20 September 2019, Volume 38 Issue 9 Previous Issue   
Perspectives and Contention
Global geopolitical pattern on science & technology from the perspective of intellectual property trade
DUAN Dezhong,DU Debin,CHEN Ying
2019, 38 (9):  2115-2128.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180789
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The transformation of the global production networks into global innovation networks has made the interdependence of countries gradually shift from the trade investments between countries to the asymmetric dependence formed in knowledge cooperation and technology transfer. The profound changes in the logic of geopolitics have resulted in the fact that the core sources of state power have evolved from military strength in the colonial era to economic strength in the era of trade, and to scientific and technological strength in the era of knowledge. The key to the rise of China lies in the rise of science & technology. Looking back at China’s scientific and technological development, we can find that there has never been a shortage of “containment” and “blockade”, from the “Paris Coordinating Committee” to the “Wassenaar Arrangement”, to today’s “ZTE Incident”. No country can compare the technical blockade faced by China, and China’s technological development path is also more rugged than that of any other country. In the international environment where technology is currently targeted and blocked, how to construct a global innovation network led by China and scientifically formulate geo-scientific strategies for China are the primary topics for research under the future of innovative geography and geopolitics. Based on this, we, taking the imports and exports of intellectual property rights among countries in the world from 2001 to 2015 as the data source, studied the network structure and pattern of the global intellectual property trade, and discussed the space-time evolution pattern of the global science and technology system. The following conclusions were drawn as follows. Firstly, the global intellectual property trading network is markedly polarized. It is a typical small-world network, with a hierarchical hierarchy of pyramid structure. The “central-periphery” pattern with the United States as the core is continuously consolidated. Secondly, the asymmetric dependence of global intellectual property trade based on sensitivity and vulnerability models further verifies that the United States is the core of the global geo-scientific and technological landscape, and its core position is continuously consolidated and strengthened.

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The spatial difference of market dynamics of Chinese exporters
HU Xuqian,HE Canfei
2019, 38 (9):  2129-2147.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180562
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With the growth of the total export of Chinese firms, the export dynamics of firms in various regions show obvious spatial imbalance. The study of export dynamics helps to better understand the patterns that support the growth of trade and the changes in the structure of the trade type. This study tries to examine the pattern of export dynamics of Chinese firms over the past decade and identify the influencing factors of export dynamics based on using prefecture level cities from the perspective of export varieties. During 2003-2011, the export dynamics changed from high-speed growth to substantial decline and then to steady growth. In terms of Chinese firms’ entry and exit dynamics, the export entry rate and export exit rate in most regions have been significantly reduced in time dimension, and the export dynamic of firms tended to be stable; in spatial dimension, the eastern region had a lower level of export entry rate and export exit rate than the central and western regions. At the same time, it showed the characteristics of regional agglomeration, and the trade-growing areas showed the trend of moving from the coastal to the inland areas. This trend was more obvious in general trade compared with processing trade. Empirical research shows that Chinese firms' exporting dynamics are affected by export product variety and export market variety. Export product variety improves the entry rate of local firms through information discovery effect, but does not help firms keep in the foreign markets, which means that the export learning effect does not work at least in the short to medium term. However, export market variety can restrain firms from withdrawing from the markets, though it has no benefit to improve the entry rate. As for the robustness check, this paper divided the observations into two parts according to trade types, and finds that the risk diversification effect is more obvious in general trade. For the firms that are able to export repeatedly or continuously, the diversity of export products can reduce the exit rate, indicating that the export learning effect may be related to the duration of firms' participation in exports.

