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    The urban space and urban development boundary under the framework of territory spatial planning
    GAO Xiaolu,WU Danxian,ZHOU Kan,LIAO Liuwen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2458-2472.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171164
    Abstract2836)   HTML40)    PDF (14678KB)(712)      

    The assessment of suitability for urban land-use and delimitation of urban space (US) and urban development boundary (UDB) are among the key tasks and is a challenge for carrying out basic evaluation and drawing up the base map of planning in the 'Pilot Program of Province-level Spatial Planning' launched by the State Council in 2016. In line with the framework of spatial planning reform, i.e. to achieve effective governance over national land- use with the tool of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary), we first explored the conceptual ideas of US and UDB, and appropriate topological relationships and rules, upon which the principles and methodology for assessing suitability for urban land-use and delimitation of US and UDB were determined. Then, based upon the practice in Fujian province, we elaborated the procedures and the method. It was revealed that the proposed principles and methodologies are reasonable and feasible. One aspect that sets the work apart from previous practices is that, US and UDB were designated upon comprehensive assessment of the carrying capacity of resources and environments and the suitability of land for different functions. This improves the balance of urban development activities with resource and environments. In addition, the procedure for drawing up US and UDB incorporates the evaluation of urban development potentials and directions of each land parcel, and considers the objectives of spatial governance over the whole area, thus the randomness of US and UDB is well controlled. This practice is expected to provide useful reference for the improvement of the Chinese spatial planning system.

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    The evolution of water level in Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River and its response to water exchange in the Dongting Lake
    WANG Yanjia,LI Jingbao,LI Yani,LV Dianqing,DAI Wen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (9): 2302-2313.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181187
    Abstract1223)   HTML47)    PDF (4910KB)(223)      

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the water level evolution of the Three Outlets in the Southern Jingjiang River system and the exchange of river and lake water volume. Based on the monthly mean water level and discharge data obtained from 10 stations concerning the Three Outlets, Four Rivers and Chenglingji station of Dongting Lake and Zhicheng station along the Yangtze River Mainstream, as well as the precipitation data from another eight stations from 1956 to 2017, the temporal evolution of the Three Outlets' water level and its relationship with precipitation and water exchange in the Dongting Lake and human activities were studied by using Mann-Kendall trend test method, regression analysis and flow year eigenvalue method. The results show that: (1) Compared with the first stage (1956-1966), the average mean water level and the average highest water level of the second (1967-1980), third (1981-2002) and fourth (2003-2017) stages decreased by 0.74 m, and 0.37 m respectively, while the average lowest water level increased by 0.07 m. (2) The average lowest water level of the Three Outlets dropped by the largest volume (-0.98 m), followed by the average water level (-0.78 m). The average highest water level of the Three Outlets rose by 0.55 m in the four hydrological seasons, including the water-rising season (April-May), wet season (June-September), water-falling season (October-November) and dry season (December-March of the following year). In terms of the hydrological season, the drop of the Three Outlets' characteristic water level was in the order of water-falling season (-0.95 m) > wet season (-0.61 m) > water-rising season (-0.21 m) > dry season (0.15 m). (3) The change of the water level in the Three Outlets had a good consistency with its discharge (correlation coefficient of the two r=0.65), but had a weak correlation with precipitation (r=-0.16). However, the drought climate from 2002 to 2017 aggravated the decline of the water level of the Three Outlets. Generally speaking, water reduction at Zhicheng station in the Yangtze River and human activities represented by water conservancy projects were the main driving factors leading to the overall decline of the characteristic water level of the Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River.

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    Demarcating ecological space and ecological protection red line under the framework of territory spatial planning
    ZHANG Xuefei,WANG Chuansheng,LI Meng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2430-2446.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171221
    Abstract1214)   HTML47)    PDF (24466KB)(502)      

    Territorial space planning at the provincial level is a brand-new attempt of "multiple planning integration" fundamental regime. The core content is demarcating the "urban space, agriculture space, ecological space, urban development boundary, permanent basic farmland and ecological protection red line", to analyze natural and social background scientifically, which are the strict assignments of all kinds of space boundary, so as to strengthen national spatial control. The "ecological space and ecological protection red line" refered to "ecological space and ecological protection red line", which is the concrete embodiment of the "concept of ecology priority" in the construction of ecological civilization in the new era of China. The ecological protection red line is the core of ecological space, which has three characteristics: the strongly underlying constraints, the wide range of coverage and the high level of constraints. With full absorption of the "Technical Guideline for Demarcating the Red Line of Ecological Protection" promulgated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, this study, taking the whole land area of Fujian province as an example, carried out double assignments of ecological protection level and ecological protection priority, based on the thought of ecological carrying capacity and suitability; and then discussed and practiced the demarcation of ecological space and ecological protection red line under the framework of provincial spatial planning, so as to put forward "multiple planning integration" and to be a useful reference for the demarcation of territorial space planning in coastal and mountainous provinces. The results show that, the whole area of Fujian ecological space and ecological protection red line is about 95932.88 square kilometers, accounting for 78.76% of the province's land area. The ecological protection red line is about 25461.39 square kilometers, taking 20.90% of the province's land area. The "biodiversity maintenance red line" and "water source protection and water conservation red line ", which were subordinated to the ecological protection red line, accounting for 11.96% and 6.26% of the province's land area. The "biodiversity maintenance red line" and "water source protection and water conservation red line" were concentrated in Wuyi Mountains, Daiyun mountain, Zhejiang-Fujian mountainous region, southern Fujian mountainous region and southeastern coastal area, which are mainly consistent with Fujian ecological function zones.

