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    From productivity to capacity of production conversion: Based on consideration of China's capacity of production conversion during the epidemic
    ZHU Shengjun, YIN Zihan, YANG Bofei, HE Canfei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (2): 293-309.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200900
    Abstract976)   HTML448)    PDF (4073KB)(630)      

    The distribution of China's productivity has focused on production capability and neglected the capacity of production conversion for a long time. Since the outbreak of COVID-19 worldwide in 2020, many cities in China have effectively alleviated the shortage of epidemic prevention materials by production conversion. This makes the urban capacity of production conversion begin to attract attention. This paper discusses the role of industrial relatedness of evolutionary economic geography in urban capacity of production conversion and builds the index system of China's urban capacity of production conversation by using the data of the registration certificate of domestic medical devices on the official website of National Medical Products Administration, Chinese Customs Trade Statistics, Chinese Industrial Enterprises Database, and other statistical data. The results of the study found that: (1) Based on the analysis of actual production conversion of epidemic prevention materials in the first quarter of 2020 in cities of China, the relatedness density can better represent the capacity of production conversion of the city. (2) The index system of China's urban capacity of production conversion with industrial relatedness as the core index can further optimize the evaluation of the urban capacity of production conversion, which provides a scientific reference for how to take both productivity and capacity of production conversion into account at the same time in China's future productivity distribution.

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    Comparative study on the mountain elevation effect of the Tibetan Plateau and the Alps
    SUO Nandongzhu, YAO Yonghui, ZHANG Baiping
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (11): 2568-2580.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190755
    Abstract664)   HTML92)    PDF (7244KB)(178)      

    Mountain elevation effect (MEE) not only produces important effect on climate, but also has profound implications for regional geo-ecology pattern. Most researches have been focused on its role as the heat source in summer and its implications for Asian climate, but little has been done on the comparative study of MEE among different mountains and theirs implications for the position of mountain altitudinal belts (MABs). Therefore, there is insufficient understanding of the regional differences of MEE, and the accuracy of the digital model of the mountain effect is not high, which seriously interferes with our understanding of the mechanism of the MEE and its influence on the vertical zone. This article selects the two mountainous regions of Eurasia, the Tibetan Plateau and the Alps, which have obvious mountain effects as the study areas. Using estimated air temperature data, alpine tree line data and ASTER GDEM data, this paper compares air temperature at the same altitude and the distribution heights of alpine tree lines between the two mountains and demonstrates the differences of MEE between the Tibetan Plateau and the Alps. The results indicate that the MEE of the Tibetan Plateau is much more stronger than that of the Alps. Firstly, due to the influence of MEE, at the same altitude (4500 m), the temperature in the Tibetan Plateau is much higher than that in the Alps, especially the temperature of the warmest month in the inner Tibetan Plateau is 10-15°C higher than that in the inner Alps, and the temperature of the coldest month in the inner Tibetan Plateau is 5-10°C higher than that in the inner Alps. Secondly, due to the influence of MEE, the alpine tree line in the inner Tibetan Plateau is also 2000-3000 m higher than that in the inner Alps. This study is a foundation for the analysis of MEE influence factors such as the mountain scale, the mountain structure and the height, and it has certain scientific significance for revealing the pattern of mountain ecosystem in Eurasia.

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    Characteristics and development process of spoon-shaped gully in the Loess Plateau
    YANG Xin, TANG Guoan, YUAN Baoyin, LIU Hailong, HUANG Xiaoli, LI Chenrui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (7): 1870-1886.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200727
    Abstract582)   HTML18)    PDF (9351KB)(220)      