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“De-territorialization”and “re-territorialization”in the process of urbanization: A case study of Jiangkou Village, Guangzhou
HUANG Xiaoxing,MA Ling
2019, 38 (9):  2148-2161.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180924
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Territorialization is a key theoretical concept in political geography. In this paper, the authors adopt the perspective of territorialization and re(de)-territorialization to analyze the urbanization in China. In the process of urbanization, the limitation on urban development is resolved by the territorial expansion, in which the city expropriates more land for development and the ‘non-urban’ area is absorbed into ‘urban’ area. The actors in different scales, including the local government and central government, adopt different strategies of re-territorialization and de-territorialization. Based on the diachronic analysis of a case of an urbanizing village in Guangzhou, the paper summarizes three levels of territorialization of urbanization in China: First, the territorialization of urbanization is on space level. The land is the basic element in urbanizing process. The urban state and the peasants held the same recognition on land ownership that the land belongs to the state. The state and the city, based on the land rules and the needs of urban development, transfer the rural land to urban area. In this process, the rural area is absorbed into urban area, and the urban and rural space is re-adjusted. In the meantime, the administrative institution is transferred from rural system to urban system, from village to community. The second level is on the territorialization and de-territorialization of the space for interests. With their own strategies, multiple actors - local government, companies, village committee and villagers - enter the space for interests, negotiating and bargaining for their respective benefits. Different actors adopt different discourses in order to acquire more benefits. The urban state expropriates the rural land in order to develop economy. From the viewpoint of peasants and the collective, they benefited from the land expropriation, but lost the stable benefits of land in the end. As the economy develops, the peasants hope to obtain sustainable benefit. The third level is about place identity, where the competing strategies of re-territorialization lead to the generation and transition of place identity. The urban sprawl brings changes to the villages as well as the villagers. The communities finally get into the bottom layer of the urban administrative structure. The inconformity in these three levels causes discrepancies in governance at various times and further leads to the dilemma of governance. From the the perspective of territorialization, the paper discusses how the political scale is emerging from and reflected by the process of urbanization. After a review of the transitions of the boundaries between ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ areas in different periods, the complicated process of self-adjustment of the village, and the governance dilemma in the integration of ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ areas, the paper gives some advice.

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Trade-offs and synergy between ecosystem services in National Barrier Zone
YIN Lichang,WANG Xiaofeng,ZHANG Kun,XIAO Feiyan,CHENG Changwu,ZHANG Xinrong
2019, 38 (9):  2162-2172.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180578
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The better understanding of the trade-off and synergy relationship between different services is the foundation for the sustainable management of decision-making of various ecosystem services. In 2018, the national key special project titled as “Typical fragile ecological restoration and protection research” clearly pointed out that it was necessary to optimize the ecosystem services pattern of “Two ecological barriers and three shelters”, and the optimization of services is inseparable from the accurate understanding of trade-offs and synergies. Therefore, it is important and urgent to carry out trade-offs and synergies research in National Barrier Zone ecosystem services on a national scale. In this paper, the RUSLE model, CASA model and InVEST water yield model were used to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern of soil conservation, carbon sequestration and water yield services in the National Barrier Zone during 2000-2015, and to analyze the trends of the three ecosystem services. Correlation analysis and root mean square deviation were used to quantify the trade-offs and synergies between different services in the overall aspect and spatial aspect of each sub-barrier zone. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The spatial pattern of three ecosystem services of National Barrier Zone decreased from southeast to northwest and temporally, soil retention and water yield increased significantly with slope of 20.64 t/ (km 2·a) and 4.13 mm/a, respectively. Carbon sequestration showed a slight upward trend (p=0.96). The promotion of services is significantly helpful to the protection of national ecological security. (2) The correlation coefficient among soil retention, carbon sequestration and water production was greater than 0, indicating that the three ecosystem services were synergistic in all sub-barrier zones. Spatially, there is a strong heterogeneity between the trade-offs and synergies, and it is found that the pixel ratio of trade-off between carbon sequestration and water production is 49%, while that between carbon sequestration and soil retention is 27% in the forest barrier of Northeast China. Therefore, it is highly recommended to consider the differences of services in the trade-off relationship among all the sub-barrier zones and spatial areas to make the policy for the construction of sustainable ecological environment.

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Spatial heterogeneity and formation mechanism of eco-environmental effect of land use change in China
CHEN Wanxu,LI Jiangfeng,ZENG Jie,RAN Duan,YANG Bin
2019, 38 (9):  2173-2187.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180659
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The complex physical elements, socioeconomic elements, regional development strategies, and policy adjustments have formed China's current unbalanced spatial economic development pattern, spatial land use pattern, and spatial eco-environmental quality pattern. The unclear eco-environmental quality formation mechanism would limit the sustainable land use and the effective conservation of the ecological environment in China. Few studies have examined the spatial heterogeneity and the formation mechanism of China's eco-environmental quality at the national scale. This paper uses the eco-environmental quality index method to measure the eco-environmental effects of land use/land cover change (LULCC) to provide an overall review of eco-environmental quality index under complex physical and socioeconomic circumstances in China. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution features and formation mechanism of eco-environmental quality from 1995 to 2015 with the gravity center analysis method, hot-spots analysis tool (Getis-Ord Gi*), and Geo-detectors tool. The results are as follows: (1) The eco-environmental quality of the eastern monsoon region is higher than that of the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the arid region of northwest China. The low-value regions of the eastern monsoon region are mainly distributed in urban areas with dense population and economic agglomeration. The gravity center of eco-environmental quality during the study period moves toward the northwest of China continuously; (2) The hot-spots areas of eco-environmental quality change during 1995-2015 are mainly distributed in Tibet, Xinjiang, Chongqing, Guizhou, and the provinces located in the Loess Plateau (Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Henan). The cold-spots areas are mainly distributed in the provinces along the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the coastal regions in the southeast of China. The cold-spots and hot-spots changes in China's eco-environmental quality are closely related to the regional development strategies and the implementation of ecological conservation projects in China; (3) Land use intensity has a stronger effect on the eco-environmental quality than other factors, and the impacts of socioeconomy, traffic road, geographic location in the eastern monsoon region are stronger than those in the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the arid region of northwest China; (4) The interactions between physical elements and socioeconomic elements are stronger than the interactions within individual indicators. The interactions between the influencing factors mainly include nonlinear enhancement and bi-factor enhancement, and nonlinear enhancement is the dominant interaction mode.

