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    Cross-border infections in border port areas of China: Take COVID-19 as an example
    CHENG Yi, LIU Hui, ZHANG Fangfang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 851-866.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201090
    Abstract763)   HTML10)    PDF (4916KB)(88)      

    Epidemic affects human well-being and sustainable development. Border port area is a weak area in the prevention and control of epidemic imported from abroad. However, most of the current research on the risk of imported epidemic in border areas and prevention and control focuses on index system construction or qualitative analysis. Existing research lacks the analysis of the temporal and spatial evolution of epidemic in border ports from the perspective of geography, and the quantitative measurement and scenario simulation of epidemic risk need to be strengthened. Based on this, Epidemic Risk Index (ERI) of cross-border imported was established in the general sense of border port area, and epidemic risk of cross-border imported cases in China’s border port areas in general year was evaluated. Taking COVID-19 in 2020 as an example, the risk analysis of different control measures in China’s border port areas was conducted, and the high-risk ports for cross-border COVID-19 imported were identified. The results show that: (1) About one fifth of China’s border ports were at rather high-risk in general year, including Ruili, Erlianhot, Manzhouli, and Dongxing, among which the China-Myanmar border port areas were the most concentrated. (2) Cross-border COVID-19 imported in China’s border port area showed spatial polarization characteristics in 2020, concentrated in the three port areas of Manzhouli, Suifenhe and Ruili. (3) The port areas in China-Russia and China-Kazakhstan border area have rather high-risk of cross-border COVID-19 imported, especially in five ports of Huoerguosi, Manzhouli, Alashankou, Suifenhe and Hunchun. Strengthening the control in border port areas is effective in decreasing the risk of COVID-19. In the post-epidemic era, it is necessary to actively change the mode of border trade, and to coordinate the relationship between border development and epidemic control. This paper came up with the risk assessment method of cross-border epidemic transmission, and provided reference for decision-making on the current prevention and control of COVID-19. It also provides scientific support for quantitative assessment, and graded and classified control of cross-border epidemic imported in the future.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and driving factors of Chinese population at town level
    YIN Xu, WANG Jing, LI Yurui, FENG Zhiming, QI Wei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (5): 1245-1261.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210479
    Abstract648)   HTML25)    PDF (16955KB)(416)      

    Research on high-resolution population evolution is of great reference for understanding, simulating, and managing the human-nature interrelationship. Town-level demographic data is the highest-resolution data publicly released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Therefore, it is of great significance to collect the population data of China at town level, and to carry out research on the spatiotemporal evolution and its influencing factors of Chinese population at town level. In this study, we established a spatial database of Chinese population at town level in 2010 and 2015, and then revealed its spatial and temporal pattern and influencing factors by Geographic Information System (GIS) analytical methods and Geodetector model. The results showed that: (1) In 2015, the average population of towns was 29,500, and the average population density was 374 persons/km2. Furthermore, there existed large spatial heterogeneity in China, the number of townships with a population of more than 10,000 is 781, mainly in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while the number of townships with a population of less than 5,000 is 2,498, mainly in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Inner Mongolia. (2) The distribution of population and land area of townships was greatly uneven. There were 19,403 (60.81%) townships with a population density of more than 150 persons/km2, and their total population and land area accounted for 81.76% and 20.27%, respectively, which was approximately in line with “Pareto's Law”. (3) From 2010 to 2015, more than 70% towns’ population increased, by contrast, the population of more than 9,000 towns decreased, of which more than 1,600 towns experienced a population loss of more than 20%, and most of them were located in the border areas of Northeast China, Inner Mongolia and Yunnan. (4) The population distribution is comprehensively affected by physical geography (e.g., relief degree of land surface, negative effect) and socio-economic factors (e.g., night time light index and road density, positive effect), and its mechanism has obvious spatial stratified heterogeneity in different regions. This study argues that the rapid population growth or loss brings great challenges for harmonizing human-environment relationships, such as territory spatial planning, rural revitalization and national border security.

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    Comparison on the trade development and influence of China and the U.S. in the surrounding areas of China
    CHEN Xiaoqiang, YUAN Lihua, SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, CAO Danping, WANG Xiangyu, LIANG Xiaoyao, WANG Yuanhui, YI Hong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 663-680.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210716
    Abstract615)   HTML45)    PDF (5422KB)(198)      

