10 June 2022, Volume 41 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
Articles
The locational choice of entrepreneurs and its driving forces of home bias
SUN Bindong, CUI Yingxue, LI Wan
2022, 41 (6):  1513-1524.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210501
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Hometowns are special places created by the connection between people and places in the process of living and growing up, and thus carry a rich sense of geography. In fact, place identity is a core concept in human geography, and hometown identity is an important dimension of it. As China is a transitioning country with a strong hometown preference and a large floating population, there is a pressing need to answer the question of whether Chinese entrepreneurs prefer their homes or not when choosing their work locations. Moreover, the China-based study facilitates the examination of entrepreneurs' high need for emotional support and their commitment to family responsibilities, which compensates for the absence of non-economic factors motivating hometown preferences in existing studies. Based on data of the 2015 China Labor-Force Dynamics Survey, this paper provides the first individual-level empirical analysis of entrepreneurs' home bias in locational choice and its driving mechanism. Our study finds that entrepreneurs do have a strong home bias, and that this bias holds for both opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship. This finding holds true after excluding samples that may have contributed to the overestimation of home bias, i.e., excluding those in the same industry as their parents and those working in agriculture, fishing, and mining. In terms of the driving mechanism of economic factors, there is no empirical evidence to supporting that entrepreneurs prefer their hometown out of access to financial support from family and relatives, but entrepreneurs who prefer their hometown and place of longest residence do have more business opportunities. In terms of the driving mechanism of non-economic factors, the number of children living with the entrepreneur and parents over the age of 60 significantly contribute to the entrepreneur's home bias, while the number of friends hardly significantly increases it. This not only provides a scientific basis for the development of localized entrepreneurial talent policies, but also indirectly responds to the "war for talent" that has been raging in various cities in recent years.

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Analysis of urban internal spatial structure characteristics and its influencing factors based on population flow: A case study of Nanjing
ZHEN Feng, LI Zherui, XIE Zhimin
2022, 41 (6):  1525-1539.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210597
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At present, the research on urban network structure from the perspective of “flow space” is in the ascendant. Compared with the fruitful results at the regional scale, the stable network analysis framework and formation mechanism model of city-group have not yet been built. It is urgent to comprehensively use the urban regional network analysis method and expand it at the microscopic scale. At the same time, more and more attention has been paid to the city hierarchy and assortativity in the network context. In this research context, focusing on two types of directed flow of people: commute and recreation, this paper takes Nanjing as the study area, and uses the methods of centrality and control, community division and improved gravity model to analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of urban network association from the city-local level. The results show that: (1) The decomposition of spatial scale can effectively identify the city-local structure of commute and recreation. Nanjing presents a “unipolar” development trend of the main city to the south of the Yangtze River. The main performance is that the main city to the south of the Yangtze River attracts intensive commute and recreation flows, and it has all types of centers, providing both local and regional service. (2) The results show that the improved gravity model has a good fitting effect on the real flow of people in the whole area, and the number of residents and spatial distance limit affect the flow of residents to a great extent. The occupation residence ratio and per capita POI amount are the direction regulators of commuting flow and leisure flow respectively. The difference of functional energy levels of township streets determines the interpretation of gravity model to local pedestrian network. The gravity model underestimates the distribution capacity of people flows in Pukou district, Gaochun district and other key policy inclined areas.

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The influence mechanism of regional integration policy on the distribution of urban talents: Take the Yangtze River Delta as an example
XU Zening, CHEN Zitao, ZHEN Maocheng
2022, 41 (6):  1540-1553.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210513
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Talents are the core driving force of regional development. In recent years, the competition of talents among cities is becoming intense and the imbalance of spatial distribution of talents is getting serious. How to promote the optimization of talent spatial distribution through coordinated development has become the key to regional high-quality development. Based on the estimation of the scale of highly educated talents of cities in the Yangtze River Delta, this paper analyzes the impact of regional integration policies on the population of urban talents and differences between cities, and analyzes the mechanism of the policies. The study found that: (1) From 2005 to 2018, the scale and proportion of talents in the employment population in the study area increased from 20.19% to 30.89%, and the spatial distribution was characterized as “multi-center, strong in the central region, and weak in the northern and southern region”, and the proportion of talents demonstrated a polarization trend; (2) Compared with the cities not included in the regional integration policy, the cities that are included in the policy have about 68,100 more undergraduate talents and 59,900 more graduate talents, and the impact of the regional integration policy on small and medium-sized cities and core cities is more obvious; (3) Regional integration policies affect the scale of urban talents by acting on urban innovation output and public service levels. The research findings can provide significant support for the optimization of spatial talent distribution and regional governance.