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Spatio-temporal coupling analysis of urban land and carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the Yangtze River Delta region
LI Jianbao,HUANG Xianjin,SUN Shuchen,CHUAI Xiaowei
2019, 38 (9):  2188-2201.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180774
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Exploring the spatio-temporal coupling relationship between urban land and carbon emissions is an important issue to be solved urgently to coordinate urban land and ecological environment. Based on data such as built-up area, energy consumption, and DMSP/OLS night lights, the spatio-temporal coupling relationship between urban land and carbon emissions from energy consumption of the Yangtze River Delta region during 1995-2013 was analyzed by the gravity center model, overall coupled situation model, and spatial coupling coordination model. By taking into account the influence of spatial factors, spatial lag panel Tobit model was constructed to analyze its driving factors. The results are shown as follows: (1)During the period of 1995-2013, built-up area and carbon emissions from energy consumption generally increased. The built-up area increased from 1251 km 2 to 4394 km 2. Carbon emissions from energy consumption increased from 303.89 million tons to 904.05 million tons. There was significantly positive correlation between built-up area and carbon emissions. (2) There was obvious spatial disparity for urban land and carbon emissions from energy consumption. There were larger built-up areas and higher carbon emissions from energy consumption in Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Wuxi. (3) The coupling relationship between urban land and carbon emissions of the Yangtze River Delta generally showed a pattern of first weakened, then strengthened and last fluctuated. The coordination relationship was in the process of continuous evolution. The number of cities in the low-coordination phase obviously decreased, while that in the high-coordination phase obviously increased. Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, Hangzhou and Ningbo were in high coordination. (4) The results of spatial lag Tobit model show that urbanization played a dual role in driving and braking the coupling degree of carbon emissions between urban land and carbon emissions from energy consumption. Meanwhile, population density, economic level, industrial structure and spatial factors had an important impact on the coupling degree. Population density and industrial structure played a significantly positive role in improving the coupling degree. Economic level and spatial factors had a negative impact on the coupling degree.

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Study on the influencing factors of homestead hollowing in a households’perspective
WANG Liangjian,WU Jiahao
2019, 38 (9):  2202-2211.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180669
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Hollow village is the epitome of China's economic and social changes in the village scale, characterized by the decline of industries, the outmigration and the large existences of derelict lands and homestead, which poses a real threat to land resources, food security, village environment, social stability and rural governance. The research on the formation mechanism of homesteads hollowing is not only helpful for understanding the hollow village phenomenon in China, but also an important prerequisite for the promotion of hollow village governance and the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Based on 1238 households’ questionnaires, the paper establishes a mathematical model and uses quantile regression method to explore theoretically and empirically the differential causes of homestead hollowing. The quantile regression results show that: (1) the average estimated hollow rate of homesteads is 29.14%, which is much higher in mountainous and hilly areas than in plains areas, that is, 30.93%, 35.58%, and 20.30%, respectively, and higher in central and western regions than in eastern regions, 31.21%, 34.29%, and 22.41%, respectively. (2) Homesteads hollowing is the result of more factors than one, of which, socio-economic development, terrain, village location and social security system are the dominant factors for homesteads hollowing, while the influences of cultivated land resource endowment, family size, the peasants’ notion of "Jiaye", outmigration proportion and institutional factors vary across quantiles. (3) The positive impacts of household income and the distance from the township increases with the rising quantiles, while the impacts of land titling and the policy implementation of “one homestead for one "hu" only rise in the lower and median quantiles, but hardly statistically in upper quantile, which was mostly caused by integral outmigration. Additionally, the farmer's participation of new rural social pension insurance can significantly decrease the homesteads hollowing rate, while the negative effects of the terrain present a U-shaped distribution. Finally, the paper proposes some further research directions that can be developed, such as exploring the role of social network in the outmigration with the help of large-scale micro population database, and evaluating the land titling policy with the difference-in-difference method. The findings of this study can not only contribute to understanding the formation mechanism of homesteads hollowing, but also shed light on future studies on the targeted governance.