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    Spatial organization pathway for territorial function-structure:Discussion on implementation of major function zoning strategy in territorial spatial planning
    FAN Jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2373-2387.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190865
    Abstract916)   HTML82)    PDF (5539KB)(687)      

    The spatial organization law of territorial function-structure is the basic theoretical problem of human-earth system coupling research, as well as the basic theory of carrying out territorial spatial planning and shaping sustainable geographical pattern. Starting from the discussion of geography on the repetition, prediction, regulation and optimization of geographical processes, this paper explains that the spatial governance system is an important way for modern geography to regulate and optimize the sustainable geographical processes and patterns. The spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the spatial structure of territorial function composed of ecological-life-production (also known as three living spaces) are adopted to express the spatial order law of territorial function - structure, and explain some spatial organization goals, e.g., the coordination between territorial function and natural geographical environment, the minimization of various functions and conflicts between different units in the same region, the effective transmission of territorial functions in different spatial scales, and the maximization of comprehensive benefits in a long time scale. On the one hand, from the perspective of sustainability, the concept of four attributes of natural elements -- resources, environment, ecology and disasters -- is proposed. Through the integration of the four attributes, the natural carrying capacity is constructed, and the function of the original value, remaining value and potential value of carrying capacity in spatial planning is analyzed, so as to form the basic method of analyzing spatial organization from bottom to top. On the other hand, starting from new spatial equilibrium, the basic method of top-down spatial organization analysis is formed based on the territorial functional suitability of carrying capacity, integrated position and spatial structure parameters. Furthermore, the basic and strategic values of the major function zoning formed by the two methods for spatial organization and planning are discussed, and a new idea of separation and interrelation of the zoning, strategy, system with planning of utilization is proposed. With the implementation of the strategy of major function zoning as the main line, the spatial scale-down conduction of major functions as the core scientific problem, and the key constraint parameters as the control indicators of spatial structure, this paper discusses the database and territorial function pedigree, functional and scale-dependent carrying capacity evaluation method and model, and the construction framework of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary), and demonstrates the way to implement the strategy of major function zoning in spatial planning. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions that geography should strengthen the construction of scientific and technological support system, e.g., the basic theory, method and technology of large and medium spatial scale (regional) territorial spatial planning.

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    Interregional agricultural eco-compensation based on virtual cultivated land flow: Regional division and compensation standard accounting
    LIANG Liutao,ZHU Kongchao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (8): 1932-1948.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180549
    Abstract817)   HTML19)    PDF (1590KB)(119)      

    At present, the practice of agricultural eco-compensation in China is mainly concerned with the central vertical transfer payment to local governments, but the overall effect is not very good. Under the conditions of opening up the grain market, the flow of grain is also accompanied by the inter-regional flow of virtual cultivated land. The area where virtual cultivated land is transferred has paid too much economic, resource, and ecological costs. In order to ensure interregional fairness, it is necessary to provide eco-compensation for the virtual cultivated land flowing-out area based on the carrier of virtual cultivated land, which provides new ideas for the study of interregional agricultural eco-compensation. Therefore, this paper attempted to construct an interregional agricultural eco-compensation framework from the perspective of the flow of virtual cultivated land, and under this framework, studies were carried out on the inter-regional agricultural eco-compensation payment/compensation divisions and compensation standard measurement. The results indicate that: the basic principle of the interregional agricultural eco-compensation is to use the virtual cultivated land net flow (the difference between the input and output of virtual farmland) indicators to divide the payment/receipt area of the inter-regional eco-compensation. The sub-compartment with positive net flow should pay eco-compensation to the net outflow sub-compartment of the virtual cultivated land because the flow of virtual cultivated land occupied the land resources of other regions. A sub-compartment with negative net flow means that the sub-community's land resources are occupied by other areas through the virtual cultivated land flow and should receive eco-compensation. The amount of inter-regional agricultural eco-compensation should include the investment cost of agricultural eco-environmental protection and improvement, as well as the opportunity cost of occupying agricultural resources to be lost and uniformly collected and distributed by the management platform. After 2004, the flow of virtual cultivated land tended to be stable, which is represented by the pattern of "Shift of Farmland from South to North". The compensation area for the inter-regional agricultural eco-compensation includes 15 provincial-level areas, mainly in the northeast, north and northwest regions. The payment area includes 16 provincial-level areas, mainly in the eastern coastal areas and southwest regions. In terms of the amount of reimbursement, the average annual total value within the study period was 147.258 billion yuan, and the average annual quotas in highly compensated regions (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Henan) were all above 15 billion yuan. Regarding the amount of payments, the average annual value during the study period was 54.301 billion yuan, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Beijing, and Fujian in the high-paying regions had an average annual payment of more than 4 billion yuan, and Guangdong exceeded 15 billion yuan.