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Foreign-owned enterprises effect, economic complexity and the export market expansion of domestic enterprises
REN Zhuoran, XU Qingwen, HE Canfei, LI Wei
2022, 41 (6):  1554-1576.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210385
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Foreign-owned enterprises (FOEs) have an important impact on export capacity enhancement and export market expansion of domestic enterprises. Based on the export data of Chinese prefecture-level cities from 2000 to 2016, this paper analyzes the export market expansion pattern of Chinese domestic enterprises, explores the impact of FOEs' spillover effects and competition effects on domestic enterprises' access to new export markets and export value growth, and tests the regional and industrial heterogeneity of FOEs' effects based on economic and product complexity. The descriptive analysis finds that, first, the export distribution of domestic enterprises is in a multi-level contiguous pattern across the country, with domestic enterprises gradually expanding to emerging markets such as Africa and Latin America; second, domestic enterprises in regions (industries) with low economic complexity or those with low product complexity tend to expand new export markets, while domestic enterprises in regions/industires with high economic complexity or those with high product complexity tend to increase export value. The econometric model shows that, first, FOEs promote the growth of domestic enterprises' export value, showing a spillover effect, but they inhibit the domestic enterprises from entering new export markets, showing a competitive effect in the markets of developed countries; second, in regions with higher economic complexity and industries with higher product complexity, FOEs show stronger competitive effects, hindering domestic enterprises from expanding new export markets, while in regions/industries with lower complexity, FOEs have strong spillover effects; third, compared with those in regions with low economic complexity, domestic enterprises in regions with higher economic complexity are subject to stronger competition and spillover effects.

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Node status of the Yangtze River Delta urban network: Through the lens of three-level equity relationship
GAO Yani, HE Dan, GAO Peng, SUN Zhijing
2022, 41 (6):  1577-1592.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210964
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With industrialization and economic globalization, the network relationship of “time-space sharing” among cities is deepening, and “flow space” is gradually replacing “place space”. The strategic position of cities in the region and even the world affects the investment decisions of enterprises, thus affecting the spatial pattern of urban economy. Whether the status of city node presents a flat network feature or a hierarchical vertical feature has become one of the foci in urban network research. So how to more accurately describe the status of urban network nodes from the perspective of flow space is one of the focuses of urban network research. Taking the county-level spatial unit in the Yangtze River Delta as the research object, this paper uses the three-level equity relationship data of “parent-son-grandson” of the top 500 listed companies in the industry to construct a direct weighted network to describe the city investment network in the region. The network status of node cities is classified by alter-based centrality and alter-based power. Finally, the spatial econometric model is used to calculate and analyze the influencing factors of node status in the Yangtze River Delta urban network. The findings are as follows: (1) The node status of the urban network in the study area presents the characteristics of “rank + network”. The hierarchical characteristics of nodes are obvious. The network status of some small and medium-sized cities has been improved and the network structure has become flat. (2) The node status does not completely follow the “high-high”, “medium-medium” and “low-low” matching relationship, but there are “high-medium (low)”, “medium-high (low)” or “low-high (medium)” unmatching relationship. Non-matching relationship means that cities can obtain asymmetric urban network node status by virtue of natural, economic or political resource endowment. (3) The level of urban economic development, human capital, innovation vitality, industrial structure, urban operating environment and public service facilities have significant impacts on the status of the urban network. In other words, improving the level of urban economic development, ensuring the business environment of the city to attract investment, creating more employment opportunities and encouraging innovative and entrepreneurial projects to be rooted locally are some measures to enhance the node status of urban network.