    Gully is characterized by the frequent material exchanges and strong morphological changes in the Loess Plateau. Under the combined action of internal and external forces, various kinds of gullies in different development stages have shaped the unique geomorphologic landscape in the Loess Plateau. And a special loess gully, namely, the spoon-shaped gully is widely distributed in this plateau. At present, there is limited research on its formation, development process, mechanism, and spatial distribution characteristics. Using high-resolution remote sensing images and DEM data, and based on the sufficient field investigation and expert knowledge, this paper put forward the concept of loess spoon-shaped gully, and pointed out that the loess spoon-shaped gully is a kind of permanent discontinuous gully independently developed on the loess slope. Then, the characteristics of loess spoon-shaped gully were analyzed from the aspects of gully shape, confluence relationship, erosion process, and distribution characteristics, which were different from other existing gullies. Furthermore, the loess spoon-shaped gully was classified from the perspectives of development morphology, development scale and development location. Based on the space-for-time substitution theory, the morphological evolution characteristics of the spoon-shaped gully were analyzed quantitatively, and the development process of loess spoon-shaped gully was further discussed. It was proved that loess spoon-shaped gully was the initial stage of loess bank gully. Finally, on the basis of systematical summary on the characteristics of spoon-shaped gullies, the development process of spoon-shaped gullies was deduced, and it was pointed out that the formation of spoon-shaped gullies was closely related to the formation and development of loess sinkholes and dark caves. The further development was accompanied by the process of hydraulic erosion and gravity erosion. The reason for the shrinkage or the disappearence of the tail of the spoon-shaped gully can be attribute to the underground caves, loess permeability, rainfall conditions and surface cover. The results of this paper are expected to contribute to the further understanding of the landform development, erosion process and mechanism of the loess gully, and to provide references for soil and water conservation in the Loess Plateau.

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    Study on the separation of listed companies' headquarters from registered cities and their influencing factors
    HU Guojian, JING Xingxing, LU Yuqi, CHEN Yu, LI Enkang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (2): 402-418.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190991
    Abstract580)   HTML21)    PDF (7035KB)(118)      

    The inconsistency between a company's headquarters and its registered location not only violates Chinese laws, but also has a series of negative effects on the company itself and the government. However, the spatial separation of the company's headquarters from its registered place is very common in China, but this phenomenon and its effects have not received the attention of scholars. Therefore, based on the data provided by Wind Financial Terminal, this paper studies the pattern of the cross-city separation of the headquarters and registered place of China's A-share listed companies, and examines the formation process of the cross-city separation by tracking the company's annual report, and finally analyzes the impact of different indicators on the cross-city separation of headquarters and registered sites by using the binary Logistic regression model. The results show that: (1) as of July 13, 2018, 31.45 percent of listed companies with headquarters and registrations were found in different cities, of which, 177 in different provinces and 105 in different cities in the province. In addition, there are 21 listed companies with two headquarters, and at least one headquarters is not in the same city as the place of registration. (2) For listed companies with headquarters and registration signed up in different provinces, their headquarters are generally concentrated in economically developed provinces and cities, especially in Beijing and Shanghai. For companies with headquarters and registered cities separated in the province, their headquarters are mainly located in provincial capitals and cities specifically designated in the state plan. In contrast, the distribution of registration sites in both types of companies is more dispersed and registration sites are mainly in ordinary cities. (3) Inconsistencies between headquarters and registrants in cross-city migration are the main reasons for their separation between cities. The frequency of headquarters migrations is much greater than that of registrations. Headquarters are usually moved to higher-level cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, or provincial capitals, and the migration is concentrated. In contrast, the place of registration generally moves into the ordinary city, and the migration has a certain degree of diffusion. (4) The age of the listed company has no impact on the separation of the address of the listed company. The industry, organization form, registration city night light intensity, ST and whether to reorganize have an impact on the separation of listed companies' addresses across cities, but the influences in intra-provincial separation and inter-provincial separation are quite different.

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    The impact of COVID-19 on China's regional economy
    LIU Shuai
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (2): 310-325.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200669
    Abstract546)   HTML213)    PDF (2155KB)(95)      

    This paper predicts China's economic growth rate in 2020 under the influence of the COVID-19. We measure the impact of the COVID-19 on China's regional economic distribution quantitatively. This paper predicts China's economic growth in 2020 from three scenarios: pessimistic, moderate, and optimistic. According to the severity of the epidemic in various regions, the historical data is used to predict the economic data of each province in 2020. Then, the Dagum Gini method is used to analyze the changes of China's regional economic structure after the epidemic. Even in the pessimistic scenario, China's economy can still achieve 1.90% growth in 2020, and is fully capable of achieving the “six stability” and "six guarantees" tasks to ensure the stable and healthy operation of the economy and society; under the moderate and optimistic scenarios, it is expected that China's economic growth rate in 2020 will reach 2.20% and 3.74%, respectively. The analysis of regional differences shows that the trend of regional differences is expanding, the imbalance within the region is intensified, and the differences between regions become larger. This paper is helpful to objectively and comprehensively understand the changes of regional economic after COVID-19, and provide policy recommendation for the optimization and adjustment of regional economic policies.