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    Identification of the candidate areas of ecological protection red lines based on water conservation function in territory spatial planning
    LI Meng,WANG Chuansheng,ZHANG Xuefei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2447-2457.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180011
    Abstract769)   HTML21)    PDF (11200KB)(343)      

    The importance of the water conservation functional region is one of the key classification indexes to define the ecological protection “red line”, i.e. the ecological protection area with the highest priority. After reviewing the classification indexes previously used for identifying the water conservation functional region and investigating their potential influences on applied areas, we propose a new method of the Red Line determination, taking the water conservation ability into account and discuss an improvement in the evaluation of the red line determination method, fulfilling the requirement of the national spatial planning, i.e. the “Three Zones and Three Lines” bottom-up determination (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary). The study area in this paper is Liupanshui, Guizhou, a typical karst landform region in China. After combing through the previously used indexes as well as the target areas for classifying the water conservation function, we compare results of the Red Line determined by three methods, which are the modeling method, the quantifying index method (NPP) (both methods were proposed in the “Guidelines for the Delimitation of the Ecological Protection Red Line” and published by the MEP of China respectively in 2015 and 2017) and an improved method we newly propose in this study. Our method introduces two factors. One is the “vegetation cover index”, used in recognizing non-ecological land and in increasing the weight of the positive effects of the water conservation function on the forest land. The other is the “elevation index”, for including qualified mountain top areas as alternatives of the red line. In Liupanshui, 34.25% of the cultivated land areas is selected as the candidates for the red line, using our newly proposed method. The percentage of the cultivated land is less than the ones obtained by the modeling method (46.62%) and NPP (38.54%). Further, our method identifies more candidates of forest land areas by the amount of 44.2%, while the modeling method reaches 25.31% only and NPP reaches 43.74%. In conclusion, using the vegetation cover index and the elevation index to classify the water conservation functional regions, the red line determined by our method has a better match with the real ecological condition of Liupanshui, compared to the results from the modeling method and NPP. Therefore, we advocate these two indexes to be included as additional indicators in the “Guidelines for the Delimitation of the Ecological Protection Red Line”, in order to increase the precision of the redline determination.

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    Spatial variation of migrant population's return intention and its determinants in China's prefecture and provincial level cities
    GU Hengyu,QIN Xiaoling,SHEN Tiyan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (8): 1877-1890.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180473
    Abstract757)   HTML54)    PDF (4987KB)(319)      

    In China, population migration has an influence on the level of economic and social development in various regions. In 2016, the scale of migrant population reached 245 million, which became an important factor affecting population changes. From the perspective of migrant populations' destinations, with the control of population scale in some big cities in China, and the sustained economic growth in the central and western regions, the problem of population reflux is attracting more and more attention from the society. The spatial differentiation and influencing factors of migrant populations' return intention are vital issues which are urgent to be investigated. Based on data from the 2016 China Migrant Population Dynamic Survey (CMDS), this paper discusses the phenomenon about spatial differentiation of migrant populations' return intention in 279 prefecture and provincial level cities in China, using GIS spatial analysis methods such as Moran's I coefficient, Getis-Ord Gi *. Besides, we investigate the influencing factors of migrant populations' return intention. Study comes to the following conclusions: (1) Compared with the residence intention and hukou transfer intention, the return intention of migrant population in China is lower (6.17%), and the majority of migrants (74.05%) are eager to take their own home towns as refluxing destination. The scale of cities, the level of cities and the return intention of migrant population present an asymmetric "U"-shaped pattern. (2) The spatial distribution of return intention presents an aggregation pattern with marked spatial differentiation. The return intention of migrant population in Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration and Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration is higher than that in Chengdu-Chongqing Urban Agglomeration and Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration. Among the four main geographical divisions, the return intention of urban floating population in the eastern region is the highest while that of the northeast region is the lowest. South China, central-south China and part of East China are hot spots of return intention while Northeast and North China are in a weak corner. (3) The return intention is influenced by both internal factors of migrant population and external factors of in-flow area. Educational level and economic development are both internal and external factors that simultaneously play different roles in return intention. (4) Family connection, social networks, housing and economic factors of migrant population are main forces that shape the spatial pattern of return intention. Family scale in in-flow area and home-ownership rates inhibit return intention while variables such as family scale in non-in-flow area, migrant times and the family's income and expenditure proportion exert a positive influence on return intention. Based on the above conclusions, this paper proposes strategies for relevant departments on the management of migrant population.

