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    The impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the development of economic globalization
    LIU Weidong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1439-1449.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200514
    Abstract781)   HTML182)    PDF (1361KB)(162)      

    The COVID-19 pandemic is considered the biggest crisis confronted with the world after the Second World War, which has brought huge impacts on people’s health and daily life, economic growth and employment as well as national and international governance. Increasing pessimism is buzzing among scholars, critics, entrepreneurs, the mass and even government officials, and views like the end of economic globalization, large-scale spatial restructuring of global supply chains and fundamental change of the world economic governance structure are becoming prevailing on the media. This paper tries to address the issue of the development trend of economic globalization in the post-pandemic era by developing a framework of globalization’s Triangle Structure to understand its dynamics in addition to a summary of the on-going impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that the spatial fix of capital accumulation, time-space compression led by technological advance and openness of nations are the three major drivers of economic globalization, and the changes and interactions of these three drivers decide the development trend of economic globalization. From such a dynamic viewpoint, economic globalization is an ever-changing integration process without an end but constant fluctuations. The cost of decoupling of nations from globalization would be very huge because they have been highly integrated by global production networks and trade networks and no nation can afford a complete decoupling. The so-called de-globalization phenomena are just short-term adjusting strategies of nations to cope with power reconfigurations brought by economic globalization. The pandemic will have little impacts, or probably nothing, on the spatial fix of capital accumulation and time-space compression led by technological advance, but may temporarily influence some nations' openness. If the pandemic does not last long, economic globalization will resume from the shock soon after the world goes back to normal, and develop and restructure according to its own dynamics. Thus, we tend to believe the pandemic at most slams the brake of globalization and would not be able to put it into reverse. Economic globalization will not stop or reverse, but develop towards a more inclusive stage.

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    Targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization in poverty-stricken areas: Internal logic and mechanism
    GUO Yuanzhi, ZHOU Yang, LIU Yansui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2819-2832.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190644
    Abstract760)   HTML83)    PDF (3213KB)(487)      

    Targeting at the needs of Two Centenary Goals, rural development in poverty-stricken areas of China is gradually transforming from poverty alleviation to rural revitalization. Since there is a close relationship between these two stages, targeted poverty alleviation practices in rural areas are of great significance to promote the realization of rural revitalization. This study analyzed the connotations of targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, and investigated the internal logic between them. Then it discussed how antipoverty practices promote the rural revitalization in poverty-stricken areas. Results show that targeted poverty alleviation aims at taking countermeasures to help those who truly need them based on scientific diagnosis of the factors leading to poverty, thus all kinds of factors causing poverty can be eliminated fundamentally. The key of rural revitalization lies in establishing the system and mechanism for urban-rural integrated development, eventually realizing the modernization of agriculture and countryside. In term of the relationship between targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, the former is the key and basic premise of the latter since poverty reduction guided by targeted poverty alleviation makes up the shortboard of rural development, and the latter is the higher stage and guarantee of the former since it steadily improves the abilities of rural sustainable development. Therefore, it can be said that the process of poverty alleviation in rural areas is also a process of gradual rejuvenation of the countryside. Through the rational flow and allocation of factors, such as human, land and capital, poverty-stricken areas have constructed a benign rural regional system with enough elements, proper structure and multiple functions to promote the revitalization of industries, talent, culture, ecology and organizations. Eventually, it helps to achieve the goals of strong agriculture, beautiful countryside and well-off farmers. Rural development has obvious path dependence; thus, its cyclic accumulation effect determines that the current antipoverty in poor areas should focus on the effective connection with rural revitalization, laying a solid foundation for rural sustainable development.

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    The restructuring of regional governance under the city regionalism of China: A case study of the Pearl River Delta intercity railway
    ZHANG Xianchun, LUAN Xiaofan, LI Zhigang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 483-494.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190207
    Abstract649)   HTML20)    PDF (2380KB)(92)      