    There is fierce trade competition between China and the U.S. not only in bilateral trade, but also in multilateral trade within the global market, especially in China's surrounding areas. Clarifying the competitive situation, where the trade influence between the two countries is ebb and flow, is of great significance to ensuring China's economic security and development. Based on bilateral trade data from 1996 to 2017, this paper uses time-constrained clustering to identify the stages of trade development of China with its surrounding areas, and builds three trade networks to compare the trade influence of China and the United States in China's surrounding areas at different stages. Four main results are presented. First, from 1996 to 2017, the trade of China and its neighboring countries showed a three-stage leaping development, and the scale of trade continued to expand; Second, the volume and coverage of China's trade with neighboring countries surpassed those of the United States. China had a widening surplus in the trade balance with its neighboring countries, while the United States had maintained a large and stable trade deficit with neighboring countries of China. Third, China's comprehensive trade influence in the surrounding areas surpassed that of the United States. China had a prominent advantage in export influence, while the United States still had a good import influence. Fourth, China's trade with Japan grew in leaps and bounds, while the United States had maintained close trade ties with Japan. The vertical intra-industry trade between China and Japan in mechanical and electrical products was developed, and China was in a relatively unfavorable position in the downstream of the industrial chain. The United States was the final consumer market for Japanese high-end products such as mechanical and electrical products and transportation equipment. The results of this study have implications for China's response to the impact of the United States while maintaining the stability and development of economic cooperation in the surrounding aeras of China.

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    Spatial distribution of the Silk Roads and influence from the perspective of historical geography
    LIN Xiaobiao, LI Na, LU Yuqi, ZHOU Ying, LI Yuliang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (11): 3069-3087.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020211223
    Abstract557)   HTML1)    PDF (10914KB)(38)      

    The existing "B&R" studies have gradually drawn attention to the influence of historical and cultural resources on today's development. However, as the historical support and starting point of the Belt and Road Initiative, the quantitative studies related to the Silk Roads are still in their initial stage. From a civilizational perspective, how the Silk Road is understood is key to contemporary China's understanding of the global situation. Using OLS Regression, Logistic Regression and other means, we quantitatively explored the driving factors influencing the formation of the Silk Roads and Silk Roads' influence on the historical and contemporary world. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The density distribution of the Silk Roads is generally fluctuating. The density value has increased significantly at the starting points of the transportation network represented by Rome, Chang'an, and Dayidu, and the important internal transit hubs represented by Samarkand and Tashkent. (2) The analysis of the influencing factors of the Silk Roads shows that, as a commercial trade route, the most influential factor on its route selection is geography, which mainly favors areas with low slope and high ruggedness, and this is especially evident in the complex mountainous terrain of Central Asia. (3) The opening and unobstruction of the Silk Roads played a significant role in the socio-economic, and urban development in history. The density of the Silk Roads, together with the distance from the nearest coastline, latitude, historical civilization index and other indicators, constituted the main influencing factors for the distribution of ancient cities. (4) The positive impact of the Silk Roads on regional economic development has a certain persistence, and the Silk Roads continue to play an undeniable role in supporting economic development today. For every 1% increase in road density of the Silk Roads, the night light index of the region where it is located increases by 0.373. This paper can provide differentiated theoretical perspectives and technical tools through the exploration of history, geography and economics, serve as a reference and inspiration for the development of related studies, and offer theoretical support and historical evidence for the improvement of the theory of "B&R".

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    Spatiotemporal changes of lake shoreline morphology in Tibetan Plateau during 1990-2018
    WANG Zhe, LIU Kai, ZHAN Pengfei, WANG Chun, FAN Chenyuan, SONG Chunqiao, TANG Guoan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (4): 980-996.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210176
    Abstract539)   HTML35)    PDF (7645KB)(269)      

    Lake shoreline morphology is an important dimension to describe and quantitatively express the spatial distribution characteristics of lakes. In recent years, affected by climate warming and humidification, lakes in the interior drainage area of the Tibetan Plateau generally showed a rapid expansion. The dynamic changes of lakes are reflected in lake hydrological parameters, including area, water level and water volume, and cause significant changes in lake morphology. Based on multi-period lake distribution data, we construct a quantitative index system of lake shoreline morphology by combining the fractal and landscape ecology theory, and quantitatively analyzes the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of lake shoreline morphology and its influencing factors in the interior drainage area of the Tibetan Plateau since 1990. The results show that: (1) In the last 30 years, the fractal dimension and shoreline development index of lakes in the study area have shown an increasing trend, while the circularity ratio has shown a decreasing trend during this period, and the aspect ratio has not changed significantly. (2) The overall characteristics of lake shoreline are determined by geological structure. The lake shoreline and its changes in the fault lake area are obviously more complex than those in the depression lake area. The rangeability of lake shoreline in the area roughly descends from northeast to southwest, showing spatial auto-correlation in the Hoh Xil region, and central and southeastern Qiangtang Plateau. (3) There is a certain correlation between the change of lake shoreline and the change of lake area. When the lake is in the state of expansion, the fractal dimension and shoreline development index of the lake will increase, and vice versa. (4) The variation of the lake shoreline is affected by the landforms around. In the area with a large drop of lakeside terrain, the lake shoreline is relatively stable and the change speed is low. The variation of shoreline has a power function relationship with the average elevation difference in the buffer zone of 1 kilometer around the shoreline. This study reveals the change patterns and influence characteristics of lake shoreline morphology in the interior drainage area of the Tibetan Plateau under the influence of climate warming and humidification, discusses the relationship between the shoreline and its change pattern and the geological structure, climate and hydrology, modifies the methods of studies on dynamic change in lakes, and provides a new scientific perspective for thoroughly understanding the response of the Tibetan lakes to climate change and monitoring the impact of lake changes on hydrogeomorphic features.

