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    The urban space and urban development boundary under the framework of territory spatial planning
    GAO Xiaolu,WU Danxian,ZHOU Kan,LIAO Liuwen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2458-2472.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171164
    Abstract1639)   HTML28)    PDF (14678KB)(536)      

    The assessment of suitability for urban land-use and delimitation of urban space (US) and urban development boundary (UDB) are among the key tasks and is a challenge for carrying out basic evaluation and drawing up the base map of planning in the 'Pilot Program of Province-level Spatial Planning' launched by the State Council in 2016. In line with the framework of spatial planning reform, i.e. to achieve effective governance over national land- use with the tool of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary), we first explored the conceptual ideas of US and UDB, and appropriate topological relationships and rules, upon which the principles and methodology for assessing suitability for urban land-use and delimitation of US and UDB were determined. Then, based upon the practice in Fujian province, we elaborated the procedures and the method. It was revealed that the proposed principles and methodologies are reasonable and feasible. One aspect that sets the work apart from previous practices is that, US and UDB were designated upon comprehensive assessment of the carrying capacity of resources and environments and the suitability of land for different functions. This improves the balance of urban development activities with resource and environments. In addition, the procedure for drawing up US and UDB incorporates the evaluation of urban development potentials and directions of each land parcel, and considers the objectives of spatial governance over the whole area, thus the randomness of US and UDB is well controlled. This practice is expected to provide useful reference for the improvement of the Chinese spatial planning system.

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    The evolution of water level in Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River and its response to water exchange in the Dongting Lake
    WANG Yanjia,LI Jingbao,LI Yani,LV Dianqing,DAI Wen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (9): 2302-2313.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181187
    Abstract983)   HTML40)    PDF (4910KB)(174)      

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the water level evolution of the Three Outlets in the Southern Jingjiang River system and the exchange of river and lake water volume. Based on the monthly mean water level and discharge data obtained from 10 stations concerning the Three Outlets, Four Rivers and Chenglingji station of Dongting Lake and Zhicheng station along the Yangtze River Mainstream, as well as the precipitation data from another eight stations from 1956 to 2017, the temporal evolution of the Three Outlets' water level and its relationship with precipitation and water exchange in the Dongting Lake and human activities were studied by using Mann-Kendall trend test method, regression analysis and flow year eigenvalue method. The results show that: (1) Compared with the first stage (1956-1966), the average mean water level and the average highest water level of the second (1967-1980), third (1981-2002) and fourth (2003-2017) stages decreased by 0.74 m, and 0.37 m respectively, while the average lowest water level increased by 0.07 m. (2) The average lowest water level of the Three Outlets dropped by the largest volume (-0.98 m), followed by the average water level (-0.78 m). The average highest water level of the Three Outlets rose by 0.55 m in the four hydrological seasons, including the water-rising season (April-May), wet season (June-September), water-falling season (October-November) and dry season (December-March of the following year). In terms of the hydrological season, the drop of the Three Outlets' characteristic water level was in the order of water-falling season (-0.95 m) > wet season (-0.61 m) > water-rising season (-0.21 m) > dry season (0.15 m). (3) The change of the water level in the Three Outlets had a good consistency with its discharge (correlation coefficient of the two r=0.65), but had a weak correlation with precipitation (r=-0.16). However, the drought climate from 2002 to 2017 aggravated the decline of the water level of the Three Outlets. Generally speaking, water reduction at Zhicheng station in the Yangtze River and human activities represented by water conservancy projects were the main driving factors leading to the overall decline of the characteristic water level of the Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River.

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    Spatial structure and evolution mechanism of municipal districts in China
    Jianhua ZHU, Wei QI, Chunliang XIU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (5): 1003-1015.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180868
    Abstract975)   HTML28)    PDF (7049KB)(467)      

    It is a law that different urban scales have different modes of administrative division in the development of cities. In China, with the rapid development of urbanization, the number of municipal districts in the city increased quickly, and meanwhile, the spatial structure of municipal districts changed continuously. However, the related research is scare. In this paper, six theoretical spatial structure models of administrative division of municipal districts were generalized, including circle type, combination type, parallel type, independent type, enclosed type and enclave type. Besides, main characteristics of the six types of municipal districts spatial structure were summarized. Through the analysis of the distribution pattern and evolution of China's current municipal districts, we find that the larger the scale of China’s cities, the greater the number of municipal districts, at the same time, the greater the population density. In terms of spatial distribution, we find cities of circle type gather in the eastern region, the cities of combination type are densely distributed in the northeast region, the cities of independent type are mostly distributed in the central and western regions, the cities of enclosed type are mostly distributed in the central region, and the cities of parallel type and enclave type are evenly distributed in the whole country. The general evolution path of municipal district spatial structure is “independent type - parallel type - combination type - circle type”. Spatial structure of cities of circle type will continue to be optimized. Through “the merger of inner city, the expansion of outer city”, the city transforms second circle to third or fourth circle. Finally, the paper analyzes the factors which influenced the adding, splitting and merging of the administrative division adjustment. The main factors of adding municipal districts include the level of economic development, the increase of urban population and land demand, traffic location, topography and administrative status and boundary. The main factors of splitting municipal districts include too large an area and a population, natural geographical conditions and transformation of new district and the open economic zone to municipal districts. The main factors of merging municipal districts include small-scale municipal district, functional orientation and policies.