    Regional governance in China has shown the periodic feature, notably under the city regionalism in recent years. Examining the formation of regional governance in China is conducive to probing the China’s city-regionalization as well as the features of institutional architecture oriented integrated development. The dynamic and continuing game process in terms of power configuration has replaced the traditional multi-level governmental system. Based upon a case study of Pearl River Delta intercity railway, this article examines the dynamic evolution of power and financial right relation in the planning, construction, and operation process systemically. The Pearl River Delta intercity railway is a large-scale infrastructure project in which multiple governments are fully involved and actively sought for their interests. Thereby, the primary objective of this article is to explore the dynamics of regional governance restructuring in China through interrogating the role of provincial government and the evolution of provincial-local relation. There are two important findings reported by this article. First, the role of provincial government has been transformed from subcontractor and coordinator to “subcontractor plus contractor” and “coordinator plus developer”. This indicates that the provincial government has operated towards both gatekeeper and competitor. The financial authority is essential to determining this role transformation. Second, the structural administrative subcontract of provincial-local relation has transformed to serval opposed and cooperation waves of continuum. This continuum has been driven by different types of interests and the provincial-local relation constitutes to the stability and structural coherence of regional governance in China. This finding rectifies existing understanding around the regional governance mechanism, that is top-down and bottom-up mechanisms. As such, the regional governance has generally manifested as the hybrid model in which different governmental agencies co-shaped. The changing regional governance in the Pearl River Delta intercity railway also implies that the regional governance is sensitive to the concrete socioeconomic environment and varied case by case. In this vein, we contribute to the understanding of recentralization of state space as well as the restructuring of provincial-local relation beyond administrative subcontractor. It concludes that China’s city-regionalization is orchestrated by different levels of government and the actual effect and modality of regional governance are determined by inter-scalar politics oriented economic growth.

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    Spatial pattern and contributing factors of homestay inns in the area around Mogan Mountain
    ZHANG Haizhou, LU Lin, ZHANG Dapeng, YU Hu, ZHANG Xiao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (11): 2695-2715.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180918
    Abstract604)   HTML59)    PDF (15763KB)(301)      

    Homestay inn is an emerging form of commercial format and space utilization in the process of rural vitalization and tourism transformation and upgrading in China, but academic attention is lagging behind. The area around Mogan Mountain (AAMM) is one of the most typical homestay inn clusters in China and has becoming a world well-known regional brand in the tourism of homestay inn. In this study, with official government statistics and field research data, spatio-temporal pattern and contributing factors of homestay inns in AAMM was systematically analyzed based on the micro-scale of the tourism destination using the spatial process analysis method of the combination of ArcGIS and Geodetector. The results show: (1) From 2011 to 2017, the total number and spatial distribution range of homestay inns in the AAMM had been expanding. The direction of spatial development changed greatly, gradually tending to the balanced spatial development of the whole town field. The spatial pattern of homestay inns in the AAMM is a cluster area centered on villages of “Houwu-Xiantan-Liaoyuan-Laoling-Lanshukeng” bordering Mogan Mountain Scenic Area, and aggregation point in edge villages of the AAMM. Spatio-temporal patterns of different grades of homestay inns are significantly different. (2) The spatial process of homestay inns in AAMM has been changing from agglomeration to a strong agglomeration, and the agglomeration degrees of different grades of homestay inns in AAMM have increased rapidly. The diffusion effect of the early aggregation points were significant. The spatial agglomeration process is closely related to the terrain topography, core scenic spot, traffic trunks and residential areas. (3) Scenery, development foundations, social factors and location are all contributing factors of the spatial heterogeneity of homestay inns in the AAMM. And the influence of the interaction between two determinants of dimensions appeared to be larger. The spacial law of the homestay inn in mountain areas can be concluded that “natural-scenery-traffic-social” multi-factors have a comprehensive and interactive effect on the spatial agglomeration. Significant differences exist in spatial determinants of dimensions and indicators of different grades with the rule that the spatial location selections for the high, mid- and low grades are physical geographical landscape oriented, industrial landscape oriented and social landscape oriented, respectively. It is of great theoretical significance to extend the study types of the location in the hospitality industry and to summarize the spatial development model of typical homestay inn cluster in China. At the same time, it has the practical values for the site location selection of homestay inn and the development planning of the homestay inn cluster.