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Evolution characteristics of spatial patterns of digital industry and its driving factors in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
MAO Fengfu, GAO Yuchen, ZHOU Can
2022, 41 (6):  1593-1609.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210609
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The digital economy is an important driver for the Yangtze River Economic Belt to achieve high-quality economic development and form a new competitive advantage. Additionally, digital industry location is an important topic for the digital development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Taking a sample of 1,375,971 digital industry enterprises in the study area from 1994 to 2019 as cases, this paper explores the spatial pattern of the evolution of the digital industry in the region and the driving factors behind it by using a combination of standard deviation ellipse, kernel density estimation, mean nearest neighbor index and geographic probe. The results show that: (1) The number of digital industry enterprises increases significantly during the study period, and the spatial distribution of the enterprises shows an “east (slightly north) - west (slightly south)” agglomeration trend. (2) The spatial distribution of the digital industry varies significantly, with an overall distribution of "upstream and downstream cities > midstream cities", and the multi-core agglomeration distribution based on "city clusters - central cities" is becoming more and more obvious. (3) The service-oriented trend of digital industry is obvious. The manufacturing-based digital industry has obvious path dependence, and the industrial layout always gathers downstream of the Yangtze River Delta, while the service-oriented digital industry forms a core node in the central city and continuously spreads to its periphery. (4) The evolution of the spatial pattern of digital industries is influenced by a variety of factors in two dimensions: the level of economic and social development and the development potential of information technology, but the former has a greater impact on manufacturing-based digital industries, while the latter has a more pronounced impact on service-based digital industries. In addition, the interaction between the driving factors is more significant.

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The evolution of spatio-temporal pattern and scenario simulation of urban agglomeration expansion in the Yellow River Basin: A case study in the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Urban Agglomeration
WEI Le, ZHOU Liang, SUN Dongqi, TANG Xianglong
2022, 41 (6):  1610-1622.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210566
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The urban expansion in the Yellow River Basin has a significant impact on the regional landscape patterns. Moreover, the continuous gathering and growth of the population in urban agglomerations have caused “human-land” contradictions, “spatial conflicts”, and a series of ecological and environmental problems in the basin. Based on the land use data and FLUS (Future Land Use Simulation, FLUS) model, we conducted multi-scenario simulation of the urbanization and the spatio-temporal land use evolution characteristics of the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Urban Agglomeration (HBOY Urban Agglomeration) in 2025 and 2035. The results show that: (1) The overall development level of the HBOY Urban Agglomeration is low from 1990 to 2018, and the area of construction lands experienced a process of “steady increase-slow increase-sharp increase”, with grassland dominating the region, accounting for more than 50% of the total land area, followed by unused land and arable land, forest land and construction land. (2) The most dramatic expansion of the urban agglomeration mainly occurred in the main urban areas of Hohhot, Baotou and other cities and towns, and was mainly the outlying expansion, which was caused by conversion of ecological land such as cropland and grassland. (3) The spatial structure and characteristics of future land use changes will be significantly different under three scenarios in 2025 and 2035. Under the natural development scenario, urban expansion is unconstrained, and and its rapid growth occupied a large amount of ecological land. With certain ecological constraints, the occupation of grassland and forest land was well controlled. Under the economic development scenario, urban expansion will further occupy more unused land and cultivated land. Through the analysis of spatial and temporal pattern evolution and scenario simulation of urban agglomeration expansion in the Yellow River Basin, the study attempts to provide multi-perspective, multi-scenario and multi-choice optional policy decision reference for regional planning, urban spatial planning and regional ecological space protection.