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    Global industrial transfer and GVC regional competition: An analysis based on China and four Indo-China Peninsula countries
    YAO Zuolin, JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (2): 326-342.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200306
    Abstract537)   HTML215)    PDF (1882KB)(218)      

    Taking China and four Indo-China Peninsula countries as research objects, this paper uses the methods of multi-factors comprehensive evaluation, IRIO input-output modeling, comparative advantage index (RCA) and global value chain (GVC) analysis to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and timing situation of regional GVC competitive. It depicts the global industrial transfer characteristics of 43 economies and 8 main industrial types since the beginning of the 21st century, as well as measures the regional evolution trends of industrial transfer-in attraction and global manufacturing competitiveness, and also it analyses the GVC participation and position of different economies and industrial sectors from the perspective of GVC. The conclusions are as follows: (1) In 2000-2014, China became the economy which undertook the largest scale of global industrial transfer-in, and regional resource and comparative advantages originated from different economies were the main factors which attracted global industrial transfer-in most. (2) From 2000 to 2018, China's attractiveness of global industrial transfer-in remained at a high level, which was much higher than the four Indo-China Peninsula countries, but the attractiveness of global industrial transfer-in of China showed a trend of decline due to the increase of production cost in recent years. (3) In 2005-2015, the competitive advantages in middle-level and high-level manufacturing of China had been strengthened continuously all over the world, and Cambodia and Vietnam had respectively enhanced their global competitiveness in primary manufacturing and low-level manufacturing during the same period. (4) China's overall level of GVC participation was lower than Vietnam in 2005-2015, but its GVC position index was far ahead of the four Indo-China Peninsula countries, which indicated that China's leadership and control force in region GVC was dominant.

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    Concept and classification of unstable farmland in arid area ofNorthwest China: A case study of Changji Prefecture, Xinjiang
    ZHANG Hongqi, LI Dajing
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (3): 597-612.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200846
    Abstract528)   HTML21)    PDF (3232KB)(80)      

    It is essential to clarify the resource list of unstable cultivated land for maintaining ecological balance, ensuring regional food security and promoting the sustainable development of economy and society in the arid areas of Northwest China. At present, the definition and classification of unstable cultivated land in China is relatively general, and the resource endowment of different regions is quite different, so it is difficult to highlight the characteristics of unstable cultivated land in the arid areas of Northwest China with a national standard classification system. In this paper, the connotation and concept of the unstable cultivated land in the arid areas of Northwest China were expounded, and the classification system was constructed according to the unstable factors. Taking Changji Prefecture as a typical case, this paper analyzed the quantity, quality and spatial distribution of unstable cultivated land. The main results are as follows. (1) The definition of unstable cultivated land in the arid areas of Northwest China is as follows: limited by ecological factors (desertification, soil salinization, etc.), or production factors (water, soil, etc.), or socio-economic factors (location, farmland infrastructure, etc.), it is difficult to stabilize production, and continuous cultivation will threaten ecological security of cultivated land ecosystem and surrounding environment, and there is uncertainty in the follow-up land use types. Unstable cultivated land can be divided into four types: productive unstable type, ecological unstable type, socio-economic unstable type and mixed unstable type. (2) The area of unstable cultivated land was 14.56 ten thousand hm2 in Changji Prefecture, accounting for 22.37% of the total cultivated land area. Ecological unstable type, productive unstable type, mixed unstable type, and socio-economic unstable type accounted for 36.54%, 34.03%, 17.94% and 11.49% of the total area of unstable cultivated land, respectively. (3) The unstable cultivated land was mainly at low-grade level in Changji Prefecture, and the fourth to sixth grade cultivated land accounted for 79.96% of the total area of unstable cultivated land. Our results are of great significance for the deep understanding of the unstable cultivated land in the arid areas of Northwest China, and provide scientific support for the effective management of cultivated land resources in the case area.