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    The reform of institutional environment based on the reconstruction of spatial planning in the new era
    WANG Kaiyong,CHEN Tian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2541-2551.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190275
    Abstract676)   HTML23)    PDF (6494KB)(294)      

    In the context of advancing the construction of ecological civilization in an all-round way, it is urgent to establish a territorial development and protection system supported by the spatial planning system suitable for China's national conditions. Aiming to solve the problems of uncoordinated plans and ununified land classification, based on the major function-oriented zoning in China, the spatial planning system must be established, which should be an important task to establish the spatial governance system in the new era. Based on the analysis of various types of spatial planning conflict, the principal causes of conflict were analyzed. Combined with the compilation of territorial spatial planning in the new period, some suggestions are put forward, such as promulgating the compilation methods and technical regulations of territorial spatial planning as soon as possible, readjusting the timing arrangement of the compilation of territorial spatial planning in China, and strengthening the construction of planning technical team.

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    Spatial structure of the urban agglomeration based on space of flows: The study of the Pearl River Delta
    WANG Shaojian,GAO Shuang,WANG Yuqu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (8): 1849-1861.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180635
    Abstract675)   HTML74)    PDF (6075KB)(534)      

    With the development of modern transportation, communication and information technology, the "space of flow" based on network society has become an important theoretical frontier for studying urban spatial structure. Based on the passenger flow, material flow, fund flow and internet information flow in nine cities of the Pearl River Delta, this paper makes a comprehensive judgment on the present situation and development trend of spatial structure of urban agglomeration in this region. Research findings are as follows: (1) The present situation of urban spatial structure in the Pearl River Delta presents obvious unipolarization, and Guangzhou is the core of the delta based on the "space of flow". (2) Cities at different levels will play different roles in the future development of the urban agglomeration network. Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Dongguan play a leading role in the development of spatial structure, while Foshan, Zhongshan and other cities will assume the function of connecting transit stations. (3) The urban areas of the Pearl River Delta are well integrated. The spatial form of the radiated area of each city also indicates the functional circle and sphere of influence of each city. In the future, with the strengthening of globalization and regional integration policies, the agglomeration effect of the Pearl River Delta region will be transformed into diffusion effect, which will greatly improve the ability of the delta to absorb and allocate resources on a global scale.

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    Targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization in poverty-stricken areas: Internal logic and mechanism
    GUO Yuanzhi, ZHOU Yang, LIU Yansui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2819-2832.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190644
    Abstract673)   HTML78)    PDF (3213KB)(456)      

    Targeting at the needs of Two Centenary Goals, rural development in poverty-stricken areas of China is gradually transforming from poverty alleviation to rural revitalization. Since there is a close relationship between these two stages, targeted poverty alleviation practices in rural areas are of great significance to promote the realization of rural revitalization. This study analyzed the connotations of targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, and investigated the internal logic between them. Then it discussed how antipoverty practices promote the rural revitalization in poverty-stricken areas. Results show that targeted poverty alleviation aims at taking countermeasures to help those who truly need them based on scientific diagnosis of the factors leading to poverty, thus all kinds of factors causing poverty can be eliminated fundamentally. The key of rural revitalization lies in establishing the system and mechanism for urban-rural integrated development, eventually realizing the modernization of agriculture and countryside. In term of the relationship between targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, the former is the key and basic premise of the latter since poverty reduction guided by targeted poverty alleviation makes up the shortboard of rural development, and the latter is the higher stage and guarantee of the former since it steadily improves the abilities of rural sustainable development. Therefore, it can be said that the process of poverty alleviation in rural areas is also a process of gradual rejuvenation of the countryside. Through the rational flow and allocation of factors, such as human, land and capital, poverty-stricken areas have constructed a benign rural regional system with enough elements, proper structure and multiple functions to promote the revitalization of industries, talent, culture, ecology and organizations. Eventually, it helps to achieve the goals of strong agriculture, beautiful countryside and well-off farmers. Rural development has obvious path dependence; thus, its cyclic accumulation effect determines that the current antipoverty in poor areas should focus on the effective connection with rural revitalization, laying a solid foundation for rural sustainable development.