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    Analyzing spatial distribution of poor villages and their poverty contributing factors: A case study from Wumeng Mountain Area
    Chenxia LIANG, Yanhui WANG, Haitao XU, Wenping QI, Xu CHENG, Wenji ZHAO
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (6): 1389-1402.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180024
    Abstract858)   HTML26)    PDF (4915KB)(412)      

    Current research mainly focuses on large scale and ignores individual effect or background effect in the exploration of poverty contributing factors. Based on the perspective of spatial poverty, this paper, taking the Wumeng Mountain Area as an example and poor villages as the research object, uses spatial point pattern method to explore the spatial distribution characteristics of the poor villages and designs multi-level linear regression models to comprehensively and quantitatively analyze the poverty contributing factors at both village and county levels. The results were concluded as follows. (1) The spatial clustering characteristics of the poor villages in the study area were obvious. The overall distribution showed a spatial pattern of both large scatters and small concentrations, and scatter points - polar core - axis-cluster coexisted. (2) The poverty degree of poor villages was significantly affected by multilevel factors. The village-level factors were: population density, road access ratio, labor force ratio, frequency of suffered natural disasters, and safe drinking water ratio. The county-level factors were: per capita GDP, second gross enrollment ratio, and vegetation coverage. (3) The rural poverty in the study area came from the dual role of poor villages and counties. Hence, the government and relevant departments can take targeted measures according to different scales in the poverty alleviation, and allocate funds reasonably for poverty relief.

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    Cultural inheritance and spatial governance based on cultural confidence in the New Era: An introduction to the issue of "Cultural Inheritance and Spatial Governance"
    Jiuxia SUN
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (6): 1283-1289.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190425
    Abstract781)   HTML39)    PDF (524KB)(455)      

    In recent years, with the advancement of globalization dominated by the Western culture, a series of problems have emerged. Whether the goal of global integration can be achieved has faced continuous enquiring, thus the idea that "every form of beauty has its uniqueness, and all forms of beauty should be blessed with harmony and unity" has been appreciated. In the new era, we need to build up cultural self-confidence, exploring key issues such as how to inherit the local culture of China, and how to study local knowledge from the perspective of spatial governance in globalization and geographical studies. Thus, by inheriting, innovating and developing Chinese culture, we can improve the effectiveness of spatial governance and the blend of local cultures. Therefore, the study of spatial governance in geography should place more emphasis on local community and local culture. This issue aims to discuss cultural inheritance in space governance and the influence of cultural factors (historic, local, rural) on space governance, including multi-scale and multi-field topics such as religious space of local culture, urban space, rural community space, rurality, local culture, the practice of local elites and the practice of body. These articles mainly focused on three aspects of space governance, namely, historical geography, rurality and the local practice. This issue also discusses the future of the research on spatial governance based on cultural confidence and demonstrates that the geographical studies of cultural governance and studies on local culture of spatial governance should gain more importance.

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    Spatial organization pathway for territorial function-structure:Discussion on implementation of major function zoning strategy in territorial spatial planning
    FAN Jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2373-2387.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190865
    Abstract646)   HTML70)    PDF (5539KB)(569)      

    The spatial organization law of territorial function-structure is the basic theoretical problem of human-earth system coupling research, as well as the basic theory of carrying out territorial spatial planning and shaping sustainable geographical pattern. Starting from the discussion of geography on the repetition, prediction, regulation and optimization of geographical processes, this paper explains that the spatial governance system is an important way for modern geography to regulate and optimize the sustainable geographical processes and patterns. The spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the spatial structure of territorial function composed of ecological-life-production (also known as three living spaces) are adopted to express the spatial order law of territorial function - structure, and explain some spatial organization goals, e.g., the coordination between territorial function and natural geographical environment, the minimization of various functions and conflicts between different units in the same region, the effective transmission of territorial functions in different spatial scales, and the maximization of comprehensive benefits in a long time scale. On the one hand, from the perspective of sustainability, the concept of four attributes of natural elements -- resources, environment, ecology and disasters -- is proposed. Through the integration of the four attributes, the natural carrying capacity is constructed, and the function of the original value, remaining value and potential value of carrying capacity in spatial planning is analyzed, so as to form the basic method of analyzing spatial organization from bottom to top. On the other hand, starting from new spatial equilibrium, the basic method of top-down spatial organization analysis is formed based on the territorial functional suitability of carrying capacity, integrated position and spatial structure parameters. Furthermore, the basic and strategic values of the major function zoning formed by the two methods for spatial organization and planning are discussed, and a new idea of separation and interrelation of the zoning, strategy, system with planning of utilization is proposed. With the implementation of the strategy of major function zoning as the main line, the spatial scale-down conduction of major functions as the core scientific problem, and the key constraint parameters as the control indicators of spatial structure, this paper discusses the database and territorial function pedigree, functional and scale-dependent carrying capacity evaluation method and model, and the construction framework of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary), and demonstrates the way to implement the strategy of major function zoning in spatial planning. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions that geography should strengthen the construction of scientific and technological support system, e.g., the basic theory, method and technology of large and medium spatial scale (regional) territorial spatial planning.