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    The superscription of spatial meaning and local identity of the last primitive tribe of Wengding village, China
    GUO Wen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (11): 2449-2465.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200308
    Abstract508)   HTML165)    PDF (1338KB)(175)      

    As a traditional place, Wengding has experienced a rapid transformation from productivism to post productivism and from production space to mobile consumption space in recent years. In this process, Wengding is embedded in a series of time-space fracture and reconstruction process networks shaped by mobility, such as global and local, modern and traditional. The superscription of spatial meaning and local identity have become the focus of attention in the practice of rural tourism space. The emergence of this new problem puts forward a new demand for the rational consultation of multiple subjects in the practice of rural tourism space. This study takes Wengding, the last primitive tribe in China, as a case, and takes three cases of "encounter of stone", "lawn of power" and "relocation of new village" in the transformation of public space as the specific analysis object to analyze the overlap of spatial meaning and local identity of Wengding in the context of tourism. The research shows that Wengding village is experiencing a shift from "local space" to "mobile space" in the practice of growing globalization and global localization. The mobile power of tourism and the spatial demands of different subjects are reshaping the spatial production of social culture and relations in Wengding village. The superscription of Wengding's spatial meaning has brought about the local differential identity. Wengding is also changing from "natural identity" to "split identity". As the starting point of national unity and optimization of identity structure, the identity of villagers needs to gradually transit to "understanding identity" characterized by inter subjectivity and inter nationality. The superscription of spatial meaning and local split identity are likely to lead to the dispute of value orientation among multiple subjects, even the nihilism of local meaning. Therefore, we need to actively form the value guidance of spatial moral practice to avoid radical rural tourism spatial practice. In the future, the practice of rural tourism space should avoid the situation that one kind of subject conceals the other. The relationship between human and land in public space, the form of space subject, the visibility of place, and the negotiation, compromise and transfer of different subjects' moral norms are dimensions that cannot be ignored in the practice of rural tourism space in the new era.

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    The evolution of global trade in antiviral drug and revelation for COVID-19 prevention and control
    XIA Qifan, DU Debin, DUAN Dezhong, HUANG Xiaodong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (11): 2429-2448.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200671
    Abstract476)   HTML27)    PDF (7039KB)(91)      

    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world. The key to combating the epidemic is the international cooperation especially to the maintenance of normal and circulating trade for essential drug in the field of health. However, the increasing number of export prohibitions and limits during the epidemic have changed the previous global drug trade. The interdependent relationship in the global antiviral drug trade has been portrayed more and more clearly. This paper analyzed the 2000-2018 global spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the antiviral drug trade pattern, discussed the product structure and the status change of countries (regions) in the global antiviral drug trade system, and especially revealed the interdependence between China and other countries (regions). The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, in terms of industrial structure, the global trade system dominated by vaccine products is evolving to be dominated by vaccines and antibiotics. Both drugs are mainly exported to the developed countries like Europe and the US. China mainly exports antibiotics. Secondly, in terms of topology, the global antiviral drug trading network has the typical characteristics of "core-edge" and a small world network. The core of the network has gradually shifted from the United States to Western European countries. Besides, the network communities have gradually gathered, China has gradually separated from American communities and moved closer to Western European communities represented by Germany and Belgium and China's position in the network has become increasingly important. Thirdly, in terms of spatial structure, the global import and export trade of antiviral drug has gradually shifted from decentralization to concentration, forming a global antiviral drug trade system dominated by Europe with the decline of the United States and the rise of the Asian region. Finally, the global trade in antiviral drug has highly overlapped import and export markets. The interdependence between China and developed countries (regions) is gradually deepening, while that between China and countries (regions) along the Belt and Road is relatively low.

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    Research on characteristics and evolution of global LNG transportation network
    PENG Peng, CHENG Shifen, YANG Yu, LU Feng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (2): 373-386.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200586
    Abstract470)   HTML71)    PDF (3683KB)(193)      

    As a clean, low-carbon energy source, liquefied natural gas (LNG) plays an increasingly important role in the global energy consumption market. LNG is transported between ports through vessels, but current studies on LNG trade patterns and their evolution at the port scale is relatively limited. In this paper, we use complex network indices and community detection methods to analyze the trade pattern and evolution of the global LNG transportation network using vessel trajectory from 2013 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The LNG transportation network scale presents phased changes characteristics, and the trade relations between ports in the network are relatively sparse; (2) LNG transportation network forms a series of trading communities around hub ports. Among them, Singapore, Ras Laffan and Khawr Fakkan play extremely important roles; (3) Both ports in the same community and the communities of ports within the same country show a more geographically concentrated character.

