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    The impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the development of economic globalization
    LIU Weidong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1439-1449.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200514
    Abstract2578)   HTML275)    PDF (1361KB)(552)      

    The COVID-19 pandemic is considered the biggest crisis confronted with the world after the Second World War, which has brought huge impacts on people’s health and daily life, economic growth and employment as well as national and international governance. Increasing pessimism is buzzing among scholars, critics, entrepreneurs, the mass and even government officials, and views like the end of economic globalization, large-scale spatial restructuring of global supply chains and fundamental change of the world economic governance structure are becoming prevailing on the media. This paper tries to address the issue of the development trend of economic globalization in the post-pandemic era by developing a framework of globalization’s Triangle Structure to understand its dynamics in addition to a summary of the on-going impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that the spatial fix of capital accumulation, time-space compression led by technological advance and openness of nations are the three major drivers of economic globalization, and the changes and interactions of these three drivers decide the development trend of economic globalization. From such a dynamic viewpoint, economic globalization is an ever-changing integration process without an end but constant fluctuations. The cost of decoupling of nations from globalization would be very huge because they have been highly integrated by global production networks and trade networks and no nation can afford a complete decoupling. The so-called de-globalization phenomena are just short-term adjusting strategies of nations to cope with power reconfigurations brought by economic globalization. The pandemic will have little impacts, or probably nothing, on the spatial fix of capital accumulation and time-space compression led by technological advance, but may temporarily influence some nations' openness. If the pandemic does not last long, economic globalization will resume from the shock soon after the world goes back to normal, and develop and restructure according to its own dynamics. Thus, we tend to believe the pandemic at most slams the brake of globalization and would not be able to put it into reverse. Economic globalization will not stop or reverse, but develop towards a more inclusive stage.

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    The development of COVID-19 in China: Spatial diffusion and geographical pattern
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Delin, WEI Ye, YANG Haoran
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1450-1462.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200329
    Abstract1280)   HTML229)    PDF (13259KB)(1139)      

    The study of the spatial diffusion and geographical mode of COVID-19 is of great significance for the rational allocation of health resources, the management and response of public health emergencies, and the improvement of public health system in the future. Based on multiple spatio-temporal scale, this paper studied the spatial spreading process of COVID-19 between cities and its evolution characteristics in China, and then explored its influencing factors. The results are shown in the following: the inter-city spreading process of COVID-19 in China mainly experienced six stages, namely, stage I: diffusion in Wuhan, stage II: rapid multi-point diffusion in space, stage III: rapid increase of confirmed cases, stage IV : gradual decrease of new confirmed cases, stage V: the epidemic under control, and stage VI: cases imported from overseas. In the context of globalization and open regional system, the social and economic development of regions are closely related to each other. With the development of fast and convenient high-speed railway network, the spatial characteristic of population migration shows a cross-regional and hierarchical pattern, and forms a certain spatial cascade structure along the transport corridor. Accordingly, the spatial spread of COVID-19 mainly showsthe characteristics of adjacent diffusion, relocation diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and corridor diffusion. The study found that geographical proximity, population migration and population size, traffic network, epidemic prevention and control measures have significant influence on the spatial diffusion process of COVID-19. Among different modes of transportation, airplanes play agreater role than others in the early stage of the epidemic. In addition, the population flow during the Spring Festival had a certain impact on the spread of the epidemic. In conclusion, to some extent, the spatial spread process and pattern of COVID-19 epidemic reflects the spatial organization pattern of social and economic activities under the "space of flows" network, which is closely related to the geographical proximity, the social and economic linkages between regions, and the spatial an temporal patterns of human activities. From the perspective of geography, this paper analyzed the inter-city spread pattern of COVID-19 epidemic and provided some implications for prevention and control measures against the epidemic in other countries, and also offered some suggestions for China to deal with public health emergency risks in the future.

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    Human-land coupling and sustainable human settlements in the Yellow River Basin
    WANG Fang, AN Lizhe, DANG Anrong, HAN Jianye, MIAO Changhong, WANG Jing, ZHANG Guanghan, ZHAO Yong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1707-1724.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200217
    Abstract832)   HTML57)    PDF (1743KB)(995)      

    The Yellow River Basin is one of the regions with the most complex human-land relationship in China, and takes responsibility for the construction of ecological security and economic and social development. Since ancient times, human beings and the Yellow River has been in the process of coevolution. In recent years, there is an increasing pressure of ecological protection brought about by economic development. And there is a higher risk and greater vulnerability of water resources in the river basin. In order to resolve the human-land contradiction, it is necessary to explore the dynamic coupling mechanism of urban settlements and rivers. As "ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin" has become a major national strategy, this study focuses on the spatial differentiation and evolution of human-land relationship in this basin, as well as the difficulties and opportunities of resources and ecological protection, from the perspective of urban and rural planning, physical geography, environmental archaeology, ecology, hydrology and water resources, land resource management and other related fields. The balance between built environment and natural environment is the basis of sustainable development. The Yellow River Basin should be regarded as a “community of life”, in which the natural and human environment interact and depend on each other, and sustainable development strategies should be discussed from the aspects of systematization, intersection, locality and adaptability.