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    Spatial variation of migrant population's return intention and its determinants in China's prefecture and provincial level cities
    GU Hengyu,QIN Xiaoling,SHEN Tiyan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (8): 1877-1890.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180473
    Abstract608)   HTML49)    PDF (4987KB)(289)      

    In China, population migration has an influence on the level of economic and social development in various regions. In 2016, the scale of migrant population reached 245 million, which became an important factor affecting population changes. From the perspective of migrant populations' destinations, with the control of population scale in some big cities in China, and the sustained economic growth in the central and western regions, the problem of population reflux is attracting more and more attention from the society. The spatial differentiation and influencing factors of migrant populations' return intention are vital issues which are urgent to be investigated. Based on data from the 2016 China Migrant Population Dynamic Survey (CMDS), this paper discusses the phenomenon about spatial differentiation of migrant populations' return intention in 279 prefecture and provincial level cities in China, using GIS spatial analysis methods such as Moran's I coefficient, Getis-Ord Gi *. Besides, we investigate the influencing factors of migrant populations' return intention. Study comes to the following conclusions: (1) Compared with the residence intention and hukou transfer intention, the return intention of migrant population in China is lower (6.17%), and the majority of migrants (74.05%) are eager to take their own home towns as refluxing destination. The scale of cities, the level of cities and the return intention of migrant population present an asymmetric "U"-shaped pattern. (2) The spatial distribution of return intention presents an aggregation pattern with marked spatial differentiation. The return intention of migrant population in Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration and Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration is higher than that in Chengdu-Chongqing Urban Agglomeration and Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration. Among the four main geographical divisions, the return intention of urban floating population in the eastern region is the highest while that of the northeast region is the lowest. South China, central-south China and part of East China are hot spots of return intention while Northeast and North China are in a weak corner. (3) The return intention is influenced by both internal factors of migrant population and external factors of in-flow area. Educational level and economic development are both internal and external factors that simultaneously play different roles in return intention. (4) Family connection, social networks, housing and economic factors of migrant population are main forces that shape the spatial pattern of return intention. Family scale in in-flow area and home-ownership rates inhibit return intention while variables such as family scale in non-in-flow area, migrant times and the family's income and expenditure proportion exert a positive influence on return intention. Based on the above conclusions, this paper proposes strategies for relevant departments on the management of migrant population.

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    Research on spatial pattern of population mobility among cities: A case study of "Tencent Migration" big data in "National Day-Mid-Autumn Festival" vacation
    Jinghu PAN, Jianbo LAI
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (7): 1678-1693.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171231
    Abstract607)   HTML42)    PDF (16468KB)(444)      

    Population migration, social check-in, vehicle navigation, and other spatial behavior big data have become vital carriers characterizing users' spatial behavior. The big data used in this paper were collected from the locations provided by hundreds of millions intelligent mobile phone users through Location Based Service (LBS) Tencent Migration data platform, and were displayed by means of real-time heat map which indicates user’s moving trajectory in China. "Tencent Migration" big data can real-timely, dynamically, completely and systematically record population flow routes using LBS device. Through gathering residents daily mobility among 299 cities in China during the period of "National Day-Mid-Autumn Festival" (NDMAF) vacation (from September 30 to October 8) in 2017 in "Tencent Migration" and defining three periods with "travel period, journey period, return period", this paper is designed to analyze and explore the characteristics and spatial patterns of daily flow mobility cities from the perspective of population daily mobility distribution levels, flow distribution layers network aggregation, spatial patterns and characteristics of the complex structure of the flow network. Results show that "Tencent migration" big data clearly discovers the temporal-spatial pattern of population mobility in China during the period of NDMAF. The net inflow of population showed a diamond-shaped pattern with cross frame support in each period, with the four nodes of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi’an. Main mobility assembling centers are distributed in the urban agglomerations of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing, and those centers have strong coherence with those urban hierarchies. There is a positive correlation between the level of urban administration and the influence of population flow. Most cities are in a state of "relative equilibrium" in the population flow, and clear hierarchical structure and level distinction can be identified. Spatial patterns of population mobility present obvious core-periphery structures. The Dali-Hegang line exhibits a significant network of spatial differences in terms of boundary divisions. In this context, the spatial distribution of urban network could be summarized as "dense in the East and sparse in the West", and the core linkages of urban network could be characterized as "parallel in the East and series in the West". The whole network exhibits a typical "small world" network characteristic, which shows that China's urban population flow network has high connectivity and accessibility during the period of NDMAF. The network has a distinct "community" structure in the local area, including 2 national communities, 2 regional communities and 3 local-level communities.