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    The characteristics, types and ways of ubiquitous landscapes: A case study of China's “Eight landscapes”
    ZHANG Zhongwu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (6): 1671-1683.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210562
    Abstract517)   HTML150)    PDF (3434KB)(245)      

    Tourism is an important industry for the high-quality development of China's economy, and the tourism resources are the foundation of the development of tourism. How to make best use of tourism resources is an essential research topic. Based on the geographic theories of human-land relationship regional system, and scaling transformation, 19478 “eight landscapes” (or “eight scenes”) data are selected to study the structure of tourism landscape and its spatial characteristics. The method of classification analysis is adopted, and the new concept of “ubiquitous landscape” is proposed. The new structural model of the tourism landscape resources is also explored. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The conceptual system of “ubiquitous landscape”. This research defines the connotation and attribution of“ubiquitous scenery element” and the conceptual system of“scenery element-ubiquitous scenery element-ubiquitous landscape”. The indices, such as landscape index, and the most abundant landscape hypothesis, are also developed. (2) The formation mechanism of ubiquitous landscape. The interaction of elements is the power source of ubiquitous landscape; the regionalism of elements is the cause for the formation of ubiquitous landscape; the comprehensiveness of the elements is the foundation of ubiquitous landscape; the transformation of scaling is the requirement of ubiquitous landscape's evolution. There are three main approaches to create sceneries in ubiquitous landscape: borrowing scenery, choosing time, and choosing location. (3) The structural model and characteristics of ubiquitous landscape. This study constructs and demonstrates the structure model of “two elements, three elements, and four elements” of the ubiquitous landscape, and conducts the landscape index incremental model. The four characteristics of ubiquitous landscape are also summarized, which are nearly zero cost, scarcity, timeliness and artificial creativity. (4) Composition proportion and degree of development of ubiquitous landscape. By random sampling of “eight landscapes” and the analysis of cases in Shanxi Province, most of “eight landscapes” include ubiquitous scenery element, and the ubiquitous natural scenes element and local natural landscape account for the highest proportion of 56.58%. The structure of ubiquitous landscape is mainly composed of three elements. Among these three elements, choosing time is more crucial than choosing location. Currently, the development of ubiquitous landscape is relatively backward in China. The landscape index is lower than the theoretical value. These conclusions provide a new perspective to explore the tourism resources, and a new idea for the high-quality development of tourism in practice.

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    Geography matters in political geography: A discussion on paradigmatic selection and theoretical construction for the development of Chinese political geography
    WANG Yu, AN Ning, HU Zhiding, WANG Fenglong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 931-944.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210455
    Abstract511)   HTML141)    PDF (2195KB)(171)      

    Driven by the needs of coping with changing international settings and improving domestic social governance, the development of Chinese political geography has gained increasing scholarly attention and formed a disciplinary framework based on both imported and domestic studies. However, the impact of Chinese political geography remains limited compared with other relevant disciplines such as international relations, political economy and public administration. The theories and methods of political geography have rarely been used by other disciplines. Its influence in the making of geopolitical strategies and social governance policies is also restricted. This paper, on the one hand, responds to other disciplines′ critics and misunderstanding of geography and its significance; on the other hand, points out shortcomings of Chinese political geography in terms of mechanism investigations, macro-micro linkages, integration of research subjects, and the construction of theories. It argues that geographical research has moved beyond the traditional focus on physical environment or geographical distance. Instead, an integrative, dialectical and relational perspective of human-nature relations, combining with the disentanglement of multiple dimensions of space, allows geography to remain a valuable discipline. In the meantime, the development of political geography is subject to two major challenges. One concerns the disconnection between empirical and normative studies which divergently pursue micro mechanisms of case studies and macro patterns of general phenomena. The other is stemmed from the fragmentation of research subjects which focus on biophysical components of the social-ecological system rather than fundamental notions of political geographical study. Against this backdrop, this paper outlines an analytical framework of political geography that includes the core research concepts and subjects of political geography from the perspective of power-space relation. It points out that territory, boundary and scale constitute the foundation upon which both complex power dynamics and diverse spatial processes can be examined. Through this analytical framework, it is expected that political geographers could further integrate research subjects, consolidate common understanding, and accumulate knowledge, so as to enhance the theoretical construction and influence of political geography.