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Cluster networks and evolution path of China’s electronic information industry innovation
ZHOU Can,CAO Xianzhong,ZENG Gang
2019, 38 (9):  2212-2225.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180964
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With the change of ‘space of places’ to ‘space of flows’, the knowledge flows and innovation linkages at different spatial scales have attracted the attention of economic geographers. It is an academic consensus that multi-scale networks coupling is critical to innovation. In line with other theorizations of trans-local linkages at various scales, relational economic geographers develop a framework of global cluster networks. From the network perspective of multi-cluster level, our paper takes China’s electronic information industry as the objects. We identify 32 electronic information industrial clusters in China by using location quotient and social network analysis. Drawing on chi-square test and community detection, we analyze spatial pattern and evolution path of China’s electronic information industry innovation networks based on the co-patent data issued by the National Intellectual Property Administration of China (CNIPA) from 1985 to 2015. The main findings of this study are drawn as follows. (1) The innovation of China’s electronic information industry shows a pattern of cluster networks. The innovation actors in cluster area have significant difference in spatial location from innovation actors in non-cluster area while choosing innovation partners due to a comprehensive consideration of local knowledge spillover and cross-regional ‘tacit knowledge pool’. As a result, they prefer to cooperate with the innovators in local and other clusters for the reason that cluster is helpful for knowledge acquisition and collective learning. This finding offers support for ‘global cluster networks’ hypothesis proposed by relationship economic geographers. (2) Our analysis reveals that geographic boundaries of industrial clusters have become a poor predictor of the community structure of cluster innovation networks along with the development of China’s electronic information industry. The community structure of cluster innovation networks has gradually changed from the geographic boundaries of clusters with a significant characteristic of localization to a pattern that local communities and cross-cluster communities coexist, to a hierarchical structure that surpasses the geographic boundaries of clusters. Overall, because of cognitive proximity and social proximity, cluster actors have largely expanded their innovation connections with actors located in other clusters.

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Spatial-temporal pattern and influencing factors of industrial ecology in Shandong province: Based on panel data of 17 cities
GUO Fuyou, TONG Lianjun, LIU Zhigang, ZHAO Haijie, HOU Ailing
2019, 38 (9):  2226-2238.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180474
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This paper comprehensively constructs the performance evaluation index system of industrial ecology, and analyzes the industrial ecological level and its influencing factors of 17 cities in Shandong province by using a variety of measurement methods. The results show that: 1) The development of industrial ecology depends on the scale expansion and total growth of industrialization, and neglects the optimization and promotion of industrial structure and the lateral transfer feedback effect of economic factors, which will inevitably lead to the low efficiency of the resource allocation in the industrial environment system; 2) The level of industrial ecology is increasing, reflecting the development of industrial system and ecological environment system from antagonism to coordinated development, but its low growth rate shows that the process of light and clear industry is slow, and the way of improving the ecological quality of the regional industry is long and arduous; 3) Through the analysis of Global Moran’s I index, it is found that there is a relatively obvious spatial dependence of the industrial ecological level of various cities in Shandong province from 2005 to 2016. Among them, the industrial ecological level of Shandong is close to the spatial agglomeration from 2005 to 2008. And the regional spatial difference within this province with similar industrial ecological level is significant from 2009 to 2016, forming a spatial structure of the cross distribution between the high-value area and the low-value area of industrial ecology. Through the analysis of industrial ecological hotspots, it is found that the level of industrial ecology shows a strong tendency of spatial agglomerations, and the spatial patterns have significant difference that the eastern coastal belt are is always the hot spots while the western region, especially in southwestern parts, is always the cold spots; 4) Compared with the traditional OLS regression, the spatial econometric regression model has a better spatial correction effect. It is an inevitable choice to use the spatial econometric model to analyze the intensity of the industrial ecological factors. Through the spatial econometric regression model, it is found that the level of industrial ecology has obvious spatial autocorrelation, and the influencing factors of economic development level, industrial structure and foreign investment have obvious negative spillover effect, while those of government regulation and environmental regulation intensity have obvious positive spillover effects.