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    Research on a comprehensive map of infrastructure and public facilities for territory spatial planning
    WANG Jiaoe,CHEN Zhuo,JING Yue,HUANG Jie,JIN Fengjun
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2496-2505.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171110
    Abstract511)   HTML15)    PDF (8574KB)(367)      

    Infrastructure is a human-built system based on the physical environment, thus the layout of infrastructure network represents the relationship of human-related spatial interactions between places. Infrastructure system is not only an important component for shaping regional spatial structure, but also a key element for regional development. Since infrastructure is significant for leading and optimizing the spatial order of regional development, thus it is also necessary for spatial planning. The paper analyzes existing planning systems for infrastructure construction, and then provides a theoretical framework for planning infrastructures and public service facilities in spatial planning. The existing planning systems mainly have the following problems. Firstly, the content of public service facilities planning has not been valued. Secondly, the departmental segmentation of the transportation management system leads to a prominent interest of departments in the special plan. Last but not least, the relationships between planning levels are unreasonable, and a single general map covering all types of infrastructures is lacking. Therefore, from the perspective of overall spatial layout, the paper proposes a theoretical framework for the integrated planning of infrastructure and public service facilities based on the general patterns of social and economic development. The theoretical framework includes the content that should be covered by the planning scheme, the technical roadmap for working out the project, as well as key planning points on different spatial scales at the provincial, municipal, and county levels. What's more, combined with the network layout of transportation facilities and the spatial pattern of traffic activities, a technical framework of hub and corridor identification is designed. Finally, with the case study of Fujian, the paper explores the research flowchart for infrastructure and public service facilities, emphasizes the relationship between special planning, Three Zones and Three Lines (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary) and spatial overall layout, aiming to provide experiences for spatial planning in other parts of China. In Fujian's spatial planning, we first design the special comprehensive map of public facilities and standardize some new legends. The comprehensive map of infrastructure system contains all elements such as energy facilities, water resource facilities, and information and communication facilities in addition to transport infrastructure.

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    Spatial pattern and contributing factors of homestay inns in the area around Mogan Mountain
    ZHANG Haizhou, LU Lin, ZHANG Dapeng, YU Hu, ZHANG Xiao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (11): 2695-2715.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180918
    Abstract471)   HTML54)    PDF (15763KB)(247)      

    Homestay inn is an emerging form of commercial format and space utilization in the process of rural vitalization and tourism transformation and upgrading in China, but academic attention is lagging behind. The area around Mogan Mountain (AAMM) is one of the most typical homestay inn clusters in China and has becoming a world well-known regional brand in the tourism of homestay inn. In this study, with official government statistics and field research data, spatio-temporal pattern and contributing factors of homestay inns in AAMM was systematically analyzed based on the micro-scale of the tourism destination using the spatial process analysis method of the combination of ArcGIS and Geodetector. The results show: (1) From 2011 to 2017, the total number and spatial distribution range of homestay inns in the AAMM had been expanding. The direction of spatial development changed greatly, gradually tending to the balanced spatial development of the whole town field. The spatial pattern of homestay inns in the AAMM is a cluster area centered on villages of “Houwu-Xiantan-Liaoyuan-Laoling-Lanshukeng” bordering Mogan Mountain Scenic Area, and aggregation point in edge villages of the AAMM. Spatio-temporal patterns of different grades of homestay inns are significantly different. (2) The spatial process of homestay inns in AAMM has been changing from agglomeration to a strong agglomeration, and the agglomeration degrees of different grades of homestay inns in AAMM have increased rapidly. The diffusion effect of the early aggregation points were significant. The spatial agglomeration process is closely related to the terrain topography, core scenic spot, traffic trunks and residential areas. (3) Scenery, development foundations, social factors and location are all contributing factors of the spatial heterogeneity of homestay inns in the AAMM. And the influence of the interaction between two determinants of dimensions appeared to be larger. The spacial law of the homestay inn in mountain areas can be concluded that “natural-scenery-traffic-social” multi-factors have a comprehensive and interactive effect on the spatial agglomeration. Significant differences exist in spatial determinants of dimensions and indicators of different grades with the rule that the spatial location selections for the high, mid- and low grades are physical geographical landscape oriented, industrial landscape oriented and social landscape oriented, respectively. It is of great theoretical significance to extend the study types of the location in the hospitality industry and to summarize the spatial development model of typical homestay inn cluster in China. At the same time, it has the practical values for the site location selection of homestay inn and the development planning of the homestay inn cluster.

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    Territory spatial planning system and the convergence between different levels
    GUO Rui,CHEN Dong,FAN Jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2518-2526.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171118
    Abstract467)   HTML17)    PDF (8390KB)(323)      

    An orderly and efficient spatial planning system is an important part of the modern governance system and governance capacity. At present, the problems of different spatial planning fights in China and the non-convergence of planning at the upper and lower levels are prominent. The spatial planning of convergence and integration with each other is still in the stage of reform and pilot. This paper reviews the stage process of the development of China's spatial planning system. According to the spatial hierarchy and planning type, this paper proposes a spatial planning system with Chinese characteristics that suit China's land area and regional unit conditions. Combined with the pilot cases of spatial planning in Fujian and Guizhou provinces, five types of convergence in the spatial planning system are summarized, including the connection of the "Three Zones and Three Lines" Base Map and the General Layout of the Spatial Planning, the connection of the "Three Zones and Three Lines" Base Map and the Overall Layout of the Special Planning, the connection of the General Layout of the Spatial Planning and the Overall Layout of the Special Planning, the connection of the Overall Layout of the Special Planning and the Special Planning made by various professional departments of the government, and the coordination between the upper and lower levels of spatial planning. Finally, this paper points out the difficulties to be overcome and efforts that should be made in the future to further improve and perfect the spatial planning system from four aspects, i.e., the data base, subject system, personnel training and planning process.