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    Rural-urban Hukou transfer of China′s internal migrants: A benefit-oriented family strategy
    CHEN Sichuang, CAO Guangzhong, LIU Tao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (5): 1227-1244.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210451
    Abstract493)   HTML11)    PDF (3117KB)(89)      

    Promoting the rural-urban Hukou transfer of internal migrants is a crucial task in China′s New-Type Urbanization scheme. Along with the lowering threshold of acquiring a local Hukou in most cities and the changing patterns of internal migration, the decision of rural-urban Hukou transfer has no longer depended merely on the institutional gap between urban and rural areas, but also reflected the growing and diversifying needs of migrants. This article developed a novel analytical framework for understanding the rural-urban Hukou transfer intention from a family strategy perspective and by emphasizing the crucial role played by rural rights. Based on the 2017 China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) data, this article found that the basic unit of the decision on rural-urban Hukou transfer is the entire family of migrants; the decision mechanism is a trade-off between benefits attached to rural and urban Hukou of migrant family members; and the main goal is to maximize the total benefits in the hometown and destination, instead of realizing the stable settlement and reunion in the host city of the entire family. The conclusions are as follows. (1) For a couple, one′s possession of urban Hukou will decrease the spouse′s likelihood of holding a rural-urban Hukou transfer intention, which can be termed as the "benefit-ceiling effect" because the potential gain of the spouse′s Hukou transfer is much less for these families than their benefit loss by giving up the rural Hukou and the adherent rural rights. Hence, most migrant families have chosen an "urban-rural separation" Hukou strategy to maximize their benefits from two sides. Eventually, the rural-urban Hukou transfer of China′s internal migrants is characterized by "anti-familization". (2) The rural-urban Hukou transfer intention of migrants has also been hindered by the "retention effect" of threefold rural rights. Specifically, the rights of farmland contracting, housing land occupation, and collective benefits sharing in their rural homeland have decreased the tendency of rural-urban Hukou transfer. (3) Rural rights have negative moderating effects on the familization of migrants′ rural-urban Hukou transfer, which have overshadowed the "family reunion effect" and resulted in an overall trend of anti-familization. To be specific, one′s intention to rural-urban Hukou transfer will be enhanced by the spouse′s local Hukou, which can be described as the "family reunion effect". Considering the moderating effects of rural rights, however, more than half of migrant families would like to maintain the separation strategy of the Hukou status among family members.

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    The geopolitical origins and geostrategic logics of Russia-Ukraine conflict
    CUI Shoujun, YANG Yu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (8): 2065-2075.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020220238
    Abstract451)   HTML41)    PDF (1832KB)(181)      

    The geopolitics of Russia and Ukraine is a hot issue of international geopolitics and international relations. The Russia-Ukraine conflict is a geopolitical conflict caused by the geostrategic choices of sovereign countries under the influence of major powers. The Russia-Ukraine conflict involves complex issues such as geographical location, historical origins and geopolitical games between the two countries, which is a unique perspective of geography, especially geopolitics, on the analysis of changes in the geopolitical environment and geopolitical conflicts. This paper focuses on the geopolitical origins and geostrategic logic of Russia and Ukraine, and discusses the changes in Ukraine's geopolitical environment and geostrategic choices. Theoretical analysis framework of the Russia-Ukraine conflict is established based on the strategic triangle theory, and the geopolitical generation logic of the Russia-Ukraine conflict is expounded from the perspective of geography. This paper aims to provide new theoretical cognition and practical analysis for the great power game and the security of small countries.

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    Examining the development of informal economy and its relationship with the urbanization process in China using the MIMIC model
    XING Zuge, HUANG Gengzhi, XUE Desheng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 597-615.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210125
    Abstract438)   HTML22)    PDF (3401KB)(80)      

    Informal economy is a prevailing phenomenon in the process of urbanization across the world. Its development trend and its relationship with urbanization have received continuous attention from academia. This paper employs the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model to estimate the size of the informal economy, characterizes its development process and spatial patterns and uses an econometric model to examine its relationship with the urbanization level in the Chinese context. Results show that the informal economy in China has grown since 2000 with a rapid growth since 2008. In 2017, the share of informal economies in GDP was 20.55% and the number of informal workers reached 159 million. The development of informal economies is spatially uneven, characterized with the higher share in northwest-southeast regions and the lower share in southwest-northeast regions. The spatial distribution of informal economies is different from the generally known spatial pattern of economic development level measured by GDP, as the latter is characterized by a gradual decrease from east to west. The model shows that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the share of informal economies and the level of urbanization in China, indicating that the informal economy increases first and then decreases with the development of urbanization. It is further shown that when urbanization rate rises to 72.48% the informal economy share would turn to a decreasing trend from an increasing one. Given that the urbanization level was 58.52% in 2017, it is argued that the informal economy in China will continue to grow with urbanization until 2030, in which the urbanization rate is predicted to rise to above 70%. Moreover, given provincial differences in the urbanization level in China, it is suggested that the informal economy in different regions is likely to have different development trends. Our model further shows that the growth of informal economies is related to multiple factors including GDP per capita, the share of the tertiary industry, the share of floating population, state-owned economies and state regulation. This paper enhances the understanding of the development dynamics of informal economies by revealing its long-term relationship with urbanization, and providing an empirical basis for formulating region-differentiated policy responses to informal economies.