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    Spatial pattern and influencing factors of oasis rural settlements in Xinjiang, China
    LIN Jinping, LEI Jun, WU Shixin, YANG Zhen, LI Jiangang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1182-1199.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190368
    Abstract603)   HTML35)    PDF (10953KB)(161)      

    The study of rural settlements is the core content of rural geography. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to explore the spatial characteristics and influencing factors of regional rural settlements. Based on the remote sensing interpretation data, the spatial pattern and influencing factors of rural settlements in Xinjiang oasis areas were analyzed by using the methods of spatial analysis and geographical detector technique. To reveal the rural settlement spatial influencing mechanism, and explore the rural settlement space reconstruction and optimization approaches, we selected Altay area, north slope of Tianshan Mountains area, Turpan Basin area and Kashgar area as sample areas for further analysis. The results show that: the oasis rural settlements in Xinjiang are small both in density and in scale, and are mainly concentrated in the distribution mode, characterized by a spatial distribution pattern of "dense plain, sparse mountain, no village desert", which presents two major density core belts of oasis on the north and south slopes of Tianshan Mountains. Firstly, rural settlements are mainly distributed in middle- and high-altitude areas (500-3500 m), flat and gentle slope areas (<15 °) and warm areas (annual average temperature 0-10 ℃). Secondly, rural settlements are distributed near the center of towns, which are less affected by the radiation from the center of cities and counties. Finally, rural settlements obviously gather along the roads and rivers, with the feature that the closer they are to the roads and rivers, the larger the number and scale of rural settlements. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Xinjiang is mainly influenced by factors such as the accessibility of roads to towns, the accessibility of roads to counties, slope, proximity to rivers, temperatures and elevations. In other words, under these extreme geographical and ecological environment conditions in arid areas, the natural environment and geographical conditions are still the main influencing factors, and the traffic factors play an important guiding role, while the influence of economic and social factors are not significant. There are obvious differences in natural conditions and social-economic development levels in the four sample areas, and so do the dominant factors of the distribution of rural settlements. The north slope of Tianshan Mountains area and Kashgar area are affected by road accessibility factors, while Altay area and Turpan Basin area by terrain and water source, respectively. Road accessibility factors have different influences on the spatial distribution of rural settlements in various areas. In the future, the optimization and development of rural settlements should focus on the strengthening of the planning of transportation lines and the improvement of transportation infrastructure, so as to promote the flow and sharing of urban-rural elements, as well as the integration and sustainable development of urban and rural areas.

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    Progress of relational economic geography: Whether theorizing China′s experiences
    LIU Yi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1005-1017.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020191002
    Abstract580)   HTML19)    PDF (2335KB)(168)      

    Relational economic geography is one of the most influential schools of studies in economic geography. Many economic geographers of China have recognized and applied its key analytic framework, the alleged Global Production Network, whereas they have seldom tackled on the perspective of relational economic geography. By identifying this theoretical gap, this paper critically reviews the origin, development, formation and recent refinement of the school of relational economic geography. It has three major conclusions. First, this paper affirms that relational economic geography has salient geographical nature, though it deals with relation, and has become a core strand of studies in the research of economic globalization, regional development and industrial upgrading. It has positively improved the relevance of economic geography in various disciplines such as development studies, international political economy and management. Second, the existing problems of relational economic geography rest in the complexity of the analytic framework and research variables which include a lot of factors, process and mechanisms. The typology of strategic coupling, the central explanatory variable, is mainly derived from empirical observation and lacks of theoretical deduction. In the meantime, studies in this school so far still heavily rely on qualitative approaches, such as case studies, after forty years of development. Third, this paper argues that theorizing back based on China's reform and opening-up in the past forty years via the perspective of relational economic geography is quite innovative and valuable. To this vein, a few Chinese geographers have made great attempts and got publications in various decent international journals. This paper offers a critique on two series of studies to elaborate how to make theoretical contribution to relational economic geography based on China's experiences. One is related to the concept of embeddedness and firm-state relationship in the transitional institutional environment in China. The other is the investigation of strategic coupling in major regional economies in China. All these studies have shown great potentials of using China's experiences to revise and advance the western-origin theories in economic geography. This paper would have salient implications for improving international relevance of the economic geography of China, as well as theoretical innovation based on China's experiences.