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    Spatial heterogeneity and formation mechanism of eco-environmental effect of land use change in China
    CHEN Wanxu,LI Jiangfeng,ZENG Jie,RAN Duan,YANG Bin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (9): 2173-2187.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180659
    Abstract467)   HTML52)    PDF (9939KB)(376)      

    The complex physical elements, socioeconomic elements, regional development strategies, and policy adjustments have formed China's current unbalanced spatial economic development pattern, spatial land use pattern, and spatial eco-environmental quality pattern. The unclear eco-environmental quality formation mechanism would limit the sustainable land use and the effective conservation of the ecological environment in China. Few studies have examined the spatial heterogeneity and the formation mechanism of China's eco-environmental quality at the national scale. This paper uses the eco-environmental quality index method to measure the eco-environmental effects of land use/land cover change (LULCC) to provide an overall review of eco-environmental quality index under complex physical and socioeconomic circumstances in China. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution features and formation mechanism of eco-environmental quality from 1995 to 2015 with the gravity center analysis method, hot-spots analysis tool (Getis-Ord Gi*), and Geo-detectors tool. The results are as follows: (1) The eco-environmental quality of the eastern monsoon region is higher than that of the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the arid region of northwest China. The low-value regions of the eastern monsoon region are mainly distributed in urban areas with dense population and economic agglomeration. The gravity center of eco-environmental quality during the study period moves toward the northwest of China continuously; (2) The hot-spots areas of eco-environmental quality change during 1995-2015 are mainly distributed in Tibet, Xinjiang, Chongqing, Guizhou, and the provinces located in the Loess Plateau (Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Henan). The cold-spots areas are mainly distributed in the provinces along the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the coastal regions in the southeast of China. The cold-spots and hot-spots changes in China's eco-environmental quality are closely related to the regional development strategies and the implementation of ecological conservation projects in China; (3) Land use intensity has a stronger effect on the eco-environmental quality than other factors, and the impacts of socioeconomy, traffic road, geographic location in the eastern monsoon region are stronger than those in the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the arid region of northwest China; (4) The interactions between physical elements and socioeconomic elements are stronger than the interactions within individual indicators. The interactions between the influencing factors mainly include nonlinear enhancement and bi-factor enhancement, and nonlinear enhancement is the dominant interaction mode.

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    Research on methods and approaches of spatial governances
    ZHOU Kan,FAN Jie,SHENG Kerong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2527-2540.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190308
    Abstract466)   HTML17)    PDF (16770KB)(346)      

    Spatial governance is a scientific planning and management arrangement for various human development and protection activities on territorial space, and it is an important policy tool for the macro-control and micro-fine management of land resources. This study explores the framework of spatial governance system from the perspective of territorial function and resource environmental carrying capacity. Meanwhile, by taking Fujian province and Liupanshui city of Guizhou province as examples, the technical methods of spatial governances for the collaborative delineation of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary) and territorial development intensity calculation is analyzed. Finally, the multi-scale and multi-time spatial governances approaches for functional control and threshold control is proposed: (1) The function control approach is based on the major function zoning and the "Three Zones and Three Lines" governance map, according to four types of major function orientation, three types of territorial spaces (including ecology, agriculture and urban space), six types of zoning (including red lines for ecological protection and general ecological area, permanent basic farmland and general agricultural area, urban development boundary and urban reserved area) and "N" types of construction and non-construction land use. (2) Based on the territorial development intensity (TDI), the threshold control approach is implementing the "total quantity & target" and "processes & increasing range" dual control, and upper and lower limits dual control. Through the comprehensive approaches of spatial governances, it is expected to achieve a balanced and coordinated "production-life-ecology" structure within and across all types of territorial space, and shape a high-quality and sustainable regional development and protection pattern.