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    From network description to network performance: Preface to the special issue 'Urban Network Externalities'
    SUN Dongqi, LU Dadao, SUN Bindong, ZHANG Weiyang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (9): 2325-2329.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020220811
    Abstract430)   HTML13)    PDF (738KB)(94)      

    In recent years, network analysis has been widely used to understand urban and regional organizational patterns and their spatial effects. A single city benefits from the scale economy of 'networking' in the inter-city synergy relationship. Some cities or regions also suffer from the loss of resources or elements due to more convenient connections to other cities. The traditional urban endogenous growth theory emphasizing agglomeration economy is no longer suitable to explain the urban and regional organization shaped by 'spaces of flow' alone. The externality of urban network has become another important factor affecting urban growth and regional integration. At present, the existing research (especially in China) is relatively scarce, and most of the studies focus on the spatial pattern and process of the network, and the effects (externalities) of network connections are relatively ignored, i.e., how the urban network externalities interact with the agglomeration economy, which types of cities will benefit or suffer from urban network externalities, and what are the conditions for generating urban network externalities. The above need to be discussed urgently. In order to call on academia to shift more attention on network research to the scientific exploration of 'what' and 'how' regarding the effects of urban and regional development and its optimization, this special issue has selected 15 related papers which carry out the systematic theoretical discussion and empirical research aiming at the 'urban network externalities'. They outline the research agenda on Chinese experience of urban network externalities, and use this as a starting point to promote the deepening of urban network research from pattern description to network performance.

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    Analysis of urban internal spatial structure characteristics and its influencing factors based on population flow: A case study of Nanjing
    ZHEN Feng, LI Zherui, XIE Zhimin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (6): 1525-1539.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210597
    Abstract422)   HTML35)    PDF (7378KB)(168)      

    At present, the research on urban network structure from the perspective of “flow space” is in the ascendant. Compared with the fruitful results at the regional scale, the stable network analysis framework and formation mechanism model of city-group have not yet been built. It is urgent to comprehensively use the urban regional network analysis method and expand it at the microscopic scale. At the same time, more and more attention has been paid to the city hierarchy and assortativity in the network context. In this research context, focusing on two types of directed flow of people: commute and recreation, this paper takes Nanjing as the study area, and uses the methods of centrality and control, community division and improved gravity model to analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of urban network association from the city-local level. The results show that: (1) The decomposition of spatial scale can effectively identify the city-local structure of commute and recreation. Nanjing presents a “unipolar” development trend of the main city to the south of the Yangtze River. The main performance is that the main city to the south of the Yangtze River attracts intensive commute and recreation flows, and it has all types of centers, providing both local and regional service. (2) The results show that the improved gravity model has a good fitting effect on the real flow of people in the whole area, and the number of residents and spatial distance limit affect the flow of residents to a great extent. The occupation residence ratio and per capita POI amount are the direction regulators of commuting flow and leisure flow respectively. The difference of functional energy levels of township streets determines the interpretation of gravity model to local pedestrian network. The gravity model underestimates the distribution capacity of people flows in Pukou district, Gaochun district and other key policy inclined areas.

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    Spatial effect of digital economy on high-quality economic development in China and and its influence path
    ZHANG Yinghao, WANG Mingfeng, LIU Tingting
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (7): 1826-1844.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210644
    Abstract414)   HTML16)    PDF (5958KB)(162)      

    The digital economy has become a critical factor in promoting high-quality economic development, achieving the digital transformation of the economy, and promoting common prosperity in China. This paper analyzes the impact mechanism of the digital economy on high-quality economic development and constructs two transmission paths via entrepreneurship and innovation. Then, based on the panel data sets of 287 cities at prefecture-level and above in China from 2011 to 2018, this paper analyzes the evolution of digital economy (DE) and high-quality economic development (HQE) from two dimensions of time and space and empirically tests its influencing process mechanism and spatial heterogeneity by using spatial Durbin model and intermediary effect model. The conclusions are drawn as follows. (1) From 2011 to 2018, the levels of DE and HQE in China showed an overall improvement trend, with the kernel density of DE showing different stages. Meanwhile, the levels of DE and HQE have apparent global spatial autocorrelation in terms of spatial characteristics. (2) The DE has formed an obvious H-H (high-high) area in the south-central Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, while the HQE has formed a H-H spatial local pattern in the north-central Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. (3) The improvement of the DE is conducive to the HQE of the local economy but has no significant positive impact on the HQE of the neighbouring regions, which means that there may be digital isolation. In the eastern, central and northeastern regions of China, the development of the DE has a significant positive effect on the HQE, which is most evident in the eastern region. From the measurement results of different types of cities, the impact of the DE on the HQE shows a decreasing trend from mega-cities to small and medium-sized cities. (4) The results of the mediating effects model verify that the level of entrepreneurship and innovation is a mediating variable in the DE driving HQE. However, there is significant spatial heterogeneity simultaneously. (5) The paper concludes with how the development of the digital economy can be deployed accordingly at macro and micro levels to achieve sustainable and high-quality economic development.