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Classification of the coupling patterns between agricultural production system transition and their environmental effects in the plain farming regions
ZHANG Yingnan, LONG Hualou, LI Yurui, MA Li
2022, 41 (6):  1623-1636.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210699
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The green transformation of agriculture has become an inevitable choice of rural vitalization and agricultural/rural reforms, and exploring the relationship between agricultural production system transition and its environmental effects is urgently needed, thus fueling the high-quality development. Based on the typological method, this paper divides the agricultural transition models into the transformation from traditional management into modern agriculture in suburban regions and the transformation from traditional management into modern intensive agriculture in exurb regions. The agricultural production patterns in plain regions can be classified into modern intensive agriculture in suburban regions, traditional management agriculture in suburban regions, modern intensive agriculture in exurb regions, and traditional management agriculture in exurb regions. Furthermore, this paper constructs an analytical framework, which takes the “the adaptive reactions of the main body-elements changes-environmental responses” as the mainline, to analyze the mechanism and characteristics of agricultural production system transition and its environmental effects from the dimensions of drawing force, supporting force and tractive force. The mechanism of the environmental effect of the transformation of the agricultural production system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is the disturbance to the agricultural ecosystem by the irrational input of capital, technology, and labor under the goal of increasing production and income and the constraints of regional natural conditions. The coupling patterns of agricultural production and their environmental effects are encapsulated into modern intensive agriculture in suburban regions with severe pollution, modern intensive agriculture in suburban regions with moderate pollution, modern intensive agriculture in exurb regions with severe pollution, and modern intensive agriculture in exurb regions with moderate pollution. In light of the results, policy recommendations are provided.

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Spatial divergence of urban land prices in China from 2007 to 2019
LIU Xiaoyu, XIN Liangjie
2022, 41 (6):  1637-1651.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210570
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Urban land price reflects the comprehensive strength of a city, which is influenced by economy, society, policy, and other factors. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the patterns of temporal changes and spatial differences of cities' land prices and their causes in China from a macroscopic perspective, which could help to grasp the development differences among regions and set the appropriate policies. On account of the above background, we measured the temporal and spatial variations of the integrated land prices and the prices of residential land, commercial land, and industrial and mining storage land of 332 cities in China from 2007 to 2019, and these analyses were conducted on prefecture-level administrative regions. Based on these results, the direct and indirect effects of various economic and social factors on the prices of the three land-use types were further analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The integrated land price showed a significant upward trend with an average annual increase of 80.73 yuan/m2 at the national scale from 2007 to 2019, which rose from 392.34 yuan/m2 in 2007 to 1357.31 yuan/m2 in 2019. (2) From the perspective of land prices for three major land-use types, both the land prices and their growth rates were in the following order: residential land > commercial land > industrial and mining storage land. The land prices of the three land-use types diverged from 2007 to 2019, showing a widening price gap and a clear Matthew effect. (3) As for land prices in cities of different hierarchies, the land prices dropped as the decrease of the ranking of the city. The land price changes of cities in different hierarchies could be divided into three classes: high-speed growth (first-tier cities), steady growth (new first-tier cities and second-tier cities), and slow growth (third-, fourth-, and fifth-tier cities). (4) Both the land prices and their change rates during the study period of the three major land-use types showed a pattern of “high in the southeast and low in the northwest” in spatial distribution. (5) The per capita GDP, population density, and numbers of general primary schools and secondary schools of a city had positive effects on the prices of all land types in the city. The per capita GDP, the proportion of secondary industry, and the proportion of tertiary industry had positive effects on the prices of residential land and commercial land, and a negative effect on the price of industrial and mining storage land in its neighboring cities.