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Agglomeration economies in cultural industries: A comparison at the city and province level
TAO Jin, LUO Shougui
2019, 38 (9):  2239-2251.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180370
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Economists have long argued that there is a productivity gain from agglomeration. And the rise of cultural industries has been benefited from agglomeration economies. However, existing research has been lacking of empirical attempts to analyze the mechanism of agglomeration economies in cultural industries from the perspective of productivity. This study contributes to the literature on agglomeration economies by providing the first study, to the authors' knowledge, on the firm-level productivities in cultural industries. This paper studies agglomeration economies for cultural industries in Chinese cities and provinces using firm-level data, and reveals the culture cluster's impact on cultural firms' TFP. Firstly, the paper estimates the production function of cultural industries and firm-level TFP using the consistent method. Specifically, the paper estimates the production function by controlling simultaneity and selection biases. Secondly, it analyzes the localization and urbanization economies for cultural industries through comparing the effects in cities and provinces. The paper constructs two measures of agglomeration: specialization and diversity. Specialization, which measures the concentration of artists and cultural workers in a province, aims to test the Marshallian economies. Diversity, which measures the diversity of industries in a province, aims to test the Jacobian economies. In order to capture the true effects of culture cluster on the productivities of cultural firms, the paper conducts the regression by applying different empirical methods, including OLS, 2SLS, instrument variable and fixed effects. The study shows that there is no significant specialization effect but clear diversity effect on cultural industries in Chinese cities. However, at provincial level, which is a larger geographical scale, strong specialization is found instead of diversity. In contrast to manufacturing industries, the effects of employment intensity, and market access are not strong enough to promote the productivities of cultural firms. The benchmark regression proves to be robust by the disaggregated analysis, which also indicates that the core cultural sector has stronger agglomeration economies. Besides,the disaggregated results show that the agglomeration economies could be channelled through knowledge and ideas spillover that come from telecommunication, as agglomeration economies, including both specialization and diversity, tend to rise in provinces with better telecommunication infrastructure.

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The spatial evolution and its influence factors of ports’ coal transportation in Yangtze River Basin
CHEN Peiran,WANG Chengjin
2019, 38 (9):  2254-2272.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180598
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The Yangtze River Basin is one of relatively complete economic regions. Coal transportation based on the Yangtze River has been an important power to support basin’s social and economic development. The analysis of Yangtze River Basin ports’ coal transport function is of great significance for revealing Yangtze River ports’ function in economic development of basin. Based on this, this paper mapped the coal transportation pattern and evolutionary process of Yangtze River Basin ports since the 1980s, focused on the analysis of the spatial pattern of Ports’ coal loading/unloading, summed up the main features, measured the spatial distribution level and summarized development law. With the aid of location quotient and loading/unloading coefficient, this paper analysed the evolution process of the spatial differentiation of ports’ coal transportation function along the the Yangtze River, and then discussed spatial relationship between different coal transportation functions. Based on the spatial features of ports’ coal transportation in different periods, this paper condensed the spatial models of Yangtze River Basin ports’ coal transportation, and drew a comprehensive conclusion of driving factors for ports’ coal transportation pattern evolution. Thus, this paper can provide guidance for Yangtze River Basin ports’ development and function optimization. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Yangtze River Basin ports’ coal transportation has been developing rapidly since the 1980s, the spatial distribution level showed a feature of first decline, then stabilize, and finally rise slightly. Coal throughput was centralized in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River continuously. (2) From the aspect of the spatial pattern of ports’ coal loading/unloading, coal unloading ports show an obvious ‘westward moving’ trend with unloading scale shrinking constantly, while coal loading ports concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta with loading scale expanding constantly, the coal unloading-loading functional connection have emerged between coal loading ports since 2000, coal unloading ports and loading ports realized spatial separation, the long-term ‘Pukou wharf-Yuxikou wharf-Hankou wharf-Zhicheng port’ coal unloading spatial pattern had been changed. (3) The Yangtze River Basin formed four ports’ coal transportation spatial models including functional interlaced low-level equilibrium pattern, functional slightly separated punctiform concentration pattern, functional highly separated sectional concentration pattern, and functional merged cluster pattern. (4) The main driving factors for Yangtze River Basin ports’ coal transportation pattern evolution include the spatial pattern for coal supply and demand, the price change for coal and its transportation modes, construction of coal transportation corridor, coal ports clustering development, infrastructure construction for coal storage and transportation.