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    Human-environment system in the Guangdong-Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area: Global model and local response
    LIU Yi, YANG Yu, KANG Lei, WANG Yun
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (9): 1949-1957.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200820
    Abstract559)   HTML43)    PDF (938KB)(280)      

    In the era of globalization, key production factors such as population, industry, energy, and trade are flowing rapidly across regions. The relationship between human and environment has changed from a static to a dynamic status, from isolation to networking, and the geographical scale has been fully enlarged, indicating the transformation of human-land relationship from regional to global scale. As the frontiers of China’s opening up, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has undergone profound changes in its man-land relationship in the past 40 years of reform and openning-up. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to re-recognize, study and adjust the global and local modes of the man-land relationship in the study area, so as to provide information on how the bay area can rationally allocate the core elements on global and regional scales and develop into a world-class bay area. This paper reviews the global transformation of man-land relationship in the new era, and prospects the study of man-land relationship in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. It aims to: (1) examine the general man-land relationship patterns and laws of the world-class bay area from regional to global in theory; (2) analyze the global allocation process and changing influencing factors of man-land relationship in the Greater Bay Area since the reform and opening-up in the late 1970s; (3) reveal the local response and regional system mechanism within the bay area based on the global model; (4) explore the path of reconstruction of the “innovation-industry-environment” key system; (5) propose the optimization and regulation pathways of the man-land relationship in the region in the new era.

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    The evolution of urban landscape pattern and its driving forces of Shenzhen from 1996 to 2015
    WU Jiansheng, LUO Keyu, ZHAO Yuhao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1725-1738.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190539
    Abstract495)   HTML28)    PDF (6333KB)(151)      

    Since China's reform and opening up, Shenzhen has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic changes in landscape patterns. On the basis of the land use dataset of Shenzhen city from 1996 to 2015, this study utilized landscape metrics, transition matrix and, expansion index to detect the spatiotemporal changes of urban landscape pattern, which analyzed the trend of landscape transfer and urban expansion. Also the major driving forces for landscape pattern changes on municipal and district scales were identified through the Binary Logit regression model. The results showed that: (1) the dominance of construction land landscape in Shenzhen gradually increased during the study period, with the construction land increasing by 15.81%, which occupied a large area of woodland (157.59 km2). The edge-expansion and infilling are the two main growth types of newly developed urban land, accounting for 61.19% and 36.27% respectively. (2) The rapid urbanization occurred from 1996 to 2006, during which landscape diversity and uniformity increased. (3) There was a low-speed urbanization transition from 2006 to 2015, during which landscape fragmentation intensified. The boundaries of the built-up areas became complex. However, due to the influence of land policy and red line of ecological protection, the rate of urban expansion slowed down. The pattern of urban expansion was mainly west-oriented, with the center continuing to shift northwards. (4) On the municipal scale, the GDP density and population density had a significant positive impact on the evolution of landscape pattern, while the ecological control line, elevation, slope and the distance to the road had a significant negative impact. The driving factors had the difference in scale and region, with GDP in Baoan, Nanshan and Pingshan districts, population growth in Baoan and Longhua districts, and traffic accessibility in Dapeng and Longgang districts being the most prominent drivers, respectively. This study can provide scientific practice for landscape pattern change in the process of rapid urban expansion in China.

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    Some problems in the application of potential ecological risk index
    MA Jianhua, HAN Changxu, JIANG Yuling
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (6): 1233-1241.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190632
    Abstract436)   HTML20)    PDF (1482KB)(79)      

    Through reviewing 2323 papers on the potential ecological risk index (RI) proposed by Håkanson during 2001-2018, especially focusing on 203 papers published in some famous journals at home and abroad since 2008, the following problems were found: (1) Håkanson's RI is an ecological risk assessment method based on the theory of water environment sedimentology. Therefore it is not suitable to be applied to soil, especially not to water solute, atmospheric particulate matter, surface dust, plant or crop, etc. However, 49.29% of the 2323 papers have misplaced evaluation objects. (2) The grading criteria of potential ecological risk factor (Er) and RI proposed by Håkanson can not be mechanically copied. So, it should be adjusted according to the specific types and quantities of pollutants studied. The limit value of the first level of Er should be the maximum value of toxic coefficient (Stmax) of all the evaluated pollutants, and the limit value of the first level of RI can be obtained by ∑St i×1.13 with ten integers. However, most of the studies ignored the types and quantities of the pollutants, and copied indiscriminatingly the Er and RI classification criteria of Håkanson, which led to incorrect conclusions. The papers used the incorrect criteria of Er and RI, taking up 49.01% and 61.40% of the 203 papers, respectively. Although some researchers had adjusted the RI classification criteria according to the types and quantities of pollutants, only 23.81% of the papers are correct. (3) When only single ecological risk of Hg or comprehensive ecological risk of multiple heavy metals including Hg are evaluated, the St Hg can not be replaced by Tr Hg.

