Based on the scale-structure-benefit index system, using multiple analysis methods, the spatial pattern characteristics and influencing factors of industrialization-urbanization comprehensive level at town level in China were analyzed. The results were shown as follows. Firstly, although the high and medium value score units were not obvious from the overall spatial pattern, these were still visible with point-like shape in the core areas of urban agglomerations in Eastern and Central China. In addition, the high and medium score units of scale level were prominent, mainly distributed in the triangle area. On the whole, the spatial differentiation characteristics of scale and benefit at town level were similar to the results of previous studies. It was worth mentioning that the southeast-northwest difference with the Hu Huanyong line was clearly visible. Secondly, the internal difference degree from low to high was Eastern China, Central China, Western China and Northeast China. From the provincial and urban cluster levels, although the gap between actual variation and ideal expectations of some provinces and urban agglomerations was quite different, the overall difference in Central and Eastern China was small. Thirdly, from the spatial autocorrelation, the significant High-High and Low-Low units of scale and benefit score were obvious, and formed a new “S”-type separation, which was different from the Hu Huanyong Line. Fourthly, from the comparison perspective, the high, and medium value units of the comprehensive and structural score at county and city levels were similar to those at town level, which were mainly distributed in the core areas of urban agglomeration regions in Eastern and Central China, and some areas were surrounded by the main economic belt and Beijing-Guangzhou axis. The difference was that the centralized agglomeration units of scale strength at county and city level extended to the region in the south of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River and formed a quadrilateral shape. Seen from both sides of the Hu Huanyong Line, the distribution pattern of scale strength at town level was similar to that at county and city levels, but not obvious in comprehensive, structural and benefit pattern. It was worth mentioning that the significant High-High units greatly changed and significant Low-Low areas markedly reduced, and their overall agglomeration pattern became a little scattered. Finally, we found that economic strength, non-agricultural process, towns' modernization level, topographical conditions, rooting and path dependence were the main influencing factors, which respectively played roles of foundation, process, orientation, strength support and chain conduction.