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    Can empirical research be translated into Chinese Shizheng Yanjiu? With a classification of academic research
    TANG Maolin, HUANG Zhan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (12): 2855-2860.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200791
    Abstract461)   HTML20)    PDF (1889KB)(71)      

    The English word empirical research and Chinese word Shizheng Yanjiu (实证研究) have long been widely but arbitrarily inter-translated in Chinese academia, while the fact that Shizheng Yanjiu (实证研究) literally refers to positivism-based research has been neglected. The main reason leading to this mistranslation we argue is the failure to fully capture the nuance between empiricism and positivism. This paper examines the classification of mainstream academic research approaches in social sciences: empirical-theoretical, basic-applied and quantitative-qualitative distinctions, based on which our discussion is expanded. This revealed problem is reminding us that we Chinese scholars must ensure that the imported academic concepts from the western academia especially those with a deep philosophical root are made clear in the first place before we can apply them into various contexts. Accordingly, we would call for more attentions to be paid onto the fundamental concepts of philosophical issues as well as their correctness and accuracy in translation, which are pivotal and imperative before further discussions can be facilitated in the studies of human geography and beyond.

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    Redetermine the region and boundaries of Tibetan Plateau
    ZHANG Yili, LI Bingyuan, LIU Linshan, ZHENG Du
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (6): 1543-1553.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210138
    Abstract428)   HTML23)    PDF (20481KB)(258)      

    With the advances in research of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the deep understanding of multi-disciplinary research, coupled with the progress of geographic big-data, earth observation science and technology, this research systematically discussed the principles, methods and basis for determining the boundaries of the TP. It analyzed the macro landform structures (plateau surface, low basin and deep-cut valley lowland on the edge of the TP) within the TP and the fundamental characteristics of the geographic units' composition in TP's surrounding areas. Based on the high resolution remote sensing images, DEM data and geomorphologic maps etc., the boundary of TP with a 1:1000000 scale is defined through a comparative study of geomorphological features with the support of Arcmap 10.5. The results show that the Tibetan Plateau stretches from the foot of the Himalayas in the south to the foot of the Kunlun Mountains and the Qilian Mountains in the north, with a total length of 1560 km. While it spans about 3360 km from the Hindu Kush Mountains and the Pamir Plateau in the west, to the eastern foot of Hengduan Mountains in the east. The TP, lying between 25°59′30″N-40°1′0″N and 67°40′37″E-104°40′57″E, covers a total area of 3083.44 × 103 km2, with an average altitude of 4320 m. Geographically, the TP is located in Southwest China and eight other countries including India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Kyrgyzstan. The TP in Chinese section has an area of 2580.90 × 10 3 km2, accounting for around 83.7% of the total area, with an average altitude of 4400 m. In China's part, the TP spans in six provincial-level regions: Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Qinghai province, Gansu province, Sichuan province, Yunnan province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Among them, the main parts of TAR and Qinghai are the major section of the TP, which accounted for 60.6% of the total area of the plateau.

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    River terraces in the northern Guizhou Plateau and their implications for karst landform evolution
    JIANG Xi, CHEN Wenqi, NING Fan, SUN Yuhui, AO Jin, LUO Weijun, KUANG Guangxian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (1): 81-92.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200485
    Abstract416)   HTML30)    PDF (5958KB)(164)      

    Geologists pay much attention to mountainous geomorphic evolution of Guizhou Plateau, because of its core region of karst area in Southwest China. There are two different geomorphic blocks in the northern Guizhou Plateau, which is representative for the karst landforms in Guizhou. River terraces in the karst intermontane basin, as an important step-like landform system in this area, are of great significance for the study of regional geomorphic evolution. In this work, we studied sediment characteristics and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of the terraces in the Suiyang Basin and the Wangcao Basin in the northern Guizhou Plateau. And then, the terrace ages and associated evolutionary dynamics of Guizhou Plateau have been discussed. Combining the terrace development and geological background, we explored karst landform evolution of northern Guizhou Plateau. It is found that in the Suiyang Basin, the ages of terrace are ranged between 18.8 ka-8.2 ka for T1 and 144.4 ka-104.1 ka for T2. In the Wangcao Basin, the ages of terrace are 5.5 ka for T1 and 45.1 ka for T2. In the Suiyang Basin, the terraces mainly deposited floodplain sandy sediments, while the terraces in the Wangcao Basin mostly cut the thick dolomite bedrock. The dating results show that in the formation stage of terrace T1, the average cutting rate of the Furong River in Wangcao Basin is 1.67 m/ka, significantly greater than that of the Yangchuan River in the Suiyang Basin, which is 0.35 m/ka. According to dating and regional geological correlation, we hold that climate change may affect the sedimentary characteristics of the terraces, but tectonic uplift is the dominant driving force for terrace formation. Different terrace ages are the results of differential uplifts in the Guizhou Plateau. Based on the terrace characteristics and dating, we found that tectonic uplift and river undercutting in the Wangcao Basin were more intensive than those in the Suiyang Basin. Actively driven by differential tectonic uplift and river erosion, the karst deep-cutting gorges and peak clusters landform is formed in the Furong River Basin, a part of Dalou Mountain, while the flat intermontane basins and hill clustered landform has been developed in the middle reaches of Wujiang River Basin.