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    Relationship between population distribution and topography of the Wujiang River Watershed in Guizhou province
    CHENG Dongya, LI Xudong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (6): 1427-1438.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020181409
    Abstract420)   HTML32)    PDF (9207KB)(212)      

    The Wujiang River Watershed in Guizhou province is one of the most important plateau mountain basin in Southwest China. It is of great significance to examine the relationship between population distribution and topography of this watershed. This paper can help to understand the impact of the geographical environment of the study area on population distribution. The article selects digital elevation model (DEM) data and population raster data, and uses digital elevation model (DEM) to extract topographic factors such as altitude, slope, and topographic relief. Then, it studies the relationship between topographic factors and population distribution. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The population of the study area is inportantly distributed between 800 and 1400 m, accounting for more than 60%, and the highest population density is found between 1000 and 1200 m. (2) As the slope increases, the population and population density are in a downward trend. When the slope is less than 5 o, the population density is more than 500 people/km 2. It is also shown, to a certain extent, that the slope has a restrictive effect on human activities and is one of the key topographic factors that affect the population distribution. (3) With the rise of topographic relief, the population density generally shows a downward trend. When the topographic relief is less than 50 m, the population density exceeds 1000 people/km 2. Topographic relief is an important factor affecting population distribution. The results could provide a reference for the local government to formulate policies on population and eco-environment protection so as to achieve harmony between nature and people. In addition, this article can be further expanded in the following aspects: (1) using the latest population raster data to analyze the relationship between population and topography, and explore the characteristics and laws of population changes in the watershed in the background of rapid economic development in Guizhou province in recent years; (2) using the digital elevation model (DEM) with a lower accuracy to analyze the relationship between population and topography.

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    Achievements and influencing factors of help the poor in village in China's targeted poverty alleviation
    TONG Chunyang, ZHOU Yang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1128-1138.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190423
    Abstract406)   HTML10)    PDF (4699KB)(82)      

    In response to the UN goal of sustainable development and poverty eradication in 2030, the Chinese government put forward and implemented the national strategy of targeted poverty alleviation in 2014. Scholars have carried out much research from the perspective of poverty factors, poverty types and spatial poverty traps, etc., but the empirical research and policy analysis of specific poverty alleviation measures have not been given enough attention. Based on the data samples of 6378 villages in China, this study analyzed the implementation and progress of the village based assistance measures in the targeted poverty alleviation work, identified the main factors affecting the effectiveness of the village based assistance with the measurement method, and measured the poverty reduction effect of the assistance work. The results show that the first secretary of the village assistance is mainly composed of male cadres sent by county-level units, with an average age of 42 years and education background mainly from universities. During the implementation of the work, the principle of adopting different village strategies according to the needs has been maintained. The specific assistance measures include the development of industry, the cultivation of labor force, the transformation of houses, and the hardening of roads. There are obvious regional differences in the implementation and achievements of these measures. Generally speaking, the poverty alleviation work in the western region is better than that in the central region. The empirical results of the econometric model show that the effect of the assistance work in the village is affected by multiple factors, and the personal characteristics of the first secretary, such as age, education background and work unit, has significant impact on poverty reduction. At the same time, the poverty alleviation measures taken by the task force have a far-reaching significance for improving the public infrastructure in poor areas. The research results will be helpful to provide theoretical basis and decision support for the smooth promotion of the effective connection between targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization in China.

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    Critical reflections on the geography of innovation: A prospect of theoretical progress from Chinese scenarios
    FU Wenying, YANG Jiarui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1018-1027.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020191115
    Abstract381)   HTML17)    PDF (1051KB)(84)      