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    The development of COVID-19 in China: Spatial diffusion and geographical pattern
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Delin, WEI Ye, YANG Haoran
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1450-1462.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200329
    Abstract598)   HTML188)    PDF (13259KB)(145)      

    The study of the spatial diffusion and geographical mode of COVID-19 is of great significance for the rational allocation of health resources, the management and response of public health emergencies, and the improvement of public health system in the future. Based on multiple spatio-temporal scale, this paper studied the spatial spreading process of COVID-19 between cities and its evolution characteristics in China, and then explored its influencing factors. The results are shown in the following: the inter-city spreading process of COVID-19 in China mainly experienced six stages, namely, stage I: diffusion in Wuhan, stage II: rapid multi-point diffusion in space, stage III: rapid increase of confirmed cases, stage IV : gradual decrease of new confirmed cases, stage V: the epidemic under control, and stage VI: cases imported from overseas. In the context of globalization and open regional system, the social and economic development of regions are closely related to each other. With the development of fast and convenient high-speed railway network, the spatial characteristic of population migration shows a cross-regional and hierarchical pattern, and forms a certain spatial cascade structure along the transport corridor. Accordingly, the spatial spread of COVID-19 mainly showsthe characteristics of adjacent diffusion, relocation diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and corridor diffusion. The study found that geographical proximity, population migration and population size, traffic network, epidemic prevention and control measures have significant influence on the spatial diffusion process of COVID-19. Among different modes of transportation, airplanes play agreater role than others in the early stage of the epidemic. In addition, the population flow during the Spring Festival had a certain impact on the spread of the epidemic. In conclusion, to some extent, the spatial spread process and pattern of COVID-19 epidemic reflects the spatial organization pattern of social and economic activities under the "space of flows" network, which is closely related to the geographical proximity, the social and economic linkages between regions, and the spatial an temporal patterns of human activities. From the perspective of geography, this paper analyzed the inter-city spread pattern of COVID-19 epidemic and provided some implications for prevention and control measures against the epidemic in other countries, and also offered some suggestions for China to deal with public health emergency risks in the future.

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    A comprehensive assessment of political, economic and social risks and their prevention for the countries along the Belt and Road
    LIU Haimeng, HU Senlin, FANG Kai, HE Guangqiang, MA Haitao, CUI Xuegang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2966-2984.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181321
    Abstract559)   HTML41)    PDF (14384KB)(202)      

    Assessing and preventing national risks along the Belt and Road are of great importance to the realization of the “Five Connectivity” goal and “Go Global” strategy. China had signed cooperation documents with more than 120 countries and 29 international organizations on jointly constructing the Belt and Road by March 2019. However, most regions along the Belt and Road are developing countries and emerging economies, with immature market economic system and relatively backward infrastructure. Some countries are suffering from a lack of stable political situation, high governance efficiency, complete legal systems and ideal trade patterns. Moreover, religious and refugee issues in some of these countries are prominent, which pose many potential risks to foreign investment, business exchanges, outbound tourism, cultural and scientific exchanges, etc. In this study, by choosing 18 indicators from the dimensions of politics, economy and society, an evaluation system was established to rank the overall risk of 74 countries along the Belt and Road. We analyzed the spatial-temporal evolution of different risks during 2001-2016 by Moran's I and hotspot analysis, and put forward suggestions for risk prevention and control. The results demonstrate that: (1) From 2001 to 2016, the overall risk of 74 countries along the Belt and Road shows a downward trend, of which the change to political risk is relatively small, economic risk experienced a fluctuation of "down-up-down-up", and social risk generally shows a downward trend. The overall risks are very volatile in some countries particularly in West Asia, Europe and Southeast Asia; (2) The political, economic and social risks of 74 countries along the Belt and Road show significant spatial agglomeration and regional differences during 2001-2016. The countries with high risk levels are mainly distributed in North Africa, Central Asia, West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia; (3) The political, economic and social risk subsystems are significantly correlated with each other, and countries with high political risk are often accompanied by high economic and social risks; and (4) There is an "investment paradox" in some countries, namely, large amount of investment and high risk level coexist in the Belt and Road region. As such, the governments and enterprises should make joint efforts to establish dynamic rating and early warning mechanism to prevent and control risks. We should better align our policies with existing regional strategies such as the Eurasian Economic Union, the Bright Road of Kazakhstan, and the Mongolian Grassland Road, establish the mechanism of offshore financial risk control, participate more actively in the formulation and application of international and regional rules, and pay more attention to corporate social responsibility. By doing so, we will gradually achieve a Belt and Road community with shared interests, shared responsibilities and shared future.