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Influence of the main channels on global container ship network
CHEN Shanshan,PENG Peng,LU Feng,WU Sheng
2019, 38 (9):  2273-2287.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181375
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As one of the most important modes of transportation in the world, container transportation accounts for 80% of the international trade, and the average annual growth rate is 4%. The Strait of Malacca, the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal, which are located on the maritime transportation throats, have taken up 76% of container trade volume. However, the three main channels are facing a great many of risks and challenges due to the diverse risk factors that are complex and difficult to control, which could cause the blockade or shutting down of the main channels. Therefore, accessing the dependences of container transportation on the three main channels, and calculating the degree of impact of navigation on the container transportation quantitatively, are of great importance for ensuring national trade safety. In this paper, we use the global container ship AIS trajectory data to build a non-weighted maritime network on country scale, and adopt some complex network indices, including clustering coefficient, and average shortest path length, to study the network structure characteristics for the analysis of the dependence of the global container ship network on the three major channels of the Strait of Malacca, Suez Canal and Panama Canal. The results show that: 1) there are significant differences under the impacts of obstruction in channels on different regions, and the effects on national transshipment function and accessibility show a distance attenuation law at the center of channels; 2) the dependencies of the container ship network on the three main channels are successively the Strait of Malacca, the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal; 3) from a regional perspective, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean are far more dependent on the three main channels than other regions; 4) structural characteristics of the global container ship network have changed significantly due to the disruption of the three main channels; from the perspective of transshipment function and accessibility, and medium and high impacts occur in large maritime countries, while medium or low effects appear in the other vast majority of maritime countries. The research results are of valuable reference for the maintenance and optimization of the main channels of the global container ship network.

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Research on BMI influencing factors of urban male adolescents in China based on geographical detector
YU Guoliang,LI Jianhua,SUN Jiaxin,SHEN Peipei,YANGCHUN Baixue
2019, 38 (9):  2288-2301.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180482
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China has a vast land area and complex terrains. There are regional differences in geographical and climatic factors, which has impacts on human health. BMI (Body Mass Index) is an important indicator to measure the health status of the human body, and young crowd has received more attention. The study used the coefficient of variation and the geo-detector method to analyze the spatial differentiation of the changes in BMI of urban youth in China in 2005, 2010 and 2014, and to study their core impact factors. The results of the inquiry show that: (1) There was a significant difference in the BMI values of urban male adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 in the eastern, central and western regions. The intra-regional differences in the eastern, central and western regions were 5.14%, 1.68% and 2.82%, respectively, indicating that the eastern region had the greatest difference and the central region had the smallest. (2) In 2005, the BMI value of urban male adolescents in China showed a high-to-low step distribution from northeast to southwest. After nine years of evolution, in 2014, the three-level ladder distribution of north to south from high to low was presented. (3) According to the statistical results, the growth rate of BMI increased significantly in China from 1.36% in 2005-2010 to 2.44% in 2010-2014. Besides, the BMI value of young people in China increased, suggesting that the rate of obesity in adolescents in China showed an accelerated increasing trend. (4) On the spatial scale, the influence of detection factors on the growth rate of BMI of adolescents was significant, and there were differences in the dominant factors of regional exploration. (5) From the perspective of time scale, the growth rate of youth BMI was transformed from the geographical environment factor to the social economic factor from 2005 to 2010 and 2014. It can be seen that the influence of social and economic development on the growth rate of adolescent BMI has played a leading role.

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The evolution of water level in Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River and its response to water exchange in the Dongting Lake
WANG Yanjia,LI Jingbao,LI Yani,LV Dianqing,DAI Wen
2019, 38 (9):  2302-2313.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181187
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This paper analyzes the relationship between the water level evolution of the Three Outlets in the Southern Jingjiang River system and the exchange of river and lake water volume. Based on the monthly mean water level and discharge data obtained from 10 stations concerning the Three Outlets, Four Rivers and Chenglingji station of Dongting Lake and Zhicheng station along the Yangtze River Mainstream, as well as the precipitation data from another eight stations from 1956 to 2017, the temporal evolution of the Three Outlets' water level and its relationship with precipitation and water exchange in the Dongting Lake and human activities were studied by using Mann-Kendall trend test method, regression analysis and flow year eigenvalue method. The results show that: (1) Compared with the first stage (1956-1966), the average mean water level and the average highest water level of the second (1967-1980), third (1981-2002) and fourth (2003-2017) stages decreased by 0.74 m, and 0.37 m respectively, while the average lowest water level increased by 0.07 m. (2) The average lowest water level of the Three Outlets dropped by the largest volume (-0.98 m), followed by the average water level (-0.78 m). The average highest water level of the Three Outlets rose by 0.55 m in the four hydrological seasons, including the water-rising season (April-May), wet season (June-September), water-falling season (October-November) and dry season (December-March of the following year). In terms of the hydrological season, the drop of the Three Outlets' characteristic water level was in the order of water-falling season (-0.95 m) > wet season (-0.61 m) > water-rising season (-0.21 m) > dry season (0.15 m). (3) The change of the water level in the Three Outlets had a good consistency with its discharge (correlation coefficient of the two r=0.65), but had a weak correlation with precipitation (r=-0.16). However, the drought climate from 2002 to 2017 aggravated the decline of the water level of the Three Outlets. Generally speaking, water reduction at Zhicheng station in the Yangtze River and human activities represented by water conservancy projects were the main driving factors leading to the overall decline of the characteristic water level of the Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River.