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Evolution of spatial pattern of catering industry in metropolitan area under the background of urban renewal: A case study of Shanghai
WANG Chaohui, WEI Feiqun, ZHANG Shanshan, QIAO Haohao, GAO Yang
2022, 41 (6):  1652-1670.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210924
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Through the analysis of spatial data of catering industry in Shanghai in recent 20 years, this paper studies the evolution characteristics of industrial spatial pattern in metropolitan area under the background of urban renewal, analyzes the influencing factors and reveals the influencing relationship. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) Over the past 20 years, the overall distribution of catering industry has gradually evolved from the initial pattern of “one axis, two cores, two pieces and multi-point dispersion” to the current one of “three cores, four axes and four pieces and multi-point agglomeration”. The industrial distribution has gradually spread outward from “inner ring - middle ring - outer ring”, showing a trend of multi-direction, multi-axis and regional axis. (2) The spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of different types of industry are obviously different. The local cuisines are mainly distributed in the old urban area, which agglomerates and evolves to commercial blocks, financial and trade areas and university towns and other areas; international catering is mainly distributed in historical concession blocks, and evolves to the sub-center of the city and the area of tourism attractions; casual catering tends to be concentrated around urban parks, scenic spots and urban science and education centers. (3) The industry as a whole presents the agglomeration characteristics of “moderate agglomeration - medium-high agglomeration - high-high agglomeration”, and the agglomeration of casual catering and international catering is more pronounced; in terms of geographical space, the catering industry has evolved significantly from the city center to its eastern and western parts. (4) Population density, economic development, traffic conditions and tourism pattern are the basic factors affecting the formation and evolution of industrial spatial pattern. The spatial changes of public services and tourism caused by urban renewal are the dominant factors in the evolution of different types of catering industry. (5) Urban renewal has changed the development texture of metropolitan areas, and promoted the change of regional spatial structure, and the change of the development factor, as well as the environmental change. Different types of catering industry respond quickly in geographical space according to market positioning and site selection preference, which has promoted the evolution and replacement of the distribution pattern of catering industry in metropolitan areas. The research can provide theoretical and practical guidance for the optimization of metropolitan tourism spatial pattern and the sustainable development of urban tourism.

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The characteristics, types and ways of ubiquitous landscapes: A case study of China's “Eight landscapes”
ZHANG Zhongwu
2022, 41 (6):  1671-1683.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210562
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Tourism is an important industry for the high-quality development of China's economy, and the tourism resources are the foundation of the development of tourism. How to make best use of tourism resources is an essential research topic. Based on the geographic theories of human-land relationship regional system, and scaling transformation, 19478 “eight landscapes” (or “eight scenes”) data are selected to study the structure of tourism landscape and its spatial characteristics. The method of classification analysis is adopted, and the new concept of “ubiquitous landscape” is proposed. The new structural model of the tourism landscape resources is also explored. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The conceptual system of “ubiquitous landscape”. This research defines the connotation and attribution of“ubiquitous scenery element” and the conceptual system of“scenery element-ubiquitous scenery element-ubiquitous landscape”. The indices, such as landscape index, and the most abundant landscape hypothesis, are also developed. (2) The formation mechanism of ubiquitous landscape. The interaction of elements is the power source of ubiquitous landscape; the regionalism of elements is the cause for the formation of ubiquitous landscape; the comprehensiveness of the elements is the foundation of ubiquitous landscape; the transformation of scaling is the requirement of ubiquitous landscape's evolution. There are three main approaches to create sceneries in ubiquitous landscape: borrowing scenery, choosing time, and choosing location. (3) The structural model and characteristics of ubiquitous landscape. This study constructs and demonstrates the structure model of “two elements, three elements, and four elements” of the ubiquitous landscape, and conducts the landscape index incremental model. The four characteristics of ubiquitous landscape are also summarized, which are nearly zero cost, scarcity, timeliness and artificial creativity. (4) Composition proportion and degree of development of ubiquitous landscape. By random sampling of “eight landscapes” and the analysis of cases in Shanxi Province, most of “eight landscapes” include ubiquitous scenery element, and the ubiquitous natural scenes element and local natural landscape account for the highest proportion of 56.58%. The structure of ubiquitous landscape is mainly composed of three elements. Among these three elements, choosing time is more crucial than choosing location. Currently, the development of ubiquitous landscape is relatively backward in China. The landscape index is lower than the theoretical value. These conclusions provide a new perspective to explore the tourism resources, and a new idea for the high-quality development of tourism in practice.

