress in the developing countries effectively nor reduce their carbon neutrality costs significantly. Expanding financing scale radically after 2020 will improve low carbon technology levels of the developing countries, and reduce their carbon neutrality costs. However, it hurts the economic growth and technological innovations of those developed countries, and obstructs the R&D of advanced low carbon technologies in turn. While increasing financing scale to 500 billion USD per year since 2030, the economic losses of the developed countries increase to more than 2%, and their low carbon technology levels decrease by more than 15% compared with their baseline levels. Combining low carbon technology sharing with technology financing can significantly promote the transfer and deployment of advanced low carbon technologies and effectively reduce the carbon neutrality costs, and thus is more economically feasible than implementing low carbon technology financing policies solely. In the policy combination scenarios, the low carbon technology levels of all countries increase compared to the baseline, and the economic losses of the donors are limited to less than 2%. The combination of technology financing and sharing benefits both developed and developing countries, and thus is worth attention in the global climate governance and cooperation in future.

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Spatial difference of carbon dioxide emissions and its bi-dimensional internal structural decomposition and analysis from 2000 to 2019 in China
LIU Huajun, TIAN Zhen, SHI Yin
2023, 42 (3):  857-877.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220450
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The spatial difference of carbon dioxide emissions in China poses a serious challenge to the coordination of carbon peak and carbon neutrality in different regions. Based on the provincial carbon emission inventory of China from 2000 to 2019 provided by CEADs, this paper used the visualization method to depict the temporal characteristics and spatial pattern of China's carbon dioxide emissions, and used the population weighted coefficient of variation method to decompose the spatial difference of China's carbon dioxide emissions, so as to deeply explore their internal structural characteristics. The results show that during the sample period, the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions in China slows down and the internal sources change significantly, showing a spatial distribution characteristic of more in the east and less in the west, more in the north and less in the south. The gap between the east and the west narrows, and the distribution center of carbon dioxide emissions shifts to the west. Carbon dioxide emissions in China shows a significant spatial imbalance, and the spatial difference shows a significant increase during the sample period. From the regional perspective, the overall spatial difference of carbon dioxide emissions in China mainly comes from the intra-regional difference, and the increase of the intra-regional difference in central and western regions is an important reason for the overall spatial difference increase. From the perspective of carbon sources, the spatial difference of carbon emissions from consumption of raw coal is the main force determining the degree and trend of the overall spatial difference of carbon emissions, and the rise of the spatial difference of carbon emissions from consumption of raw coal is an important reason for the rise of the overall spatial difference. From the perspective of two dimensions of region and carbon sources, the spatial difference of carbon emissions from raw coal consumption in central and western China gradually became the most significant contributor to the overall spatial difference. In the process of realizing the carbon peak and carbon neutrality, China must, based on the Chinese context that the energy structure is dominated by coal, actively promote the development and utilization of natural gas, pursue coordinated and stable development, strengthen the efficient utilization of fossil energy and the development of clean energy, and formulate differentiated regional emission reduction policies.

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The impact of green technological innovation on the spatiotemporal evolution of carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities in China
XU Yingqi, CHENG Yu, WANG Jingjing
2023, 42 (3):  878-894.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020220256
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In the context of the dual carbon target, green technological innovation is one of the important paths to promote the low-carbon transformation of resource-based cities. This study measures the carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities from 2003 to 2018 using the super efficiency Slack-Based Measure model considering non-desired outputs, explores its spatiotemporal divergence characteristics and evolution process using kernel density estimation and Theil index decomposition, and analyzes the impact of green technological innovation on carbon emission efficiency through a panel regression model. The research results show that: (1) The carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities shows a growth trend of accelerated increase in time followed by a slow fluctuating increase, from 0.164 in 2003 to 0.394 in 2018, with an average annual growth rate of 6.02%, and there is still some room for improvement. (2) The regional differences in carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities show an expanding trend, and the internal differences in carbon emission efficiency of the four major regions of China are the main reason for the continuous expansion of spatial differences; there are obvious spatial clustering characteristics of cities with higher and lower carbon emission efficiency, and the carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities at each development stage shows the regional difference characteristics of growing cities > mature cities > regenerating cities > declining cities. (3) Green patent authorization is significantly and positively correlated with carbon emission efficiency; among the control variables, economic development level is significantly and positively correlated with carbon emission efficiency, while industrial structure and environmental regulation are significantly and negatively correlated with carbon emission efficiency. After the implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, the driving role of green technological innovation is enhanced, and the effect of each element of green technological innovation on carbon emission efficiency in resource-based cities in the four major regions and at different development stages shows heterogeneity. This study proposes countermeasures and suggestions in terms of improving the capital investment mechanism, strengthening human capital accumulation, promoting the transformation of innovation achievements, and implementing differentiated countermeasures, so as to provide suggestions for accelerating green technological innovation and low-carbon transformation in resource-based cities.

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