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    Territorial function optimization regionalization based on the integration of "Double Evaluation"
    WANG Yafei,FAN Jie,ZHOU Kan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2415-2429.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190327
    Abstract431)   HTML25)    PDF (9258KB)(353)      

    As the scientific basis for constructing the basic strategic structures of territorial land space and implementing functional zoning, the "Double Evaluation" (i.e. resources and environmental carrying capacity and territorial development suitability evaluation) provides a series of important parameters for the downscaling of the major function zoning, the optimization of the spatial structure, and the intensity control of the land development. Based on territorial function theory, this paper explores the theoretical connotation of "Double Evaluation" from the evolution of human-land relationship, establishes the scientific logic of "Double Evaluation" to territorial function optimization, and points out that the major function regionalization scheme from "Double Evaluation" comprehensive integration that realizes the comprehensive benefit maximization is the optimal result of territorial function optimization. Taking Fujian province and Liupanshui city as two cases, we transform the rational demand of human production and living activities into the demand control parameters of land use. Combined with the superior planning and the government and expert system, we determine the critical target parameters, including the total control parameters, structural control parameters, spatial structure or strategic pattern control parameters, through the parameter decomposition and measurement of downscaling. By adjusting the indicators, parameters and thresholds, the gird cell territorial function optimization is continuously carried out, and the grid cell territorial function optimization regionalization schemes under different scenarios is obtained. Then continuous evaluation, check and optimization are carried out by the comparison with the planning of major function zones, land use status, neighboring areas, the construction needs of regional development and spatial strategy, as well as the relationship between land and sea. Given the influence of the uncertainty of available data, the adaptability of the data set to the theoretical model, the uncertainty of a usable analytical model and the scale effect, the uncertainty of the major function regionalization scheme and its solution are discussed to enhance the robustness of the optimization results as the scientific basis for territorial planning such as the "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary).

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    The spatial pattern and determinants of skilled laborers and less-skilled laborers in China: Evidence from 2000 and 2010 censuses
    LIU Ye,WANG Ruoyu,XUE Desheng,ZENG Jingyuan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (8): 1949-1964.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180391
    Abstract429)   HTML24)    PDF (9126KB)(171)      

    Based on 2000 and 2010 county-level and city-level National Demographic Census data, we applied inequality index and spatial auto-correlation analysis to specify the spatial patterns of China's high-skilled and general labor force and its variation during the decade. We also use the SLM model to further analyze the main factors that contribute to the spatial patterns and the changes of them. The results are as follows: (1) The density of high-skilled labors and general laborers was high in southeastern China and low in northwestern regions. (2) From 2000 to 2010, the high-skilled labors had been accumulating spatially while the normal labors had been dispersing. (3) The siphon effects of the high-skilled-labor clusters, which were more inclined to accumulate in coastal metropolitan area compared with 10 years ago, also enhanced during the decade. On the contrary, the echo effect of general labor clusters strengthened and attained the uniform distribution. (4) Results of spatial regression analysis showed that the level of wages, urban administrative level, the number of ten thousand college students, the coastal cities, population and spatial spillover effects in the ten years were the main factors determining the spatial distribution of high-skilled and general labor force, while the unemployment rate, high school teacher ratio, concentration of sulfur dioxide and afforestation in 2010 became the main factors influencing the two types of labor distribution. Comparing the two types of labor model, we found that the spatial distribution of the high-skilled labors was more influenced by government forces, while the spatial distribution of general laborers was influenced by market forces.

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    A comprehensive assessment of political, economic and social risks and their prevention for the countries along the Belt and Road
    LIU Haimeng, HU Senlin, FANG Kai, HE Guangqiang, MA Haitao, CUI Xuegang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2966-2984.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181321
    Abstract412)   HTML32)    PDF (14384KB)(155)      

    Assessing and preventing national risks along the Belt and Road are of great importance to the realization of the “Five Connectivity” goal and “Go Global” strategy. China had signed cooperation documents with more than 120 countries and 29 international organizations on jointly constructing the Belt and Road by March 2019. However, most regions along the Belt and Road are developing countries and emerging economies, with immature market economic system and relatively backward infrastructure. Some countries are suffering from a lack of stable political situation, high governance efficiency, complete legal systems and ideal trade patterns. Moreover, religious and refugee issues in some of these countries are prominent, which pose many potential risks to foreign investment, business exchanges, outbound tourism, cultural and scientific exchanges, etc. In this study, by choosing 18 indicators from the dimensions of politics, economy and society, an evaluation system was established to rank the overall risk of 74 countries along the Belt and Road. We analyzed the spatial-temporal evolution of different risks during 2001-2016 by Moran's I and hotspot analysis, and put forward suggestions for risk prevention and control. The results demonstrate that: (1) From 2001 to 2016, the overall risk of 74 countries along the Belt and Road shows a downward trend, of which the change to political risk is relatively small, economic risk experienced a fluctuation of "down-up-down-up", and social risk generally shows a downward trend. The overall risks are very volatile in some countries particularly in West Asia, Europe and Southeast Asia; (2) The political, economic and social risks of 74 countries along the Belt and Road show significant spatial agglomeration and regional differences during 2001-2016. The countries with high risk levels are mainly distributed in North Africa, Central Asia, West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia; (3) The political, economic and social risk subsystems are significantly correlated with each other, and countries with high political risk are often accompanied by high economic and social risks; and (4) There is an "investment paradox" in some countries, namely, large amount of investment and high risk level coexist in the Belt and Road region. As such, the governments and enterprises should make joint efforts to establish dynamic rating and early warning mechanism to prevent and control risks. We should better align our policies with existing regional strategies such as the Eurasian Economic Union, the Bright Road of Kazakhstan, and the Mongolian Grassland Road, establish the mechanism of offshore financial risk control, participate more actively in the formulation and application of international and regional rules, and pay more attention to corporate social responsibility. By doing so, we will gradually achieve a Belt and Road community with shared interests, shared responsibilities and shared future.