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    Demarcating ecological space and ecological protection red line under the framework of territory spatial planning
    ZHANG Xuefei,WANG Chuansheng,LI Meng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2430-2446.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171221
    Abstract574)   HTML40)    PDF (24466KB)(436)      

    Territorial space planning at the provincial level is a brand-new attempt of "multiple planning integration" fundamental regime. The core content is demarcating the "urban space, agriculture space, ecological space, urban development boundary, permanent basic farmland and ecological protection red line", to analyze natural and social background scientifically, which are the strict assignments of all kinds of space boundary, so as to strengthen national spatial control. The "ecological space and ecological protection red line" refered to "ecological space and ecological protection red line", which is the concrete embodiment of the "concept of ecology priority" in the construction of ecological civilization in the new era of China. The ecological protection red line is the core of ecological space, which has three characteristics: the strongly underlying constraints, the wide range of coverage and the high level of constraints. With full absorption of the "Technical Guideline for Demarcating the Red Line of Ecological Protection" promulgated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, this study, taking the whole land area of Fujian province as an example, carried out double assignments of ecological protection level and ecological protection priority, based on the thought of ecological carrying capacity and suitability; and then discussed and practiced the demarcation of ecological space and ecological protection red line under the framework of provincial spatial planning, so as to put forward "multiple planning integration" and to be a useful reference for the demarcation of territorial space planning in coastal and mountainous provinces. The results show that, the whole area of Fujian ecological space and ecological protection red line is about 95932.88 square kilometers, accounting for 78.76% of the province's land area. The ecological protection red line is about 25461.39 square kilometers, taking 20.90% of the province's land area. The "biodiversity maintenance red line" and "water source protection and water conservation red line ", which were subordinated to the ecological protection red line, accounting for 11.96% and 6.26% of the province's land area. The "biodiversity maintenance red line" and "water source protection and water conservation red line" were concentrated in Wuyi Mountains, Daiyun mountain, Zhejiang-Fujian mountainous region, southern Fujian mountainous region and southeastern coastal area, which are mainly consistent with Fujian ecological function zones.

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    The selection of the strategic pivot in China-Central Asia cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative
    Luqi LI, Xiang KONG, Yiman LI, Bowen XUYANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (7): 1705-1719.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180160
    Abstract499)   HTML13)    PDF (11624KB)(154)      

    Central Asia plays a crucial role in the Belt and Road Initiative, serving as a bridge between China and Europe. In geopolitical terms, it is a high valued region that provides new strategic opportunities to China when the U.S. withdraws from Afghanistan and Russia is relatively declining. In order to promote China-Central Asia cooperation, a strategic pivot is urgently needed. There is a growing number of studies on the selection and spatial distribution of strategic pivots under the Belt and Road Initiative, nevertheless, most studies fall short of a scrutiny of pivots at lower scales. Instead, the pivots are mostly geopolitical units at the national scale, e.g. Kazakhstan or Pakistan. Also, a qualitative approach is widely used by scholars while the quantitative methods are largely overlooked. The results and approaches of current researches could not be perfectly applied to the analysis of Central Asia, as the so-called “pivots” are relatively broad and unclear for the cooperation in this region, which needs a pivot at regional or even urban scale. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the selection and spatial structure evolution of the regional scale strategic pivot of China-Central Asia cooperation by evaluating a variety of spatial objects, e.g. cities, frontier ports and transport infrastructure. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) Based on the evaluation and clustering analysis, 15 Chinese cities, 10 Central Asian cities and 4 frontier ports can be extracted from major cities and ports in China and Central Asia. The most significant nodes include Urumqi, Ili, Almaty, Bishkek, Tashkent, Horgos, etc. (2) Based on the accessibility to the China-Central Asia boundary, the nodes are further refined, in which Urumqi, Ili, Almaty and Bishkek are major cities within the 12 h isochronous rings. Also, the results of overall accessibility and city networks suggest a curved valley stretching from Urumqi to East Turkmenistan, covering major cities in Southeastern Central Asia. (3) Based on the results, the “Urumqi-Almaty Economic Corridor” can be constructed as the regional pivot of China-Central Asia cooperation. The spatial structure of the pivot can be designed as “two cores, four axes, and two belts”. Accordingly, the construction of the corridor should focus mostly on the development of frontier ports, transportation infrastructures and cities in the core area.