    Through the critical engagement with current literature on the geography of innovation, this paper proposes that this sub-discipline of human geography has been developing within the context of post-Fordist and neoliberal transformation of western society since the 1990s whereby international and inter-regional competition became the accepted development ideology and policy discourse. Thus, the endogenous nature of local and regional traits and their role in promoting innovativeness and development are highly emphasized in the face of place competition, whilst paying undue attention to exogenous dynamism in innovation processes. With the recent new technological progress, as well as the increasing needs of innovation to address grand societal challenges, however, it becomes more pressing to upscale process of innovation activities. Moreover, the exogenous processes have been playing a key role in China’s after-reform development, and the globalization and localization has become highly interdependent and dialectical against the context of gradual institutional reform. Therefore, this paper attempts to discuss the potentials of Chinese studies to advancing the field from three aspects. First, it analyses the specific institutional arrangements of innovation through its evolution from pre-reform to post-reform era, and summarizes how it is characterized as a state-led system with aggressive investment in innovative inputs. Secondly, the development of territorial innovation system in China has been analysed through the lens of inter-scalar processes. It is noted that we must highlight the interplay between scalar forces, as illustrated in modern and global innovation systems framework to address the challenges such as aging society, public health, and climate change. Last but not least, the Chinese innovation dynamics within the emerging context of worldwide economic restructuring has been envisaged. As China’s innovation organization has been centered around the rising notion of techno-nationalism, the geopolitical tensions and power struggle inexorably influences the innovation processes. In general, it advocates that the diverse geography, governmentality and exogenous-driven model of Chinese innovation system jointly define the significance of Chinese studies to reconceptualise modern innovation geography. Finally, it is suggested that contemporary worldview should incorporate China into the fundamental system of global capital circulation, so that the dialectical geographic process of multi-scalar and multi-processes nesting and feedback system of innovation could be reflected in depth.

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    The pattern and influencing factors of daily population movement network in the Yangtze River Delta
    TANG Jinyue, ZHANG Weiyang, WANG Yifei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1166-1181.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190422
    Abstract371)   HTML14)    PDF (7214KB)(95)      

    Population movement is the main carrier of inter-city factor flow and resource alloca-tion. It is also one of the main forms of regional network construction. As the Yangtze River Delta integration has become a national strategy, in order to promote inter-city population movement and regional integration, it is of great importance to recognize the pattern of population movement and analyze the influencing factors. This study focuses on the inter-city daily mobility within 48 hours, one of the important components of population movement, based on the Weibo sign-in data. It analyzes the pattern of inter-city population movements in the Yangtze River Delta, applying the gravity model to test influencing factors, from perspectives of movement cost and city characteristics. The results indicate that: (1) population movements in the study area have multiple cores, and connections between cores and their hinterlands are relatively balanced. In addition, there are three communities in this region, and Shanghai, Suzhou and Hangzhou belong to the same community. (2) Strong population movements occur within each province, and population movement systems of the three provinces are different. Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces have formed a relatively mature multi-level population mobility system, while the population mobility system in Anhui Province needs to be improved. (3) Movement cost and city characteristics complement the inter-city mobility model shaped by physical distances, and compared with movement cost, city characteristics have a greater impact on population movement. (4) Compared with the inter-province movement, population movements within each province are stronger, and are more likely to occur between cities with different cultures. The greater the differences between the two cities, regarding economic scale and administrative level, the stronger the population movements between them. Besides, differences in industrial structure will inhibit intercity mobility, while differences in education level can promote mobility. This paper expands the applications of the gravity model, analyzes inter-city daily movement mechanism, and provides references for understanding the process of the Yangtze River Delta integration, as well as optimizes policies from the perspective of daily population movement.

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    Beyond the “evolutionary approach”: A critical review and paradigmatic reflections on the restructuring of old industrial areas
    HU Xiaohui, ZHU Shengjun, Robert HASSINK
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1028-1044.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190993
    Abstract368)   HTML17)    PDF (2335KB)(101)      

    The restructuring of old industrial areas is one of the most important research topics in economic geography. In the macro context of the slowdown of globalization and the worldwide decrease of manufacturing production and demand, old industrial areas as typical problem regions have increasingly become a core target in national development strategies among many countries. Drawing upon an in-depth critical review of recent literature on the restructuring of old industrial areas in the past decade, this paper addresses the growing trend of variegated adoptions of paradigms in the research including four key approaches, namely, evolutionary economic geography, relational economic geography, institutional economic geography and geographical political economy. It also stresses that the gaps yet comparative merits in conceptual thinking, scale focus, tempo-spatial sensitivity and mechanism/process explanation among these paradigms have not generated enough intellectual interplays and complementation, but rather, have led to paradigmatic fragmentation and even repellence with each other. Despite the diversification in paradigmatic use for research, the increase of “fragmented” rather than “engaged pluralism” potentially hinders the explanatory power of existing theories and approaches in empirical research. In particular, we argue that evolutionary economic geography, arguably the most popular paradigm used in explaining and understanding the restructuring of old industrial areas, clearly suffers from a neglect of the role of multi-scalar and multi-actor agencies and a lack of multiple units of analysis in affecting the restructuring processes, mechanisms, outcomes and their geographies of old industrial areas. Given this, the paper integrates the multi-level perspective (MPL) in sustainability transition studies into the evolutionary economic geography approach. It builds up a multi-scalar analytical framework incorporating analyses of both downward and upward causation with different geographical scales, in which the interplay of micro-level change agency-based niche, meso-level regional path developmental regime and macro-level political-economic context landscape is positioned as the core for analyzing the restructuring of old industrial areas. This comprehensive multi-scalar framework is able to offer a better understanding of the restructuring of old industrial areas. Based on that, we further suggest several key orientations and agendas for future research on the topic.