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    Migration of human capital in the context of vying for talent competition: A case study of China's "first-class" university graduates
    WANG Yifan, CUI Can, WANG Qiang, NING Yuemin, YANG Zhenshan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (3): 743-761.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200437
    Abstract412)   HTML18)    PDF (4837KB)(114)      

    Human capital is the key driver of urban innovation and development. In 2017, the "vying for talent" competition was initiated by some second-tier cities, since then cities have been competing each other fiercely for recruiting and retaining talent. This paper focuses on China′s "first-class" university graduates, who are regarded as the main target of the "vying for talent" competition and an important carrier of human capital. Based on 2018 Graduate Employment Reports, this paper demonstrates the spatial mobility of graduates using Cartogram. In addition, an evaluation system for assessing talent policy is constructed through analyses of the talent policies issued by different cities. With a directional migration model, the determinants of graduate mobility are explored. The results reveal that there are significant regional disparities in retention rates, with the geographical patterns of the Y-shaped low-value areas in the northeastern, northwestern, and central regions, and the U-shaped high-value areas covering east coast to southwest. Graduates have been accumulating spatially, and the T-shaped cluster along east coast and the Yangtze River Economic Belt has formed. The spatial patterns of "neighborhood interaction" and "long-distance unidirectional flow" are presented between the city of university and the city of employment. Moreover, the differences in city attractiveness are remarkable. First-tier cities are preferred by graduates, even though limited talent policies have been implemented there. Some second-tier cities have issued talent policies to make up for the lack of attractiveness in economy and amenities. The findings suggest that economic factors, such as income level and technological innovation, as well as amenities including natural and cultural environment, educational resources, and public transportation are positively associated with the volume of graduates inflow. It has been found that a higher ratio of house price to income has squeezed out university graduates. With regard to talent policies, only relaxed hukou policy has a strong effect on attracting graduates, whereas the effects of housing and employment policies are relatively limited. However, it needs to be noted that talent policies may take a longer time to show effects, which requires follow-up investigation. In addition, heterogeneity at the individual level in terms of place of origin, major, etc. should be explored in the future studies.

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    The econometric analysis of the effect of city housing prices on fertility rates:A study from cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China
    FANG Huifen, CHEN Jianglong, YUAN Feng, GAO Jinlong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2426-2441.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201069
    Abstract406)   HTML0)    PDF (3335KB)(0)      

    The nexus between housing prices and population has long been the hot topic for scholars in fields of humanities, economics, and geography. Taking 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta as examples, this article explored the influence of housing prices on fertility rates with the panel data from 2008 to 2018. Employing the differential GMM (Dif-GMM) and Biased-corrected LSDV (LSDVC) approaches, we modeled the underlying mechanism at regional and sub-group levels. The result of Dif-GMM model indicated that the rocketing housing prices in the study area largely triggered the decline of fertility rates. The faster the housing price rose, the faster the fertility rate declined. Besides, by using the variable of housing price to income ratio, we measured the home affordability of residents in every city. The result indicated that the faster the home affordability decreased, the faster the fertility rate decreased. Furthermore, the result of LSDVC model shed further light on the heterogeneity of nexus across sub-groups. Specifically, the fertility rates in cities with medium or low housing prices were more vulnerable to the fluctuation of housing purchasing ability, while in cities with high or medium-high housing prices, the situation was opposite. Besides, different types of cities showed distinct variations in the fertility rates when facing changes of regional economic development, which depended on the income expectation and cost expectation brought by the economic development. Stemming from the aforementioned findings, we finally proposed some policy suggestions on how to increase people’ fertility intention. The primary one is to control the speed of housing prices rise. The second one is to improve the home affordability of residents through increasing housing subsidies or residents’ income. In addition, the regulation of rising housing price in cities with low or medium housing price should not be ignored. Instead, more targeted policies should be formulated in these regions, with a view to increasing residents’ overall willingness to have children and promoting sustainable population development in the whole region.