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    Transitional geospace from the perspective of human-nature coupling: Concept, connotations, attributes, and the research framework
    DENG Wei, ZHANG Shaoyao, ZHANG Hao, PENG Li, LIU Ying
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (4): 761-771.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200189
    Abstract508)   HTML22)    PDF (5683KB)(100)      

    From the perspective of the coupling of socioeconomic and natural sciences, transitional geospace is the composite zones between natural-socioeconomic system, highlighting the particularity and complexity of the regional system of human-nature relationship. In terms of the type, the mountainous transitional geospace, which we need to focus on and deepen its understanding and cognitionis, is the key areas for the high-quality development and management of modern territorial space in China, as well as one of the important issues of the frontiers of geographical research. In the light of the elaboration of the concept, connotation and attributes of transitional geospace from the perspective of the coupling of socioeconomic and natural systems, and referring to multidisciplinary concepts, theories and methods, inspired by the principle of color gradients, this study exploratively proposes a scientific research framework for transitional geospace based on the geocoding and decoding technologies, aiming to explain the socioeconomic-natural coupling evolutionary process and its mechanisms in transitional geospace, and to provide scientific decision guidance and basis for improving the territorial space function and optimizing its development pattern in the transitional geospace. It also has application values to enrich the explorations and practices for the research of human-nature relationship and regional systems.

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    Characteristics analyses of major physical geographic elements of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (VIIRS) active fire in Laos
    LIU Yiyuan, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei, LIU Ying, RAO Didi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 749-760.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190029
    Abstract494)   HTML10)    PDF (10950KB)(39)      

    Using US NASA's Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) VIIRS V1 (or Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Version 1) active fire location vector data, ASTER GDEM (30 m, or Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 1 km) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), and Global Land Cover products (30 m), based on GIS, the dynamic changes in active fire events were quantitatively analyzed from provincial to national scales in Laos in 2012-2017. In addition, characteristics analyses of major physical geographic elements of VIIRS V1 active fires, including topography (elevation and slope), MODIS vegetation-moisture indices (NDVI and LSWI) and land cover types, were conducted in detail in the 2015 El Niño. The results showed that: (1) the number of active fire events in Laos increased first and then decreased in 2012-2017, with the peak in 2015. Active fires in Laos were mainly concentrated in the northern and central regions. Luang Prabang, Sayaburi and Savannakhet had the top number of active fires at the provincial level, while Vientiane City, Sekong and Xaisomboun in sequence ranked the last. (2) The relationship between the frequency of active fires in Laos and topographic factors (elevation and slope) in 2012-2017 was basically the same. Active fires primarily occurred in the hilly and low mountainous areas with elevations of less than 1000 m (86.10%) and slopes of less than 30° (92.45%). Among them, active fires in the northern region were concentrated in the mountainous areas with elevations of 500-1000 m and slopes of 10-30°, while others in the central and southern regions were concentrated in the hilly areas below 500 m and gentle slopes of 2°-20°. (3) Seasonally, the active fires in Laos mainly happened during the dry season (94.75%), with the most number in March and April (82.24%) and in the medium-high coverage vegetation area with NDVI of 0.4-0.8 (92.05%) and LSWI of 0.2-0.6 (75.70%). (4) Active fires were mostly distributed in the forests of Laos, especially in the northern part, while the counterparts in the central and southern parts mainly occurred in farmland, grassland and shrubland. (5) In summary, characteristics analyses of major physical geographic elements of VIIRS active fires can be used to determine its fire type, that is, active fires in Laos were mainly caused by swidden agriculture.

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    Rural restructuring and transformation: Western experience and its enlightenment to China
    HU Shuling, YU Bin, WANG Mingjie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2833-2845.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181133
    Abstract488)   HTML48)    PDF (971KB)(304)      