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    The spatial diffusion mechanism of Health QR Code Policy in the context of COVID-19
    JI Yicun, WANG Mingfeng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (5): 1496-1512.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210427
    Abstract397)   HTML13)    PDF (5072KB)(121)      

    As a public health emergency, the COVID-19 has led to a devastating consequence, such as casualties and property losses on a global scale. Since February 2020, in order to prevent the spread of the epidemic as well as to promote the resumption of work and production, governments at all levels across China successively decided to take action and introduce the Health QR (quick response) Code Policy. What is known is that the Health QR Code Policy has become an important means and practice for effectively preventing and controlling the disastrous epidemic in China up to now. Based on the Event History Analysis (EHA) of the diffusion time and influencing factors of 295 cities at and above the prefecture level in China, this paper explores the spatio-temporal process and mechanism of the rapid policy implementation in tackling the pandemic across China, what is worth paying attention to is that the policy was first initiated and adopted by a provincial government. The findings are as follows: (1) The cities with higher digitization and economic strength would have a faster response to adopt the Health QR Code Policy. (2) What is worth considering is that the "learning" and "competition" behaviors among governments of neighboring cities would speed up the diffusion of the Health QR Code Policy, while the vertical guidance pressure of provincial governments did not play a significant role. (3) During the COVID-19, policy entrepreneurs have played a significant role in public emergency and become a powerful force that can accelerate the diffusion of Health QR Code Policy. (4) The epidemic situation of each city would affect the transmission rate of the Health QR Code Policy. There is no doubt that the geographical distance from the epidemic hotspots would also affect the governments to adopt the Health QR Code Policy in a short period. This paper, by analyzing the diffusion motivations of the Health QR Code Policy during the COVID-19 pandemic, could provide a predominant summary of experience and policy suggestions for understanding the formulation of emergency policies as well as the diffusion mechanism in the context of public crisis.

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    The influence of plot quality characteristics on terrace abandonment in mountainous areas of Southwest China: A case study of Baidu Village in Jianhe County, Guizhou Province
    MOU Yan, ZHAO Yuluan, LI Xiubin, REN Hongyu, LIU Yan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 903-916.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210044
    Abstract363)   HTML12)    PDF (4420KB)(130)      

    This paper aims to examine the plot quality characteristics of abandoned terraces in the mountainous areas of Southwest China and explore the key influencing factors that trigger the abandonment of the terraces. To further clarify the driving mechanism of the abandonment of terraced fields in mountainous areas and find ways to sustainable use of terraced fields, this paper takes Baidu Village, Jianhe County, Guizhou Province as the research area. Based on the survey data of farmers and the high-resolution UAV image data, we have an in-depth exploration of the scale of abandonment of terraced fields in mountainous areas, the spatial distribution of abandoned terraces, and the quality characteristics of plots. Then, through the construction of a binary Logistic regression model, quantitative analysis is carried out on the effect of the quality factors of each area on the abandonment of terraces. The results show that: (1) The sample terraces of Baidu Village are mostly concentrated in areas with relatively large cultivated height differences, steep slopes, and relatively long tillage distances, and the area of terraces contracted by the sample farmers is 62.518 hm2. The abandoned terraces cover an area of 21.354 hm2, and the abandonment rate is 34.16%. (2) The dominant factor affecting the abandonment of terraces among the quality characteristics of terraces is the perfection of irrigation facilities; the second factor is the use of mechanical power; the third factor is the degree of ridge collapse; the fourth factor is the cultivated area; the fifth factor is the comprehensive topographical conditions. Among them, the perfection of irrigation facilities, the use of mechanical power, the size of farming area and the abandonment of terraced fields are all negatively correlated, and the degree of ridge collapse and comprehensive topographical conditions are positively correlated with the abandonment of terraced fields. The research results have important theoretical and practical significance for promoting the sustainable use and management of terraced fields in the mountainous areas of southwest China.