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    Spatial structure of the urban agglomeration based on space of flows: The study of the Pearl River Delta
    WANG Shaojian,GAO Shuang,WANG Yuqu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (8): 1849-1861.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180635
    Abstract497)   HTML60)    PDF (6075KB)(481)      

    With the development of modern transportation, communication and information technology, the "space of flow" based on network society has become an important theoretical frontier for studying urban spatial structure. Based on the passenger flow, material flow, fund flow and internet information flow in nine cities of the Pearl River Delta, this paper makes a comprehensive judgment on the present situation and development trend of spatial structure of urban agglomeration in this region. Research findings are as follows: (1) The present situation of urban spatial structure in the Pearl River Delta presents obvious unipolarization, and Guangzhou is the core of the delta based on the "space of flow". (2) Cities at different levels will play different roles in the future development of the urban agglomeration network. Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Dongguan play a leading role in the development of spatial structure, while Foshan, Zhongshan and other cities will assume the function of connecting transit stations. (3) The urban areas of the Pearl River Delta are well integrated. The spatial form of the radiated area of each city also indicates the functional circle and sphere of influence of each city. In the future, with the strengthening of globalization and regional integration policies, the agglomeration effect of the Pearl River Delta region will be transformed into diffusion effect, which will greatly improve the ability of the delta to absorb and allocate resources on a global scale.

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    The spatial pattern of urban areas and urban system of Yangtze River Delta in the past 600 years
    Lijun QIN, Xiaobin JIN, Yuchao JIANG, Qiaofeng XUE, Yinong CHENG, Ying LONG, Xuhong YANG, Yinkang ZHOU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (5): 1045-1062.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170862
    Abstract478)   HTML11)    PDF (20535KB)(282)      

    Based on the data extracted from historical documents, ancient maps and remote sensing, quoting the reconstruction method of ancient city from history study, this study reconstructed urban areas of 113 cities and towns from the Ming Dynasty in the Yangtze River Delta. Aiming to analyze the expansion progress of urban areas and the spatial pattern of urban system of this region since the Ming Dynasty, we took the years of 1461, 1820, 1930, 1970, 1980, 2000 and 2010 as time sections, and adopted the urban expansion rate, urban expansion efficiency, urban primacy index and rank-size rule. The results are as follows: (1) The urban area of 113 cities increased markedly in the past 600 years. The average increment is 31.27 times as 1461’s, from 205.98 km2 to 6442.19 km2, and Shanghai region has the greatest increment, 63.41 times as 1461’s. The urban expansion of the past 600 years can be divided into four processes: the embryonic stage (Ming and Qing dynasties), the starting stage (from the Republic of China to the early Reform and Opening-up), the growing stage (from the Reform and Opening-up to 2000) and the rapid development stage (21st century). The urban expansion rate was accelerating while the efficiency of urban expansion needs to be improved. (2) As for spatial pattern of the city size distribution, cities of Suzhou and Nanjing were the largest ones in the region in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and Shanghai substituted Suzhou and Nanjing and became the largest city in the Yangtze River Delta since the Republic of China. Large and medium scale cities were mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Basin and the Taihu Lake Basin, while the small-scale cities were mainly in Anhui Province. The city size distribution in urban system appeared to be the first-place pattern. The urban primacy index was high and the urban primacy index was lower in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The large-scale cities had more advantages and they developed faster, resulting in a wider gap between different scale cities.

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    Identification of the candidate areas of ecological protection red lines based on water conservation function in territory spatial planning
    LI Meng,WANG Chuansheng,ZHANG Xuefei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2447-2457.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180011
    Abstract464)   HTML15)    PDF (11200KB)(305)      

    The importance of the water conservation functional region is one of the key classification indexes to define the ecological protection “red line”, i.e. the ecological protection area with the highest priority. After reviewing the classification indexes previously used for identifying the water conservation functional region and investigating their potential influences on applied areas, we propose a new method of the Red Line determination, taking the water conservation ability into account and discuss an improvement in the evaluation of the red line determination method, fulfilling the requirement of the national spatial planning, i.e. the “Three Zones and Three Lines” bottom-up determination (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary). The study area in this paper is Liupanshui, Guizhou, a typical karst landform region in China. After combing through the previously used indexes as well as the target areas for classifying the water conservation function, we compare results of the Red Line determined by three methods, which are the modeling method, the quantifying index method (NPP) (both methods were proposed in the “Guidelines for the Delimitation of the Ecological Protection Red Line” and published by the MEP of China respectively in 2015 and 2017) and an improved method we newly propose in this study. Our method introduces two factors. One is the “vegetation cover index”, used in recognizing non-ecological land and in increasing the weight of the positive effects of the water conservation function on the forest land. The other is the “elevation index”, for including qualified mountain top areas as alternatives of the red line. In Liupanshui, 34.25% of the cultivated land areas is selected as the candidates for the red line, using our newly proposed method. The percentage of the cultivated land is less than the ones obtained by the modeling method (46.62%) and NPP (38.54%). Further, our method identifies more candidates of forest land areas by the amount of 44.2%, while the modeling method reaches 25.31% only and NPP reaches 43.74%. In conclusion, using the vegetation cover index and the elevation index to classify the water conservation functional regions, the red line determined by our method has a better match with the real ecological condition of Liupanshui, compared to the results from the modeling method and NPP. Therefore, we advocate these two indexes to be included as additional indicators in the “Guidelines for the Delimitation of the Ecological Protection Red Line”, in order to increase the precision of the redline determination.