    Rural restructuring and transformation has been frontier in Rural Geography studies of Western countries since the 1980s. Our objective in this paper is to draw lessons from the rural development of Western countries for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy of China. The paper reveals the rural restructuring process, the characteristics of rural transformation, and the driving factors of Western countries, and summarizes the rural development practice in Western countries and its enlightenment to China. The energy crisis and post-industrialization in the 1970s, and technological progress (especially the rapid development of the Internet) since the early 1990s constituted important contexts for the rural restructuring and transformation in Western countries in three phases. The first phase is the economic dimension of restructuring dominated by "capital, land, and property rights". The second phase is the social dimension of restructuring dominated by "discourse, otherness, and construction". The third phase is the comprehensive dimension of restructuring dominated by "subject, culture and network", the essence of which is the reorganization of rural elements and their relationships as a result of the insertion of the exogenous subject, or urban area, capital and culture. The transformation characteristics have been concluded in a logic line which starts from productive countryside to consumptive countryside, then to multifunctional countryside, and lastly, to current global countryside. Rural transformation, of which the substance is the change of rural nature, is the direct result of rural restructuring. Post-industrialization, counter-urbanization, and globalization are the main factors that drive rural restructuring and transformation. Meanwhile the evolution of global geopolitical pattern has an impact on rural restructuring. Finally, despite the difference of background and characteristics of rural development between China and Western countries, it is believed that the experience from Western countries can contribute to providing enlightenment for understanding the practice of rural China's development and promoting its theory construction. In consideration of the issue that there is not unified conceptual framework for rural restructuring and transformation in China, which is a disadvantage of the relevant studies on rural China, the rural development practice and theoretical understanding in Western countries can provide some beneficial help for deepening the recognition of rural restructuring and transformation. It is noteworthy that because of different contexts between China and Western countries, Western practice and experience should not be directly copied by China without taking the differences into account. In addition, rural restructuring and transformation in contemporary China can be discussed from the perspectives of factors, reconstruction, process and function, transformation, consequence. Specifically, the paper proposes a rural revitalization blueprint for China, which sets global countryside, productive countryside, and multifunctional countryside as development orientations for eastern, central and western China, respectively.

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    Hotspot discovery and its spatial pattern analysis for catering service in cities based on field model in GIS
    ZHANG Haiping, ZHOU Xingxing, TANG Guoan, ZHOU Lei, YE Xinyue
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 354-369.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181104
    Abstract440)   HTML16)    PDF (28323KB)(107)      

    Catering service is an important part of urban life. Extracting urban hotspots for catering services and identifying their spatial distribution patterns is important for our understanding urban space and urban structures. In view of the shortcomings of quantitative analysis of urban morphological features based on POI in the past, the GIS field model was used to identify the spatial distribution patterns of urban feature elements, and the Geo-information Tupu was used to visualize the patterns. Taking the 47100-catering service POIs in the main urban area of Jinan city as the main data source, the catering service hotspots were first extracted based on the density field hotspot detection model and classified according to the density value; then the catering service was expressed by Geo-information-Tupu of generalized symmetric structure and digital field based hierarchical Geo-information Tupu. The spatial distribution structure characteristics and scale structure features of the hotspots are presented, and their Geo-information Tupu of distribution pattern is constructed. Finally, the results are discussed. Research shows that: (1) The digital field hotspot detection model can effectively identify hotspots in different levels from POI. (2) The Geo-information-Tupu of generalized symmetric structure and digital field based hierarchical Geo-information Tupu can analyze and express the spatial distribution structure and hierarchical structure characteristics of the food hotspot from the aspect of vertical and horizontal of space. In summary, this study provides an effective quantitative analysis method for POI-based urban feature extraction and urban morphology research. The method can also be extended to the extraction, analysis and expression of other urban feature elements.

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    Progress of relational economic geography: Whether theorizing China′s experiences
    LIU Yi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1005-1017.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191002
    Abstract432)   HTML17)    PDF (2335KB)(125)      

    Relational economic geography is one of the most influential schools of studies in economic geography. Many economic geographers of China have recognized and applied its key analytic framework, the alleged Global Production Network, whereas they have seldom tackled on the perspective of relational economic geography. By identifying this theoretical gap, this paper critically reviews the origin, development, formation and recent refinement of the school of relational economic geography. It has three major conclusions. First, this paper affirms that relational economic geography has salient geographical nature, though it deals with relation, and has become a core strand of studies in the research of economic globalization, regional development and industrial upgrading. It has positively improved the relevance of economic geography in various disciplines such as development studies, international political economy and management. Second, the existing problems of relational economic geography rest in the complexity of the analytic framework and research variables which include a lot of factors, process and mechanisms. The typology of strategic coupling, the central explanatory variable, is mainly derived from empirical observation and lacks of theoretical deduction. In the meantime, studies in this school so far still heavily rely on qualitative approaches, such as case studies, after forty years of development. Third, this paper argues that theorizing back based on China's reform and opening-up in the past forty years via the perspective of relational economic geography is quite innovative and valuable. To this vein, a few Chinese geographers have made great attempts and got publications in various decent international journals. This paper offers a critique on two series of studies to elaborate how to make theoretical contribution to relational economic geography based on China's experiences. One is related to the concept of embeddedness and firm-state relationship in the transitional institutional environment in China. The other is the investigation of strategic coupling in major regional economies in China. All these studies have shown great potentials of using China's experiences to revise and advance the western-origin theories in economic geography. This paper would have salient implications for improving international relevance of the economic geography of China, as well as theoretical innovation based on China's experiences.