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Tourists' decision-making and experience in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the context of climate change
WANG Lingen,HAN Yuwen,GAO Jun,LV Ning,Chris Ryan
2019, 38 (9):  2314-2329.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180665
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Tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, yet it is also a “victim” of climate change. While studies have generally verified the profound impact that climate change can exert on tourism resources as well as tourists’ demand for and attitude towards different types of destinations, how exactly climate change can shape tourism on the ground has much to do with the attributes of a certain destination and its tourist types. Therefore, how tourists may respond to the changes in a certain destination resulted from climate change is of much importance to assess the impact of climate change that can have on that destination. Yet, extant studies in China probing into the relation between climate change and tourism are dominated by a supply side perspective. The eco-environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is fragile and sensitive, and consequently its tourism activities are sensitive to climate change. Based on a questionnaire survey of 545 tourists in Lhasa, this paper analyzes Chinese tourists' perception and experience of the climatic and natural environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and assess how climate may shape Chinese tourists’ decision-making and experience of the plateau. The main findings are: (1) Chinese tourists pay limited attention to the weather and climate of the plateau before traveling to Tibet, which, however, is the most powerful factor affecting tourist experience on the plateau; (2) The natural scenery of the plateau is one of the core elements shaping the tourist image of Tibet, and it directly influences tourist decision-making and experience. Notably, clean air, blue sky, and white cloud are the core and most important environmental attributes perceived by tourists; (3) It is the types of motivation, rather than the types of geographic region, that significantly affect tourists’ perceptions of climatic and natural environment of the plateau. Compared with sightseeing visitors, deep-experience seekers pay more attention to the weather and climate, and attach more importance to the natural environment of the plateau. The study suggests that the warming and wetting trends of the plateau will have a positive impact on tourist experience there, yet it is not likely to directly influence potential tourists’ decision to visit the plateau.

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Adaptation effect, mode and influencing factors of rural tourism: A case study of 17 typical villages in cities of Xi'an and Xianyang
HE Xu,YANG Haijuan,WANG Xiaoya
2019, 38 (9):  2330-2345.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180913
Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5549KB) ( 36 )  

Rural tourism sites have witnessed dramatic changes in human-land interaction, and their internal factors are adapting social-ecological system changes. It is of great practical significance to avoid disadvantages and reduce vulnerability. This paper redefines the theoretical connotation of farmers' adaptability based on resilience and vulnerability, and constructs an adaptability indicator system of tourism development based on a case study of 17 tourist villages in the cities of Xi'an and Xianyang, so as to examine the adaptation effect and spatial difference law of rural tourism, explore the adaptive behavior and countermeasure mode, and establish a back-propagation network to reveal the relationship between adaptive influencing factors. The results are obtained as follows: (1) The comprehensive effect of farmers' adaptation on tourism development in Xi'an and Xianyang shows a trend of skewed distribution at the middle-lower level in the stage of rapid development of tourism life cycle and the initial stage of exploration. (2) The adaptation effect of households in the rural tourism area forms a spatial pattern of “scale circle radiation, two-wing envelope and peripheral linkage”; the segmental differentiation of the village scale is significant. (3) The adaptation mode of rural households is identified by business model: shareholding system model > “company + farmer” mode > “government + company + farmer” mode > individual farm mode > “farmers + farmers” model; migrant workers and farmhouse management are the main adaptation of farmers. Behavior choice, seasonal work, local work and agricultural production are auxiliary adaptation behavior choices, and the adaptation behaviors are characterized by five types of adaptation strategies: tourism franchise, tourism-oriented, balanced, labor-oriented and agricultural-oriented. (4) Tourism development opportunity cognition, skills training opportunities, social connection degree, total labor force, policy awareness, tourism employment, income source types, primary energy sources, education level, and public service facilities are the main factors affecting farmers' tourism adaptability. Based on this, we proposed that the follow-up social-ecological integration research should adapt to the policy path of tourism development.