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    The influence of the spatial agglomeration of the world first-class universities on the spatial distribution of R&D intensive enterprises: A case study of the United States
    Chunguang HOU, Debin DU, Wentian SHI, Qinchang GUI
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (7): 1720-1732.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180097
    Abstract455)   HTML25)    PDF (6708KB)(198)      

    The world first-class universities can continuously provide innovative talents, generate new knowledge and generate new businesses for the public, and have become the focus of global attention. The R&D intensive enterprises mean more investment in R&D, greater R&D strength, technology and innovation as the fundamental, realize its sustained and rapid development of enterprises, and the spatial distribution of R&D intensive enterprises is the microcosmic basis for understanding the regional economic transformation. This paper is based on the microcosmic data of world first-class universities and R&D intensive enterprises, by using vector data notation, kernel density estimation combined with the negative two regression model, taking the United States as an example, to study the influence mechanism of spatial agglomeration of world first-class universities on R&D intensive enterprises' spatial layout. The results shows that: (1) The world first-class universities and R&D intensive enterprises highly concentrated area mainly include the northeast coastal metropolitan zone, the Chicago metropolitan area, the Silicon Valley area and the Los Angeles metropolitan area, which present a high degree of agglomeration and spatial matching in the USA. (2) The software and computer services R&D enterprises are mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley, New York and Miami, the technology hardware and equipment R&D enterprises mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley, Los Angeles and New York; the pharmaceutical and biotechnology R&D enterprises mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley and New York; the health care equipment and R&D enterprises mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley and Boston, and R&D intensive enterprises prefer to choose the world first-rate subject space agglomeration area related to their own R&D field in the USA. (3) The high value hot spots in the first-class universities and R&D intensive enterprises are concentrated in the Silicon Valley area, showing a semicircular radiation pattern, and the higher value hot spots are mainly distributed in the northeast coastal metropolitan zone, showing the band radiation. (4) In order to seek innovative resource endowment, acquire knowledge spillover economy, share innovation infrastructure, reduce technology transfer cost, and get the advantage of innovation cluster, R&D intensive enterprises choose the first-class university agglomeration area for spatial layout.

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    The expansion and driving forces of the functional space land: A case study of Changsha from 1979 to 2014
    Qiang YE, Zhengxi MO, Yiqing XU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (5): 1063-1079.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171193
    Abstract442)   HTML11)    PDF (11435KB)(229)      

    The expansion of urban functional space has always been a core issue in the study of urban geography and urban planning. In this paper, we mainly focus on the following three types of urban functional spaces: residential space, industrial spaces and service space, and we take the central city of Changsha as our study area. Based on the land use map covering the years of 1979, 1989, 2003, 2011 and 2014 as well as corresponding statistical yearbooks, in combination of taking GIS and SPSS statistical tools, this article analyzed the dynamic features and driving forces of the functional space evolution of Changsha by citing a variety of models such as sector fractal, “center-periphery” spheres density, expansion intensity, coupling degree and axial sprawl index. The results were obtained as follows: (1) The urban functional space of Changsha's central city expanded rapidly between 1979 and 2014. And the pattern of extension was still displaying the “circle mode” and “axis belt mode”, but gradually transited to “polycentric structure”. In the process of quick external expansion, the urban land also filled internally in the study period. The direction of functional transformation presented a phase difference clearly, which had experienced the process of “east, south and southeast” from 1979 to 1989 to the “northwest, east, southeast and north” during 2011 to 2014. Meanwhile, it showed some differentiation of different types of functional land. (2) Residential space showed excessive expansion and guided other spaces extension, which was incompatible with other functional urban spaces, causing an imbalance in urban functional space. Some zones even showed serious contradiction with city planning during the process of expansion. (3) Functional spaces coupling showed significant “core-peripheral” geographic differentiation, and mainly focused on the core area. Functional space types in peripheral area were relatively single, which means that the level of alignment was insufficient. To strengthen urban comprehensive competitiveness, local government should improve service function and promote functional integration. (4) This study also probes the dynamic driving forces of the evolution of the functional space in Changsha City, mainly including economic, administrative, ecological and social factors. And the administrative factor played a significant role in the evolution. (5) We propose the basic research framework for the study of urban functional land expansion from "problem orientation -phenomenon induction - essential analysis - strategy response", which can provide theoretical guidance for optimizing the internal space structure and improve the functional efficiency of the central city.