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    The influence of tourism development on regional economic efficiency: Evidence from 283 prefecture-level cities in China
    YU Tingting, ZUO Bing, SONG Yuxiang, WU Yuanyuan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (6): 1357-1369.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190471
    Abstract345)   HTML11)    PDF (5934KB)(93)      

    The development of tourism has gradually strengthened its correlation and driving effect on the national economy. Tourism is an important part of the service industry, and the increase of its share means the growth of non-essential consumption, which provides a strong market driver for China's overall economic development. The government emphasizes the driving effect of tourism on economic development. According to the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) for tourism development, tourism should be developed as an important force in economic transformation. Based on the panel data of 283 prefecture-level cities in China from 2002 to 2016, this study adopts DEA model to measure the comprehensive efficiency, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency of each prefecture-level city. It then establishes spatial-econometric models to investigate the impacts of tourism development on comprehensive efficiency of economy. The main findings are as follows: (1) Overall, the comprehensive efficiency of the sample cities shows a tendency of rising first and then falling, and input-output efficiency is at a low level. Only a few cities achieve the optimal efficiency. The comprehensive efficiency is roughly equivalent in the eastern and central regions, while that of the western region is relatively low. (2) Tourism development can significantly improve the comprehensive efficiency of the cities, which is reflected in the positive change of 0.064% for every 1% increase in tourism revenue. And its effect on the overall efficiency of the economy is significantly higher than that of human capital, proportion of output value of secondary production, number of employees in secondary and tertiary industries, and proportion of government fiscal expenditure. (3) There are regional differences of tourism in improving comprehensive efficiency in China. The effect of tourism development on comprehensive efficiency in the western region is larger than that in the eastern and central regions. This can be attributed to the different development stages of different regions in China. The western region is at the stage of increasing returns to scale, while northeast and central regions, especially their large cities, have entered the mature stage of development, featuring constant marginal returns or decreasing marginal returns.

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    The superscription of spatial meaning and local identity of the last primitive tribe of Wengding village, China
    GUO Wen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (11): 2449-2465.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200308
    Abstract334)   HTML4)    PDF (1338KB)(141)      

    As a traditional place, Wengding has experienced a rapid transformation from productivism to post productivism and from production space to mobile consumption space in recent years. In this process, Wengding is embedded in a series of time-space fracture and reconstruction process networks shaped by mobility, such as global and local, modern and traditional. The superscription of spatial meaning and local identity have become the focus of attention in the practice of rural tourism space. The emergence of this new problem puts forward a new demand for the rational consultation of multiple subjects in the practice of rural tourism space. This study takes Wengding, the last primitive tribe in China, as a case, and takes three cases of "encounter of stone", "lawn of power" and "relocation of new village" in the transformation of public space as the specific analysis object to analyze the overlap of spatial meaning and local identity of Wengding in the context of tourism. The research shows that Wengding village is experiencing a shift from "local space" to "mobile space" in the practice of growing globalization and global localization. The mobile power of tourism and the spatial demands of different subjects are reshaping the spatial production of social culture and relations in Wengding village. The superscription of Wengding's spatial meaning has brought about the local differential identity. Wengding is also changing from "natural identity" to "split identity". As the starting point of national unity and optimization of identity structure, the identity of villagers needs to gradually transit to "understanding identity" characterized by inter subjectivity and inter nationality. The superscription of spatial meaning and local split identity are likely to lead to the dispute of value orientation among multiple subjects, even the nihilism of local meaning. Therefore, we need to actively form the value guidance of spatial moral practice to avoid radical rural tourism spatial practice. In the future, the practice of rural tourism space should avoid the situation that one kind of subject conceals the other. The relationship between human and land in public space, the form of space subject, the visibility of place, and the negotiation, compromise and transfer of different subjects' moral norms are dimensions that cannot be ignored in the practice of rural tourism space in the new era.