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    Rural restructuring and transformation: Western experience and its enlightenment to China
    HU Shuling, YU Bin, WANG Mingjie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2833-2845.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181133
    Abstract402)   HTML44)    PDF (971KB)(284)      

    Rural restructuring and transformation has been frontier in Rural Geography studies of Western countries since the 1980s. Our objective in this paper is to draw lessons from the rural development of Western countries for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy of China. The paper reveals the rural restructuring process, the characteristics of rural transformation, and the driving factors of Western countries, and summarizes the rural development practice in Western countries and its enlightenment to China. The energy crisis and post-industrialization in the 1970s, and technological progress (especially the rapid development of the Internet) since the early 1990s constituted important contexts for the rural restructuring and transformation in Western countries in three phases. The first phase is the economic dimension of restructuring dominated by "capital, land, and property rights". The second phase is the social dimension of restructuring dominated by "discourse, otherness, and construction". The third phase is the comprehensive dimension of restructuring dominated by "subject, culture and network", the essence of which is the reorganization of rural elements and their relationships as a result of the insertion of the exogenous subject, or urban area, capital and culture. The transformation characteristics have been concluded in a logic line which starts from productive countryside to consumptive countryside, then to multifunctional countryside, and lastly, to current global countryside. Rural transformation, of which the substance is the change of rural nature, is the direct result of rural restructuring. Post-industrialization, counter-urbanization, and globalization are the main factors that drive rural restructuring and transformation. Meanwhile the evolution of global geopolitical pattern has an impact on rural restructuring. Finally, despite the difference of background and characteristics of rural development between China and Western countries, it is believed that the experience from Western countries can contribute to providing enlightenment for understanding the practice of rural China's development and promoting its theory construction. In consideration of the issue that there is not unified conceptual framework for rural restructuring and transformation in China, which is a disadvantage of the relevant studies on rural China, the rural development practice and theoretical understanding in Western countries can provide some beneficial help for deepening the recognition of rural restructuring and transformation. It is noteworthy that because of different contexts between China and Western countries, Western practice and experience should not be directly copied by China without taking the differences into account. In addition, rural restructuring and transformation in contemporary China can be discussed from the perspectives of factors, reconstruction, process and function, transformation, consequence. Specifically, the paper proposes a rural revitalization blueprint for China, which sets global countryside, productive countryside, and multifunctional countryside as development orientations for eastern, central and western China, respectively.

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    Trade-offs and synergy between ecosystem services in National Barrier Zone
    YIN Lichang,WANG Xiaofeng,ZHANG Kun,XIAO Feiyan,CHENG Changwu,ZHANG Xinrong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (9): 2162-2172.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180578
    Abstract376)   HTML59)    PDF (7313KB)(290)      

    The better understanding of the trade-off and synergy relationship between different services is the foundation for the sustainable management of decision-making of various ecosystem services. In 2018, the national key special project titled as “Typical fragile ecological restoration and protection research” clearly pointed out that it was necessary to optimize the ecosystem services pattern of “Two ecological barriers and three shelters”, and the optimization of services is inseparable from the accurate understanding of trade-offs and synergies. Therefore, it is important and urgent to carry out trade-offs and synergies research in National Barrier Zone ecosystem services on a national scale. In this paper, the RUSLE model, CASA model and InVEST water yield model were used to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern of soil conservation, carbon sequestration and water yield services in the National Barrier Zone during 2000-2015, and to analyze the trends of the three ecosystem services. Correlation analysis and root mean square deviation were used to quantify the trade-offs and synergies between different services in the overall aspect and spatial aspect of each sub-barrier zone. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The spatial pattern of three ecosystem services of National Barrier Zone decreased from southeast to northwest and temporally, soil retention and water yield increased significantly with slope of 20.64 t/ (km 2·a) and 4.13 mm/a, respectively. Carbon sequestration showed a slight upward trend (p=0.96). The promotion of services is significantly helpful to the protection of national ecological security. (2) The correlation coefficient among soil retention, carbon sequestration and water production was greater than 0, indicating that the three ecosystem services were synergistic in all sub-barrier zones. Spatially, there is a strong heterogeneity between the trade-offs and synergies, and it is found that the pixel ratio of trade-off between carbon sequestration and water production is 49%, while that between carbon sequestration and soil retention is 27% in the forest barrier of Northeast China. Therefore, it is highly recommended to consider the differences of services in the trade-off relationship among all the sub-barrier zones and spatial areas to make the policy for the construction of sustainable ecological environment.

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