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    Research on spatio-temporal pattern of specialized development of Chinese planting industry
    Wulin WANG, Cuichan YU, Wei SHUI, Pinqi WU, Qianfeng WANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (5): 1265-1279.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180353
    Abstract439)   HTML10)    PDF (6300KB)(334)      

    Based on the specialized calculation of planting industry development from 1978 to 2017 in China, the paper reviews and evaluates the temporal and spatial features of Chinese planting industry, divides the development of Chinese planting industry into several stages by using cluster analysis creatively, and summarizes the development characteristics of each stage. The main contents and results are summed up as follows: (1) The specialization coefficient of the planting industry (FRi) increases gradually in each Province (Municipality, Municipality); compared to the national average of specialization coefficient, Northeast China and Eastern China with higher value of specialization coefficient also grow faster, Central China and Southeast China are just the opposite, and Northwest China closes to the foundation and growth rate of national average. (2) The planting areas for sugar crop, grain, cotton, vegetable, oil crop and fruit accounts for more than 91% of the total planting area of crops in China, so it is representative and feasible to choose these 6 agricultural crops as the research object. Location coefficient of the six agricultural products(FIj) increases in different degrees, while grain, cotton and oil crop grow faster and sugar crop, fruit, vegetable more slowly. Sugar crop is highly localized agricultural product, while cotton and fruit are characterized by highly localized agricultural products long term; grain, vegetable and oil crop belongs to agricultural product with low localization. (3) National specialization coefficient of planting industry (Fmn) keeps steady and slow growth with the average annual growth of 2. 83%, comparing with the total annual agricultural output value about 10. 66%. (4) The characteristics of policy system and emphases of Chinese planting industry are different in each development stage. It could be divided into four stages of planting industry development in China from 1978 to 2017, namely, the first stage from 1978 to 1983 characterized by laying the institutional foundation, the second stage from 1984 to 1995 characterized by steady recovery and expansion, the third stage from 1996 to 2014 with the in-depth phase of market-oriented reform and industrialization, the fourth stage from 2015 to 2017 accompanied by reforming and innovation of pursuing all-round development. This paper, meaning important guiding significance for sorting out Chinese planting industry development since the reform and opening-up, can provide reference for the development of relevant policies for specialization of planting industry.

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    Evaluation of the service of parks in Chinese urban areas
    Zening XU, Xiaolu GAO, Zhiqiang WANG, Yan MA, Yu DENG, Ying LONG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (5): 1016-1029.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170683
    Abstract430)   HTML11)    PDF (11250KB)(271)      

    Previous evaluation of the service of urban parks has always based on a given city spatial range and given green parks. This means that the evaluation subject and the spatial range for evaluation is often chosen randomly, which makes it very hard to decide whether the spatial distribution of urban green parks is appropriate or not on the basis of the evaluation results, and also it is hard to make comparisons between different cities. This paper collected and studied the data, model and method on the evaluation of the service level of urban green parks, and researched from the perspective of the category, degree, service range and the availability of alternative choices of urban green parks, and based on the research, an evaluation indicator system and model is proposed which is centered on the accessibility of the residents living in urban built-up areas to surrounding green spaces. This paper also employs open source POI (point of interest) and the analysis method of Densi-Graph, which provides solution to the extraction of spatial data of urban green parks, the definition of the urban built-up range, the construction of specific indicators and other key technical problems. In this way, the objectivity and integrity of the evaluation of city green parks is guaranteed, and the evaluation results of different cities can also be compared. The evaluation results for 273 prefecture-level cities in China, demonstrate that the average service coverage rate of the urban green parks in prefecture-level cities in China reaches 64.8%. And there are still more than 20% of prefecture-level cities which have a service coverage rate less than 50.0%, indicating that there is a gap between the actual service level of urban green parks and the current national standards. In addition, there are significant differences of service level of urban city parks between different regions. Cities with higher service level are often megacities with population over one million and cities in developed eastern and northeastern China. At the same time, the service level is co-related with the population scale of a city in an S-shaped curve. In order to avoid incoordination of regional development, it is suggested that more resource should be input to the public service of urban green parks in middle and small cities and cities in central and western China.