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    Evolution pattern of scientific cooperation under several global major pandemics: Take SARS, H1N1, Ebola in West Africa and COVID-19 as examples
    DUAN Dezhong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (1): 93-108.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200444
    Abstract401)   HTML44)    PDF (6246KB)(150)      

    International cooperation is not only the leading force for global exploration of cutting-edge science, but also the best way for global response to problems including resources and environment, climate change, health, public security and other issues. It takes only six months from the discovery of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) to more than 6 million confirmed cases and 300,000 deaths, which not only proves that the COVID-19 is too contagious to be overcome, but also demonstrates the common destiny of all countries and regions in the era of globalization. In fact, when this outbreak was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 by the WHO, international cooperation is regarded as the key to combating this pandemic. Based on the Web of Science database, this paper systematically reviews the international cooperation on scientific research and its evolution during several major global epidemics. The findings are as follows. In the international cooperation of SARS, H1N1 and Ebola, the United States has been playing a critical role. Meanwhile, Chinese Hong Kong and European countries took the lead in the research of SARS virus and Ebola virus, respectively. By intercepting the COVID-19 research papers on four time nodes, it is found that the cooperation between China and the United States is the constructive framework of the COVID-19 research international cooperation network. In view of the current global pandemic of COVID-19 virus, this article recommends that research institutions in China strengthen the research on COVID-19 virus and vaccines, and actively cooperate with foreign research institutions, especially those countries and regions with severe situations. In the direction of cooperation, the collaboration with U.S. research institutions should be strengthened. In terms of cooperation strategy, it can take advantage of the Hong Kong region to carry out tripartite or multi-party cooperation with relevant foreign research institutions.

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    Research progress on the sustainable development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    GAO Qing, MIAO Yi, SONG Jinping
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (1): 1-17.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200614
    Abstract349)   HTML17)    PDF (2426KB)(168)      

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, also known as the roof of the world, the water tower of Asia and the third pole of the earth, profoundly affects the ecological security at the national and global scales. But its harsh, sensitive and fragile natural environment has long been constraining local socio-economic development. It is an inevitable requirement for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to take the path of sustainable development in order to balance the socio-economic development with ecological protection. In this context, it is necessary to summarize the relevant research results on the sustainable development of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau so as to promote the transformation of the relevant research into targeted, operable and implementable policy reference in the regional sustainable development. Therefore, this paper selects 1416 Chinese papers and 120 English papers related to the sustainable development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by conditional search based on the database of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science (WOS). And this paper uses the CiteSpace 5.7.R2 visualization software to carry out bibliometric analysis such as keyword co-occurrence network analysis and institutions cooperation network analysis based on these papers, and further thoroughly reviews the progress of related research. This paper finds that the study of the sustainable development of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has experienced the slow rising stage (before 1999), the accelerated rising stage (1999-2009), the fluctuant decline stage (2009-2017) and the new development stage (after 2017). By combing the relevant research, it is also found that scholars have made a rich exploration on the sustainable development of the whole region and systems of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from many aspects such as the interaction among systems, practices, countermeasures and evaluation. However, there are still some problems in the research content, the perspectives and the methods. There is an urgent need to make further research in the mechanisms and influencing factors of multi-scale regions from the interdisciplinary perspective with multiple research methods, deepen the understanding of the sustainable development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and summarize and explore the sustainable development paths of different function areas so as to build a basic theoretical framework for the study of the sustainable development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Evolution of the Belt and Road production networks and China's economic contribution
    ZHENG Zhi, LIU Weidong, SONG Zhouying, HUANG Mengna
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (12): 2653-2668.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190967
    Abstract346)   HTML24)    PDF (3536KB)(93)      