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    The evolution of regional population decline and its driving factors at the county level in China from 1990 to 2015
    LIU Zhen, QI Wei, QI Honggang, LIU Shenghe
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1565-1579.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190599
    Abstract324)   HTML16)    PDF (6538KB)(139)      

    The phenomenon of regional population decline has aroused much attention across the world in recent years, and it is also increasingly obvious in China. Using 1990, 2000 and 2010 population census data, and the national 1% population sample investigation data in 2015, this paper analyzes the evolution trend of regional population decline at the county level in three periods, namely 1990-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2015, and identified different evolution types by comparing adjacent periods. We employ a multiple logistic regression model to investigate the underlying driving factors in these processes. The main findings are as follows. (1) The phenomenon of regional population decline became very obvious at the county level, and the percentages of units with population decline in the three periods were all more than 20%. (2) The population decline units expanded significantly from 2000 to 2010, especially in the Northeast region, Sichuan-Guizhou-Chongqing region, and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, while such units were scattered in the northern part of Jiangsu province and the western part of Fujian province in the Eastern region. (3) The population decline areas presented a trend of slow growth from 2010 to 2015, and only expanded in the Northeast region and Henan province. (4) The factors of economic development level, such as the per capita GDP and the non-agricultural employment ratio, significantly influenced the formation of regional population decline, while the factors of economic development rates, including the growths of per capita GDP and the non-agricultural employment, contributed to the evolution processes of regional population change, and a low economic development rate had been a key factor driving continuous population decline. (5) In addition to economic factors, the natural population growth, including the percentage of the aging population and the birth rate, had an increasing influence on the formation and evolution of regional population decline. According to the above findings, we suggest that the central government should pay more attention to the phenomenon of regional population decline, and take appropriate measures to deal with it, such as promoting the coordinated regional development, adjusting the birth policy to improve the fertility level, and strengthening the planning practice from the perspective of population decline.

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    Turning county into district and regional economic growth: Policy evaluation based on difference-in-difference method
    ZHUANG Rulong, LI Guangqin, LIANG Longwu, MI Kena
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (6): 1386-1400.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020180257
    Abstract323)   HTML7)    PDF (1473KB)(77)      

    Turning counties into districts (TCID) is a policy of administrative division adjustment in order to alleviate the strain on land resources, promote urbanization and speed up regional economic integration. But its multidimensional impact on regional economy and its mechanism remains to be further investigated and verified. Therefore, under the help of Difference-in-Difference Method, the paper takes Guangdong province as the research area and uses the panel data of 79 counties (cities) from 2000 to 2015 to analyze and solve the above problems. The results show that: TCID significantly promotes the regional economic growth. Generally, its contribution to the regional economic growth rate was 0.48%; the policy effect performed better in the Pearl River Delta and less stably in other regions. The embodiment of policy dividend has time lag, and generally and emerges in the third or four year. In addition, TCID can get the infrastructure, planning, policies and other strong support. Meanwhile, increasing financial revenue and investment in fixed assets helps the development of secondary industries and related industries. Finally, it is effective to promote regional economic growth by raising employment rates and stimulating consumption. The policy recommendations of this article aim to, with the opportunity to reform the administrative system, organically combine the development of industry with the service industry, especially the productive service industry, speed up the optimization and upgrading of the local industrial structure so as to promote the sustained, healthy and rapid development of the regional economy.

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    The multiple structure and formation mechanisms of the scientific collaboration network in the Belt and Road regions
    GU Weinan, LIU Hui, WANG Liang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1070-1087.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190376
    Abstract323)   HTML14)    PDF (14929KB)(53)      

    Scientific collaboration has become an important part of the people-to-people exchanges in the Belt and Road Initiative, and remarkable progress has been made since 2013. Taking the 65 countries in the Belt and Road regions, hereafter called the BRI countries, as the research areas and using the collaborated WOS core collection papers to construct the inter-national scientific collaboration matrix, the paper explores the multiple structure and formation mechanisms of the scientific collaboration network of BRI countries through the GIS spatial analysis, social network analysis and negative binomial regression. The results show that: (1) at the global scale, knowledge flow is becoming more and more frequent, and the degree of internal collaboration within BRI countries is not as close as that of collaboration with other countries in the world. All the sub-regions of BRI regions have the most external collaboration links with Europe outside BRI regions. The global scientific collaboration network based on the BRI countries has changed from a "tripod" framework of Europe, USA, China to the "polygon" framework of Europe, USA, China, Japan, Canada, Australia and other dense regions. (2) The spatial structure of the collaboration network within the BRI countries is transformed from the "dual-core" type (China and Central & Eastern Europe) to the "multipole" type (Central & Eastern Europe, Russia, China, Singapore, India, Saudi Arabia, etc.). The hierarchical structure presents a typical "core-periphery" pattern, the core countries of which change from single core (China) to dual cores (China and India). In terms of control structure, the type has changed from one superpower (China) to multi great powers including China, India, Russia, Poland, Czech, Turkey, Malaysia and Iran, which presents a pattern of "high in the surroundings while low in the middle". (3) The main formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration network of BRI countries depend on scientific research ability, the level of economic development, the level of foreign linkage, and proximities such as geographical proximity, social proximity and language proximity. Among them, scientific research ability and social proximity play the most important role, while geographical distance gradually weakens the hindrance to scientific collaboration.