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Making home as school: Construction of alternative education space at home among Chinese undergraduates in the context of COVID-19 pandemic
YUAN Zhenjie, ZHOU Jianhao, XIE Yulin, ZHU Hong
2022, 41 (6):  1684-1699.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020211233
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In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, schools from China and even in the world have carried out online teaching. Currently, online teaching has turned “future” into “reality” and created phenomenon of “taking home as school”. The existing geographical literature has paid little attention to the practices of home schooling and construction of learning space at home in the special context of the pandemic. Borrowing the concept of alternative education space from geography of education, and employing questionnaire survey and semi-structured depth interview as research methods, this paper aims to examine college students' practices and processes of place-making of home schooling during the pandemic. The tension and strategies of spatial negotiation during home schooling are unfolded. Furthermore, this paper explores students' perception of home and school after experiencing home schooling. The findings include: (1) Home schooling during the pandemic is a complex process of integration between educational space and home space, which produces rich social implication that enriches the spatial meaning of educating and learning at home. (2) Construction of space of home schooling involves reconciliation between study and livelihood-making, as well as study and ordinary family activities. Among them the area and quality of learning space are closely related to economic and social conditions of family and community. Once learning practice is embedded in family daily life and space, the boundary between learning space and family space becomes blurred, which brings disturbance to home learning. (3) Students have the initiative and autonomy to construct learning space at home, and flexibly use space, time and identity strategies to interpret the spatio-temporal relationship between home space and learning space and to coordinate the identity expression of “family” and “student”. Through learning practices, home space is endowed with new educational meanings. The findings of this study enrich the current research on home space in the context of COVID-19 pandemic, echo geographers' raising concern on the construction of multiple educational space, and has great significance for understanding the relationship between education, learning practice and everyday space, as well as reflecting and supporting the needs of home schooling of different groups.

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Effect of geographical factors on reference values of creatine kinase isoenzyme
PANG Xinrui, GE Miao, WANG Jing, ZHANG Lei, LI Jiaxin, WANG Congxia, HE Jinwei
2022, 41 (6):  1700-1714.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210620
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This paper aims to explore the geographical distribution characteristics of the reference values of creatine kinase isoenzyme in healthy Chinese adults by three commonly used variable-screening regression methods, and to apply them to the formulation of the reference values of CK-MB, so as to make contributions to clinical medicine research. The reference values of CK-MB for 8697 healthy adults in 137 cities and county-level units were collected according to a large number of literates, and 24 geographical factors covering terrain, climate and soil were selected. Correlation analysis method was used to test the significance between CK-MB reference value and geographical factors, and 9 geographical factors were extracted. Based on R language to evaluate the degree of multi col-linearity of the model, CK-MB Ridge model, Lasso model and principal component analysis model were established. The optimal prediction model was obtained by comparison, and the reference values of CK-MB for healthy adults in 2322 city and county units in China were fitted. Then the combined statistical analysis was conducted, and the disjunctive Kriging method was used for trend analysis to explore the geographical distribution characteristics of the reference values of CK-MB. The CK-MB reference values of healthy adults in 2322 city and county units in China are characterized by the pattern of "higher in the north and lower in the south", and gradually increases from the southeast coastal area to the northwest inland area. The reference value of CK-MB for healthy people in the region can be determined by the collected geographical indicators of any region, combined with the principal component analysis prediction model or the obtained geographical distribution map, so as to provide a reference for studying regional differences in clinical diagnosis.