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    Competitiveness and regional inequality of China’s mega-city regions
    Fan ZHANG, Yuemin NING, Xiyang LOU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (7): 1664-1677.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180328
    Abstract421)   HTML28)    PDF (7439KB)(376)      

    Mega-city regions have emerged as the main spatial form of China's new urbaniza-tion strategy, and become the basic spatial units of participating in global and regional competition for China. However, mega-city regions are not equally capable of boosting regional economic development due to different levels of development. Therefore, this paper adopts the concept of competitiveness, as both theoretical framework and empirical model, to evaluate the development status of China’s mega-city regions. This paper firstly reviews the definition of China’s mega-city regions, the concept of competitiveness of mega-city regions and the methodology to evaluate the competitiveness of mega-city regions. Based on the review of related literatures, this paper proposes a multi-tier evaluation system to calculate the competitiveness of 13 mega city-regions of China. The chosen indicators come from the five perspectives of economic development, human resource, infrastructural accessibility, integration into global economy and capacity of scientific and technological innovation. The result shows that there are great disparities and regional inequality in competitiveness across different mega city-regions. Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan are the first-tier mega city-regions with the highest level of comprehensive competitiveness and have significant global influence as well. Chengdu-Chongqing, Shandong peninsula, South-central Liaoning and Wuhan belong to the second-tier mega city-regions that shows partial advantages and has significant regional influence. Southeast Fujian, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan, Central Plains and Central Shaanxi Plain belong to the third-tier mega-city regions. Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar and Changchun-Jilin belong to the fourth-tier mega-city regions. The third and fourth tiers of mega-city regions have relatively weak competitiveness. Aside from disparities in competitiveness, regional inequalities exist for the uneven distribution of high-weight indicators that consist of the core competitiveness. In general, core competitiveness consists of the advanced productive factors such as the ability of scientific and technological innovation, integration into global economy and capacity of capital agglomeration. The differences of the core competitiveness between coastal and inland mega-city regions are the main manifestation of regional inequalities. Due to the highly unbalanced distribution of the advanced productive factors among the eastern, central and western regions, the regional inequalities of China will probably exist for a long time.

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    How to evaluate public space vitality based on mobile phone data: An empirical analysis of Nanjing’s parks
    Sangzhaxi LUO, Feng ZHEN
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (7): 1594-1608.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180756
    Abstract413)   HTML30)    PDF (16795KB)(313)      

    The vitality of public space is an important indicator of urban quality, as urban public space is important for people to attain positive experiences from public life and social interactions. Measuring the vitality of public space faces challenges, because the vitality is a multi-dimensional and nebulous concept. Meanwhile existing approaches often focus on the scale of activity to indicate vitality but lack of a comprehensive assessment of vitality. To overcome this problem this paper aims to address this research gap by proposing a multi-dimensional framework for a holistic evaluation of the vitality of public space. Three aspects are identified, based on theories about the vitality of public space, as critical to assessing the vitality of public space, which include individual behavior, spatial activities, and spatial interaction networks. Accordingly, three measurements, including the ratio of tourists’ revisit, the degree of mixed activities, and the centrality of network interactions are proposed. Using the proposed measurements, a case study in the city of Nanjing was carried out. The vitality of 42 parks in the center city, as examples of public space, was evaluated. To measure tourists’ activities, a dataset of two weeks’ anonymous mobile phone signal records during the March 2018 was used. The results showed that the vitalities of parks are high overall, while there are significant differences among different types of parks. In particular, parks with more comprehensive functionalities tend to show higher scores of vitalities, and parks providing one or a few specific functionalities have lower vitality and the neighborhood parks are the lowest in vitality. Moreover, the three measurements indicate variety vitality of parks. For instance, the ratios of tourists’ revisit vary greatly among parks. The degree of mixed activities, in contrary, presents a cluster pattern in which most parks gained high scores. The centrality of network interactions also varies considerably among parks. A core network of parks was observed, which is composed of 22 parks such as Xuanwu Lake, Meihuashan, and Luboyuan. From a methodological perspective, an evaluation framework proposed in this study allows us to comprehensively understand and to quantitatively measure different constructs of the vitality. The measurements also provide useful insights into the design and planning of public space, as planners could optimize public space and improve the vitality based on the evaluation results. Through the higher resolution activity data, this analysis framework can be applied to analyze the vitality of small-scale space accurately, and combined with other information, such as tourists’ property and space facility, to further explore the influencing factors of space vitality.

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    The reform of institutional environment based on the reconstruction of spatial planning in the new era
    WANG Kaiyong,CHEN Tian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2541-2551.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190275
    Abstract400)   HTML22)    PDF (6494KB)(252)      

    In the context of advancing the construction of ecological civilization in an all-round way, it is urgent to establish a territorial development and protection system supported by the spatial planning system suitable for China's national conditions. Aiming to solve the problems of uncoordinated plans and ununified land classification, based on the major function-oriented zoning in China, the spatial planning system must be established, which should be an important task to establish the spatial governance system in the new era. Based on the analysis of various types of spatial planning conflict, the principal causes of conflict were analyzed. Combined with the compilation of territorial spatial planning in the new period, some suggestions are put forward, such as promulgating the compilation methods and technical regulations of territorial spatial planning as soon as possible, readjusting the timing arrangement of the compilation of territorial spatial planning in China, and strengthening the construction of planning technical team.

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