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    Spatiotemporal variation of NDVI in different ecotypes on the Loess Plateau and its response to climate change
    SUN Rui, CHEN Shaohui, SU Hongbo
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1200-1214.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190399
    Abstract315)   HTML16)    PDF (21827KB)(392)      

    Understanding the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation and its climatic control factors can provide important theoretical basis for the protection and restoration of ecological vegetation. Based on MOD13A1 and meteorological data, the spatial patterns and trends of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Loess Plateau were analyzed. The response of NDVI to temperature and precipitation was analyzed on the annual and monthly scales. The results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was improving continuously, and the climate showed a warm and wet trend. Of the degraded areas in the Loess Plateau, some 83.77% (area only 5.79%) was below 2000 m and the number of vegetation degradation types were not significantly reduced. The altitude distribution and degraded proportion of different vegetation degraded areas were significantly different. The degraded area ratio of wetland was the highest (23.91%), followed by cultivated land (11.88%). On the annual scale, the area with positive correlation between NDVI and precipitation was higher than that of temperature, and about 75.06% of the area was affected by precipitation. Precipitation was the main factor affecting the growth of shrub land (altitude distribution < 2200 m, the same below), cultivated land (< 3000 m), grassland (< 3000 m) and bare land (600-3700 m). Temperature was the main factor affecting the growth of forests (< 1000 m, 1700-3700 m) and wetlands (>2500 m). On the monthly scale, the overall response lag period of the Loess Plateau to temperature was one month, and there was no response lag period to precipitation. The response lag period of different vegetations to hydrothermal conditions was obvious. Grassland (lagging altitude distribution 710-3800 m, the same below), wetland (> 860 m), cultivated land (< 150 m, 350-2250 m, 2550-2900 m, 3430-3560 m) and bare land (760-2100 m) had a one month lag effect on temperature response, while forest (< 2900 m, > 3450 m) and shrub land (< 1270 m, > 1860 m) had no lag effect on temperature response, and six types of vegetation had no lag effect on water condition response. With the time lagging, the proportion of precipitation control gradually decreases. Temperature becomes the main factor affecting vegetation. The main control of water and heat and the lagging distribution of response are obviously affected by altitude. The proper vegetation type should be selected in different areas and altitudes, and water resources should be used reasonably for vegetation restoration.

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    The regional industrial dynamics from the perspective of relatedness
    ZHU Shengjun, JIN Wenwan, HU Xiaohui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1045-1055.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190995
    Abstract314)   HTML11)    PDF (1483KB)(86)      

    Chinese economic development has experienced a rapid transformation since 1978 due to the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy. Arguably the research of regional industry dynamics is at the core of economic geography. Traditional researches in economic geography tend to focus on individuals such as firms, industries and regions, ignoring the relationship between them. Over the past few years, much progress has been made in researches on the relatedness of firms, while the relatedness of industries and regions is still not paid sufficient attentions. From the perspective of relatedness, this paper attempts to shed some light on the linkages of industries and regions, and explore their formation mechanisms. It puts forward that the translocal linkages and resource mobilization on different scales are sources of the relatedness of firms, industries and regions. In addition, this paper also sketches out how industrial relatedness and regional relatedness influences regional industrial dynamics. As for industrial relatedness, evolutionary economic geography (EEG) theories based on a network model named the "product space" have adopted a view that regional spillovers from related, yet not too proximate industries will endogenously induce new industries in a region through processes of recombinatorial innovation. The vast majority of empirical case studies have confirmed these theories. Regional industrial dynamics has thus far largely been conceptualized as an endogenous process, underplaying exogenously-driven forms of regional relatedness. Then, this paper provides a systematic conceptual analysis of the role regional relatedness may play for industrial dynamics in regions. Good connections between the regions improve matching on labour markets, speeding up knowledge flows and plausibly fostering learning which will contribute to the reciprocal industrial dynamics of geographically distant regions. Accordingly, this paper argues that future studies can further investigate the regional development from a relatedness perspective: (1) pay more attention to the industrial relatedness, such as its indirect links, link strengths and industrial relatedness dynamics; (2) enhance the understanding of the properties of regional relatedness and draw on network analysis approaches; (3) forge a link between industrial relatedness and regional relatedness. Emanated from different disciplines, the new perspective of relatedness in the study of regional industry dynamics provides a sound basis for understanding China's special development path and deserves the attention of economic geography scholars. Besides, there is rapidly expanding various data of relatedness which will make the perspective of relatedness more potential in the future.

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