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    Spatial distribution of summer comfortable climate and winter comfortable climate in China and their differences
    DENG Lizi, BAO Jigang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (1): 41-52.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180792
    Abstract416)   HTML30)    PDF (6025KB)(275)      

    Comfortable climate consists of summer comfortable climate and winter comfortable climate. Insofar there has been little, if any, academic attention paid to the dichotomous climates, especially in terms of the characteristics as well as differences embedded in their spatial distribution across China. Building upon the statistics collected by 2132 national meteorological stations in China during the period of 1981-2010, this study has bridged this insufficiency in the extant literature. Specifically, climate comprehensive comfort index is calculated, using the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), Wind-Chill Index (WCI) and Index of Clothing (ICL). Also, employing the Cokriging spatial interpolation method, this study sheds light on the characteristics and differences of the spatial distribution of summer comfortable climate and winter comfortable climate in China. As the research result manifests, (1) Summer comfortable climate in China is located in the frontier regions of Northwest and Northeast China lying north of 40°N, the central part of Northwest China and Southwest China. In contrast, the winter comfortable climate is mainly distributed at low latitudes, particularly lying south of the Tropic of Cancer. Specifically, it includes Hainan province and the southern part of Yunnan province, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, Guangdong province, and Fujian province. (2) Since the weather and climate in most parts of China are perceived not so comfortable, especially over the Bohai Bay, the Yangtze River Delta as well as other economically developed and densely populated regions, and the development of these dichotomous comfortable climates appears to be potentially rewarding. (3) In addition, the dichotomous comfortable climates show obvious geographical separation characteristics, as there are few places that enjoy both summer comfortable climate and winter comfortable climate. (4) Overall, the winter comfortable climate could be a scarce resource with monopoly characteristic in China, while, the resource of the summer comfortable climate seems not so rare, in view of its relatively wide distribution. This study provides a wealth of insights that potentially hugely enrich the pre-exiting theories concerning spatial distribution of comfortable climates in China. Meanwhile, a scientific basis for the development of favorable climatic resources is contributed, accordingly.

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    Research on the coupling relationship and spatial-temporal evolution between industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern: A case study of the Yangtze River Delta
    CAO Bingru, SUN Qiao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 3055-3070.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180985
    Abstract416)   HTML37)    PDF (6120KB)(340)      

    There is a close relationship between industrial agglomeration and changes in urban spatial patterns. This article is aimed at the coupling relationship between regional industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern, so as to construct comprehensive evaluation indicators of regional industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern evolution, and explore the interaction and spatial-temporal evolution between the two systems through the panel regression model and spatial center of gravity model by using statistics from 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta region from 1990 to 2016. The results show that there is a significant coupling relationship between industrial agglomeration and urban spatial pattern in the study area. Coordination degree and spatial matching degree of various urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta region are steadily increasing. However, the degree of coupling and coordinated development in this region is not balanced enough. The degree of coupling and coordination in the southern part of the Yangtze River Delta is slightly weaker than that in the northern part. In the development of recent decades, the northern part of the delta gradually formed a coupling and coordinated development area with Shanghai-Nanjing as the axis, and the coupling coordination of the entire Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by a "Z" shape.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics and the influencing factors of the ride destination of bike sharing in Guangzhou city
    GAO Feng, LI Shaoying, WU Zhifeng, LV Dijiang, HUANG Guanping, LIU Xiaoping
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2859-2872.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190081
    Abstract415)   HTML76)    PDF (9299KB)(345)      