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Geochemical characteristics of soil elements and its driving mechanisms in the Xiong'an New Area, China
SUN Lu, DONG Yan, FENG Wei, ZHANG Yuan, LI Gang, ZHANG Zuochen, GUO Xiaobiao, LI Haitao
2022, 41 (6):  1715-1730.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210248
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Conducting the soil geochemical survey, and accessing the distribution and driving mechanisms of soil geochemical parameters are of great significance for eco-environment condition evaluation and the land resources management. Based on the soil geochemical survey in the Xiong'an New Area, a combination of spatial analysis and multivariate statistical analysis was used to study the spatial distribution patterns of soil elements, and discuss the driving mechanisms of these elements. The result showed that most elements were enriched in soils of the study area compared with their background values of Hebei plain. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Se, and Corg in soils were 1.16-1.44 times higher than their background values of Hebei plain. Most elements were principally concentrated in the alluvial lacustrine plain, which was mainly determined by the parent materials, landform types, and weathering and leaching processes. Anthropogenic factors such as land utilization and industrial and agricultural activities significantly influenced natural evolution of heavy metals and nutrients elements in soils in the study area. Eight factors were extracted to represent different driving mechanisms of soil elements distribution. F1, mainly consisting of lithosphere and siderophile elements and rare earth elements, represented pedogenesis process. F2, composed of heavy metal elements, was associated with anthropogenic activities such as sewage irrigation and industrial production. F3, made up of CaO, TC, Ge, Ti, and SiO2, was related with the processes of silicate mineral weathering and secondary carbonate formation. F4, comprised of Cl, S, and pH, had a close relationship with the processes of leaching and surface runoff, and evaporation and concentration. Meanwhile, land utilization also exerted an influence on the distribution of these elements. F5, composed of soil nutrients elements, was mainly affected by anthropogenic activities such as land utilization and agricultural activities. F6, principally including B and Sr, illustrated the adsorption reactions with soil clays. F7, made up of I and Br, reflected surface runoff process. F8, including Hg, was correlated with anthropogenic emissions such as coal combustion and smelting activities. The result of this study clearly uncovered the geochemical characteristics of soil elements and its driving mechanisms in the Xiong'an New Area, which would provide valuable information for rational land resources utilization and environmental protection in the study area.

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Comparison of the accuracy of spatial prediction for heavy metals in regional soils based on machine learning models
JIN Zhao, LV Jianshu
2022, 41 (6):  1731-1747.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210528
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In order to identify the spatial variation of regional soil heavy metals and clarify the relevant influencing factors, this work built multiple linear regression (MLR), elastic network regression (ENR), random forest (RF), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB), ensembled model based on stacking, Back-Propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), neural network ensemble based on model averaging (avNNet), support vector machine with linear kernel (SVM-L), and support vector machine with radial basis function kernel (SVM-R); and applied these nine machine learning models to a dataset consisting of soil Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn concentrations and environmental auxiliary variables in the central part of Shandong Province. Finally, the spatial prediction accuracy derived from nine models was compared. It was confirmed that RF outperformed other models, with R2 values among 0.263 and 0.448, while MAE and RMSE below 8.408 and 10.636, respectively, and P/O approximating to 1. Thus, RF can be regarded as the optimal model for spatial prediction of soil heavy metals. Besides, SVM-R showed ideal predictive accuracy, and can serve as the alternative model. The accuracy for other seven models were obviously inferior to RF and SVM-R. Soil heavy metals in the study area showed similar spatial patterns with concentrations following the decreasing trend from northeast to southwest according to RF. The regions of high heavy metals contents were located in northeastern, northern, and southern parts, coherent with the industrial sites and road networks, indicating that human activities are a significant influencing factor for spatial distributions of heavy metals in soils. This work can provide an important reference for regional soil pollution management.

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Academic Review
An innovation research framework of crime geography based on spatio-temporal behavior perspective
LIU Lin, WU Linlin, SONG Guangwen, ZHOU Suhong, KWAN Mei-po
2022, 41 (6):  1748-1764.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210906
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The study of crime geography has a common theoretical foundation in the study of space-time behavior, both emphasizing the interaction between spatio-temporal environment and human behavior. Crime is one kind of human behavior, relevant empirical frontiers have paid attention to revealing the space-time behavior rules and measuring the daily activities of different criminal subjects (offenders, potential victims, police, etc.) as well as the interactions between different subjects' behaviors on crime occurrence. The achievements of research on activity space, environmental exposure, group differentiation and activity interaction in spatio-temporal behavior can be extended to crime geography research. In recent years, there are increasing interdisciplinary innovations in crime geography and time geography. However, there is still a need to systematically review crime geography from the perspective of space-time behavior and discuss how to integrate and innovate both of them. Therefore, based on reviewing the theoretical basis of spatio-temporal behavior in crime geography and commenting on the influence of space-time activities of offenders, potential victims and police on the spatio-temporal pattern, this article proposes an innovative research framework of space-time behavior and crime geography based on the cross dimension. The framework would help promote the progress of the theories, research methods and application of this interdisciplinary field.