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The spatial characteristics and changes of ISP-LST of Beijing in recent 30 years
YU Chen,HU Deyong,CAO Shisong,ZHANG Yang,ZHANG Yani,DUAN Xin
2019, 38 (9):  2346-2356.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180621
Abstract ( 23 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (10262KB) ( 13 )  

The construction and development of the city have caused the transformation of the natural surface to the impervious surface. At the same time, high-density impervious surface percentage (ISP) areas lead to the rise of the land surface temperature (LST), and form the thermal field in urban areas. It is of important research value to express the correlation between ISP and LST in the urban areas. This study focuses on the impervious properties and temperature properties of the underlying surface, attempts to establish a two-dimensional space about impervious surface percentage-land surface temperature (ISP-LST), and analyzes distribution relationship quantitatively. The two-dimensional spatial distribution of ISP-LST was constructed based on the multi-period Landsat image data in Beijing during 1991-2015 (the approaches to get ISP and LST are classification and regression tree model and radiative transfer equation method). Combined with the standard deviation ellipse method, the agglomeration characteristics of ISP-LST spatial density distribution were analyzed, and the characteristics and changes of ISP-LST in different times were quantitatively expressed. The study revealed that the spatial characteristics of ISP-LST in Beijing are manifested in three forms. The first type shows that there is no significant correlation between ISP and LST. This appears in the middle and early stages. The second one indicates that the high temperature appears in the medium-high coverage of the impervious surface and gradually decreases toward both ends. This appears in the middle stage. And the third type shows that ISP and LST perform the significant positive correlation. This appears in the late stage. The density core of the ISP-LST agglomeration is situated in areas with medium-high ISP and high LST. The mean directionality and dispersion of the ISP-LST standard ellipse are 11.26 and 2.87. It means that the directivity of spatial aggregation is good. The phenomenon of high temperature is complicated by the influence of the impervious surface over time. The aggregate areas of ISP-LST are important representation of the urban thermal environment, mostly located in the core functional areas and functional extended area of Beijing, and the growth rate is obvious in the southeast, with an accumulated growth of 14.77% in recent 30 years. The inter-annual growth rate of ISP-LST in each functional area is: functional expansion zone (2.97%) > core functional zone (1.75%) > development new zone (1.63%) > ecological conservation zone (0.18%). The change of ISP-LST landscape pattern like patch density and shape complexity is not significant, but patch connectivity decreased over time. The research results can help to provide a feasible ecological environment control policy for long-term urban planning.

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Vertical variation model and influence mechanism of chlorophyll concentration in typical lakes of Guangdong province
TIAN Jianlin,ZHUANG Dachun,LIU Yongming,LIANG Yeheng
2019, 38 (9):  2357-2370.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180708
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The vertical variation of chlorophyll concentration influences the accuracy of remote sensing inversion and the result of eutrophication evaluation. The law of vertical variation of lake water’s chlorophyll concentration is still a difficult problem in current study because of the complexity of its influencing factors. In this study, we firstly collected water samples from Xinfengjiang Reservoir, Dongshan Lake and Liuhua Lake in Guangdong province to count the species and particle size of algae on the basis of eliminating the disturbance of water body, turbulence and bad weather conditions. Meanwhile, the chlorophyll concentration, temperature, sediments and the nutrients at different depths of each station were measured, respectively. Then several different functions were used to model the rule of vertical variation of the chlorophyll concentration in different parts of lakes. The results show that the fitting function varies with different conditions of lakes, especially for large lakes which may contain various water types: For the shallow lakes, such as Dongshan Lake and Liuhua Lake, the average concentration of chlorophyll is high. And the differences among those samples of shallow lakes are small. With the increase of water depth, the chlorophyll concentration decreases firstly, then increases. The minimum value was observed at the middle of depth. Thus, the Fourier functions perform the best at modeling the rule of vertical variation. The phenomena occur in the shallow region of Xinfengjiang Reservoir which belongs to deep lakes. For the deep lakes, such as Xinfengjiang Reservoir, the average concentration of chlorophyll is low in deep region. The chlorophyll concentration descends obviously with the increase of water depth in the deep region of Xinfengjiang Reservoir, and the Gauss function can express this variation well with the small residual. Finally, we analyze the effect of nutrients, light, water temperature and sediments on the vertical distribution of chlorophyll concentration. For shallow lakes and the shallow regions of deep lakes, the delamination of algae is not obvious. Nutrients and sediments have obvious effects on the vertical concentration of chlorophyll, while the effects of light and water temperature are not clear. In the deep regions of deep lakes, the law of delamination of algae can be seen clearly. The vertical concentration of chlorophyll in deep water area is the result of a combination of algae species, water temperature, nutrients and other factors.

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