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    Spatial differences and influencing factors of urban network attention by Douyin fans in China
    DING Zhiwei, MA Fangfang, ZHANG Gaisu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (9): 2548-2567.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020220145
    Abstract360)   HTML15)    PDF (10173KB)(138)      

    Based on the data of Douyin fans and Baidu index, we adopted the rank-size model, kernel density estimation, field division, and regional combination to examine the spatial differences of urban network attention, and carried out a comparative analysis. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) Municipalities and provincial capitals, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Chongqing, Xi'an, Tianjin, and Nanjing, are cities that draw high attention, which are in accordance with some agglomeration regions such as the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing-Tianjin region. However, cities with low attention are concentrated in agglomeration regions with small and low-density population, such as Chengdu-Chongqing, Central China Plains, and middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. (2) From the perspective of the rank-size model, the fitting curve deviates from the ideal state and the q-value is greater than 1.3, reflecting the strong spatial agglomeration effect of high-grade cities in network space. Specifically, the curves of northeastern and western China are similar; that of central China is close to the ideal form; and the high-level agglomeration effect in eastern China is further strengthened according to the data. (3) From the perspective of field division and regional model, the core fields of high attention cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou are shop exploration, tourism, food, street photography, and entertainment. As for central and western China, the main attractions are real estate, and subways, as well as special food, shop exploration, and street photography. (4) From the perspective of spatial combination, the Yangtze River Delta belongs to multi-center network type, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing region, and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River belong to double-center point-axis type, Guanzhong and Zhongyuan urban agglomerations belong to single-center radiation type, and other urban agglomerations belong to single-center or has no-center type. (5) Based on the comparison of Baidu index, cities with high-level network attention are concentrated in eastern China, while the network effect in central and western China is not obvious. (6) In terms of influencing factors, the formation of all these patterns is closely related with the innovation level, digital promotion, and specialization operation of high-quality talents or highly-educated netizens, in addition to economic level with regards to the levels of the modern service industry, informatization process, and transportation.

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    Spatial and temporal characteristics of snowfall and snowmelt in Northwest China from 1980 to 2019
    HOU Litao, PU Xufan, LI Zhe, ZHANG Xiaowen, ZHANG Shiqiang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 880-902.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201224
    Abstract354)   HTML21)    PDF (7825KB)(194)      

    Long-term variations of snowfall and snowmelt in Northwest China is critical to accurate modelling of snowmelt flood process. This study is based on the daily in-situ observed snowfall, precipitation and air temperature from 1961 to 2019. Firstly, the snowfall calculated by wet bulb temperature method, KS method and double critical air temperature method are compared with observed snowfall during 1961-1979. Then, the double critical air temperature method is determined to calculate the daily snow rain ratio from 1980 to 2019. Finally, the changes of snow rain ratio, snowfall and snowmelt start date are analyzed. The main results are as follows: (1) The spring mean air temperature showed a significant upward trend, and the warming rate decreased with the increase of altitude. The rising rate of spring air temperature in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, southeast semi-arid and semi-humid regions was slightly lower than that in the other three areas. In spring, the ratio of snow to rain decreased significantly above an altitude of 1000 m, and decreased significantly over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, southeast semi-arid and semi-humid regions; in autumn, the mean air temperature increased significantly, and the warming rate increased with the increase of altitude. Spatially, there is a significent increasing trend in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results show that the snow rain ratio in autumn does not show a significant downward trend at different altitudes and in different climatic zones; the mean air temperature in winter rises significantly above an altitude of 2000 m, and the warming rate accelerates with the increase of altitude. Spatially, there is a significant warming in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the southeast semi-arid and semi-humid regions. The snowfall shows a significant increasing trend at altitudes of 1000-2000 m. Spatially, there is a significant increasing trend in northern Xinjiang. (2) With the increase of temperature, the start date of snowfall did not advance significantly in all the regions. The difference of the start date of snowfall at different altitudes and in different climatic zones was still 30-40 days. (3) The start date of snowmelt showed a significant advance trend at all altitudes and in different climatic zones. The difference of the start date of snowmelt at different altitudes and in different climatic zones was still 25-30 days. The variations of snowfall and snowmelt indicate that climate change have had a significant impact on the characteristics of snowmelt flood.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution of specialized village sales market in Henan Province: Take 50 specialized villages as an example
    ZHU Qiankun, QIAO Jiajun, HAN Dong, XIN Xiangyang, LIU Yang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (3): 794-809.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210058
    Abstract354)   HTML22)    PDF (5176KB)(112)      