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The prospect of behavioral political geography
WANG Fenglong, LIU Yungang
2022, 41 (6):  1765-1777.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210835
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Existing studies in Chinese political geography mainly focus on exogenous theories from static perspectives based on political structure. The introduction of behavioral approach may make some “Chinese contribution” to the development of political geography by strengthening the interpretation of political geographical behaviors and explanation of the political geographical processes and mechanisms. Therefore, this paper summarizes the research object, research perspective and theoretical basis of behavioral political geography, and proposes some potential research topics in behavioral political geography. Specifically, the research objects of behavioral political geography mainly include political subject, political behavior, geographical environment, political system/power relation and political emotion/attitude. Its perspective, different from the traditional political geographical research, emphasizes the analysis of micro-mechanisms, the pursuit of testable laws and the incorporation of subjective factors. The theories and methods in behavioral politics, political philosophy, behavioral geography, emotional geographies, political psychology and other related disciplines provide an important basis for the study of behavioral political geography. We further propose a theoretical framework of behavioral political geography, in which decision space is a key to interpret the interaction between individual's capability and cognition and the constraints or opportunities by geographical contexts and power relations. We call for more scholarly attention to behavioral political geography and more research based on the theoretical framework proposed in this paper. Future research can promote the development of behavioral political geography and help to better understand the political geographical processes by investigating the direct influence of geographical environment on political behaviors, the mediating roles of emotion in the relationship between geographical environment and political behaviors, and the strategies of constructing legitimacy for various political actions based on manipulation of emotions and risk-related discourse.

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The forefront of planetary gentrification theory and its enlightenment to Chinese rural-urban governance
ZHANG Qingyuan, YE Chao
2022, 41 (6):  1778-1795.  doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210847
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Gentrification has become the frontier of the transformation of rural-urban social space worldwide. Loretta Lees pointed out that gentrification has become the experienced/experiencing process of global urban (re)development and named it as “planetary gentrification”. It breaks the dualism and Anglo-American lens of traditional gentrification studies, and re-discusses the polycentric relations between the global and the local, core and periphery based on the comparative urbanism. In the context of China's new-type urbanization and rural revitalization, the flow of social wealth and the division of social classes provide vertical impetus for gentrification, while the evolution of rural-urban relations provides horizontal tension. China's socialist system and land ownership system will expand the richness of international gentrification research. Thus, it is of great significance to explore gentrification phenomenon and its governance. Based on the theoretical review and case comparison, the planetary gentrification has made a great breakthrough in ontology, epistemology and methodology of traditional gentrification research. Differences between the global North and the global South have increased the scope of gentrification research and the possibility of theoretical innovation. On the one hand, the planetary gentrification theory compares and summarizes the general trend of gentrification research in the world, especially the particularity of gentrification processes in the Global South. On the other hand, it combines the epistemological turn of urban studies to place gentrification research in the larger narrative of global urban and rural transformation. Meanwhile, there are still some limitations in the planetary gentrification theory. It is necessary to investigate the complexity of gentrification processes in China and other Global South countries. Planetary gentrification has good theoretical applicability in the Chinese context. The rise of the new urban middle class in China, the large-scale gentrification process and the multi-scalar interaction of urban and rural space consistent with the planetary gentrification. In the future, we can carry out localized innovation based on the unique rural-urban relations, central-local relations and the multi-scalar interactions in China. In the context of planetary gentrification, attentions should be paid to the transformation of governance mode, regional strategy and rural-urban relations on China's rural-urban governance in the future. Global experience, regional differences and rural-urban integration are the key points for the modernization of governance. Researchers should take a critical axiological stance on gentrification itself, and make contributions to maintaining spatial justice and realizing common prosperity. Paying attention to the planetary gentrification theory will help research of gentrification in China better connect with the international research and provide non-Western experience.

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