    The global production networks have become one of the most important organization platform for coordinating and organizing global production activities, and the development of production networks in the Belt and Road area has a great significance for further promotion of the Belt and Road Initiative. At the same time, since the Belt and Road Initiative was put forward, there has been an endless stream of misunderstandings and even negative remarks. So it is also crucial to establish a discourse system conducive to the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative. This paper uses the methods of input and output analysis, value-added decomposition and network analysis to carry out quantitative research on the evolution process of production networks in the Belt and Road region and China's economic drive to this region through production networks. The results show that: (1) From 1995 to 2015, the inter-regional production network links in the Belt and Road region were constantly strengthened. (2) The regional production network structure underwent great changes, and the focus shift and integration trend coexisted. (3) China's contribution to the economic development of the Belt and Road region through production network cooperation continuously increased and effectively promoted the development of the regional economy. (4) China's economic contribution to the Belt and Road region presents a geographical pattern of high in the northern and southern regions and low in the central region. This paper proposes that strengthening the production network cooperation in the Belt and Road region is an effective way to activate late-comer advantages, highlight comparative advantages and jointly respond to external economic risks. At the same time, establishing the academic discourse system of the Belt and Road still requires joint multi-disciplinary efforts.

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    Time series monitoring and analysis of hydrological change process of Sarez Dammed Lake from 1972 to 2019 by multi-source remote sensing
    WANG Xiang, ZHU Changming, ZHANG Xin, WANG Weisheng, FANG Hui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (1): 67-80.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200383
    Abstract332)   HTML25)    PDF (6385KB)(137)      

    The hydrological characteristic process of the dammed lake has practical guiding significance and scientific reference value for the macro-control, forecast and early warning, safety prevention and control of floods in the reservoir area. In order to acquire and grasp the hydrologic characteristics and historical evolution process of the Sarez Dammed Lake in Pamir Plateau in time, the spatiotemporal changes and hydrologic evolution process of this dammed lake from 1972 to 2019 are comprehensively and systematically analyzed by using the intensive time series remote sensing data and the measured data of the hydrological station. And through the "area-water level" relationship model, we reconstruct the historical water level and historical area evolution sequence process of the Sarez Dammed Lake from 1972 to 2019. On this basis, the Mann-Kendall trend and mutation test method is adopted to analyze the hydrological change of the lake. The research results show that: (1) In general, the water level process showed a significant upward trend in volatility, and this volatility trend was mainly manifested in fluctuations and high oscillations during the year, but the amplitude of the rising water level was decreasing year by year. (2) In terms of the hydrological evolution, the hydrological characteristics had an abrupt inflection point around 2013, where the lake area and water level changed from the original slow increase to the accelerated rise. (3) The relationship model between the area and the water level of the Sarez dammed lake is: y=-0.1003x2+18.181x+2440 (R 2=0.63, P<0.05, two tail). Combined with the analysis of river basin meteorology, runoff and related literature data, it is concluded that the intra-annual/inter-annual hydrological fluctuations of the lake are directly affected by the runoff recharge of the upstream Murgabu River. In terms of the causes of hydrological changes, we believe that the increase of river runoff caused by the accelerated melting of plateau glaciers and snow under the environment of global warming is the main reason for the accelerated increase of the area and water level of the lake in recent years.

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    Identifying the spatial scope of megaregions in China from the perspective of accessibility
    CHEN Wei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (12): 2808-2820.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200365
    Abstract331)   HTML10)    PDF (5572KB)(79)      

    As a fundamental measurement to depict regional interaction, spatial accessibility has been a marked characteristic of the function of agglomeration and diffusion within urban and regional systems. Considering the spatial heterogeneity of land surface, we in this study developed a more comprehensive analytical method and constructed an accessibility analytical algorithm that more closely approximates the real situation, by integrating both land surface conditions and transport networks, to more reliably determine the overall patterns of accessibility of cities in China at the prefecture level and above. This approach provides a basic guarantee for determining the spatial scope of megaregions in China. The results show that the multi-scalar urban functional regions in China have been recognized at both urban and regional levels from the perspective of spatial accessibility. Utilizing the analyses of urban isochrones, we further identified 15 potential megaregions from the perspectives of spatial continuity, correlation, and compactness. They are the megaregions of Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Chengdu-Chongqing, Shandong Peninsula, Central China Plains, Western Taiwan Straits, Central Shaanxi, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan, Central and Western Liaoning, Wuhan, Central Anhui, Central Shanxi, Northern Guangxi and Northern Ningxia. Compared with the 19 megaregions proposed by the Outline of the National “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” (2016-2020), the 15 megaregions identified in this paper have both commonalities and obvious differences. On the whole, the spatial scopes of the megaregions identified in this paper are generally smaller than those approved by the central government or provincial governments. Therefore, to have a scientific understanding of the differences between “naturally-grown” and “administrative-planned” megaregions is of great value for better playing the role of megaregions and promoting sustainable development of megaregions in China.

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