    Specialized villages (SVs) are the important forms of economic development in rural areas. As a key factor affecting the development of SVs, sales market is an important issue worth exploring. Based on two follow-up surveys of 50 SVs in Henan Province in 2008 and 2017, this paper used the methods of Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE), Social Network Analysis (SNA) and Geodetector to sort out the spatiotemporal evolution of 50 SVs’ sales market. The results show that: (1) The spatiotemporal evolution was characterized by difference, expansion, fluctuation and flattening. The sales market center’s migration directions of SVs were different, spatial distribution was expanding, and market volatility was obvious, which shows a flat development trend. The product sales of SVs were less affected by externalities, and their internal effects were enhanced. (2) In terms of network structure, it showed the evolutionary characteristics of "tightening within the province and expanding outside the province". The individual centrality of the first tier cities in China was increasing, while the individual centrality of most cities in the province was weakening. In the early stage of the formation and development of SVs, the local market was the main supplier of its products. However, with the improvement of product quality, in order to obtain more profits, it had gradually developed into a sales pattern of "mainly outside the province market, supplemented by the market within the province". (3) In the market development, the overall situation was significantly expanded. From the perspective of diffusion distance, service-oriented SV was the furthest, followed by manufacture SV, and agriculture SV was the nearest. From the perspective of diffusion growth, service-oriented SV was the largest, followed by agriculture SV, and manufacture SV was the smallest. From the perspective of diffusion rate, agriculture SV was the fastest, followed by the service-oriented SV, and manufacture SV was the slowest. (4) There were significant differences in the explanatory power of different factors to the diffusion distance of sales market. On the whole, the advantage of resource endowment had weakened, and the influence of traffic conditions, industrial level and sales mode on the evolution of sales market was increasing. The evolution mechanism of SV sales market was complex. The necessary village foundation and industrial organization provided space carrier and economic carrier for the production and sales of SV products. Through the feedback mechanism, the sales market constantly standardized production and promoted industrial upgrading.

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    Spatiotemporal characteristics and differentiation mechanism of high-quality development of urban agglomerations in China
    ZHANG Guojun, WANG Yunzhe, CHEN Yu, ZHOU Chunshan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (8): 2109-2124.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210799
    Abstract353)   HTML20)    PDF (3874KB)(194)      

    This article takes the 19 urban agglomerations mentioned in the outline of China's 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) as research objects, and constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system for high-quality development of urban agglomerations in China from five dimensions of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing. Research methods such as entropy method and geographic detector model are used to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics and differentiation mechanism of high-quality development of China's urban agglomerations from 2006 to 2018. The results show that: (1) From the perspective of the overall development level, the high-quality development level of China's urban agglomerations shows an increasing trend, and there are differences in the development level and speed of each dimension. (2) From the perspective of spatial distribution, an overall pattern of decline from the eastern to the central and western regions remains stable, but with a steady rise of high-quality development level of some urban agglomerations in central and western China, and the spatial gradient pattern shows a weakening trend. (3) From the perspective of spatial characteristics, the agglomeration trend of high-quality development of Chinese urban agglomerations is gradually increasing. Among the agglomeration types, the HH type is mainly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations; The HL type appears in core provincial capital cities of each urban agglomeration; The LH type is mainly found in the surrounding cities of the high-value agglomeration area of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; The LL type is mainly at the junction of urban agglomerations in the infant and primary growth stages. (4) From the perspective of the force intensity of the detection factors, in the middle period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the intensity of each factor in descending order is income level, population density, education level, government regulation, investment intensity. Among them, the force of investment intensity declined significantly during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period (2011-2015), indicating that the role of high-quality development of urban agglomeration driven by investment has weakened. In addition, the leading factors of high-quality development of urban agglomerations in different development stages changed in different periods. (5) In view of the differences in differentiation mechanism of urban agglomerations at different development stages, corresponding countermeasures should be implemented according to different conditions of urban agglomerations. Urban agglomerations in the mature stage should focus on income improvement, government macro-regulation and population agglomeration; It is important not only to raise income but also to enhance education level and investment in industries or industrial chains with the potential for division of labor during the growth stage.

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    The characteristics and prospect of influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions: Based on literature review
    WANG Zheng, FAN Jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (10): 2587-2599.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210715
    Abstract336)   HTML8)    PDF (1902KB)(91)      

    The influencing factors of carbon emissions are an important research field that arouses the scholars' concern. Scholars at home and abroad have conducted many case studies and enriched their knowledge. Due to regional heterogeneity in socio-economic development and resource endowments, the research conclusions differ among scholars' results. There is a lack of systematic review and summary for research papers on carbon emissions. Based on the literature review, characteristics of carbon emissions influencing factors were summarized, and the results show that: (1) The influencing factors of carbon emissions have the characteristics of time effect, space effect and spatial scale effect. The influencing factors change in the degree and direction over time, region and spatial scales. (2) The time effect, space effect, and spatial scale effect of emission factors are related to the rapid economic development of China, the regional differences in economic development levels, and the coupling of economic development on temporal and spatial scales. (3) To capture the characteristics of emission drivers, future research need to be based on regional development direction, regional classification management and control, and spatial downscaling. Territorial function is the integrated expression of natural carrying capacity, socio-economic level and development potential. Due to the different functional positioning of urban, agricultural and ecological zones in the development and protection pattern of territorial space, industrial agglomeration and population distribution have their own characteristics, which lead to differences in energy-related carbon emissions. It is an important theoretical and practical attempt to carry out classified management and control of carbon emissions with the Major Function-Oriented Zones as impetus.

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