    Since the emergence of dockless bike sharing in China, it has provided convenience and non-motorized travel mode for residents' short distance trips. Bike sharing plays an important role in improving the accessibility of public transportation and reducing the motorized pollution. At the same time, it also brings out urban issues, such as excessive amount of bike sharing, and mismatch between supply and demand of bike sharing. The main reason for these problems is the lack of accurate prediction and effective scheduling for bike sharing ride. Exploring the spatial and temporal characteristics of bike sharing ride and detecting the influencing factors can provide scientific decision-making basis for precise prediction and effective scheduling of bike sharing. Even though some studies have paid attention to the influencing factors of bike-sharing ride behaviors, most of them focused on the starting point but neglected the destination. Moreover, the temporal difference of influencing factors and the interaction between the factors were seldom revealed in the previous studies. Taking mobike in Guangzhou city as an example, this study aims to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of the ride destination of bike sharing. We detect the temporal differences of the influencing factors of bike sharing ride destination, and further explores the interaction between the determinants by using geographical detector. The results show that: (1) The usage of bike sharing in morning-peak time is greater than that in evening-peak time, and the spatial distribution of bike sharing ride destination has obvious temporal differences. The ride destinations of bike sharing at morning peak period are mainly distributed at CBD, zone of information industry and job-housing balance areas. While the ride destinations at evening peak period are mainly distributed along Metro Line 3 from Tiyuxi station to Huashi station as well as high-density residential areas. (2) The element of service facilities has the greatest impacts on the ride destinations of bike sharing, followed by the accessibility, land use and natural environment elements. To be more specifically, the influencing degree of the factors ranks as follows: residential communities distribution, catering facilities distribution, corporate distribution, shopping facilities distribution, road density, distance to metro station entrances and POI diversity. (3) The influence of each factor has remarkable temporal differences, for example, the influence of corporate distribution factor grows rapidly during the morning peak period. (4) The interaction effect of any two factors on the ride destinations of bike sharing is greater than the effect of one single factor. Among them, the interaction effect of factors which belong to service facilities elements are the greatest, followed by the interaction effects between factors of service facilities and accessibility.

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    Research on spatio-temporal pattern of the urban registered poor: A case study of Nanjing
    XU Di, ZHANG Weifei, WANG Yi, CHEN Peiyang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (12): 2873-2888.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181290
    Abstract398)   HTML63)    PDF (16599KB)(228)      

    Urbanization has exprienced rapid development in China since 2000. In the course of time, urban social space has been changed and reconstructed, which means that the urban poor is demonstrating a new spatial pattern. At present, significant portions of domestic urban poverty space studies mainly remain in the period of 2000 or so. Based on the MLSPU (Minimum Living Standard Programme for Urban residents) recipient data, this paper explores spatio-temporal pattern of urban registered poor of Nanjing in the new period by the method of ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis). On this basis of previous related studies, this paper summarizes spatial evolutionary process and mechanism of urban registered poverty of Nanjing in the perspective of residential differentiation. The results are obtained as follows. (1) Spatial distribution of the urban registered poor has followed the pattern of dispersion globally and concentration locally of 2000, which tends to be further dispersive. Spatial agglomeration of the urban registered poor presented a core-periphery structure while the core namely hotspot region was located within Nanjing belt highway. (2) In the context of high-speed growth of national economy, both urban poor population composition and urban poverty space governance have witnessed a transformation process. The underage, unemployed, employable (not yet formally employed) and released poverty groups, especially the unemployed as well as released poverty group, are the focus of urban poverty space governance at present. (3) Compared with the year 2000, urban registered poverty-stricken area of Nanjing has obvious differentiation in the new period, which can be divided into three types: concealed, resettled and mixed. It is the consequence of urban expansion and reconstruction. (4) Under the interaction of government functions, market mechanism and social behavior, urban registered poverty space of Nanjing has emerged at the turning point form visible to invisible while it has been reconstructed. On the hand, the original dilapidated shanty towns or old neighborhoods have been renovated to a certain extent, and hidden between modern city landscapes. On the other hand, urban poor almost have migrated to security housing, where the living condition is quite different from that of commodity housing.

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    The definition of urban fringe based on multi-source data and deep learning
    LIU Xingnan, WU Zhifeng, LUO Renbo, WU Yanyan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 243-256.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181085
    Abstract370)   HTML11)    PDF (14339KB)(67)      

    With the development of the economy, most cities will expand continuously to the surrounding areas, thus leading to the emergence of urban fringe areas with both urban and rural characteristics. The urban fringe area, located between urban and rural areas, is the most intense area of urban land use change and one of the most likely areas for urban construction land expansion in the future. How to identify urban fringe accurately and quantitatively is of great significance for urban planning and sustainable land use. However, most existing methods about the delineation of urban fringe area is just based on one or one type of indicators, and the judgment result is too fragmented to reflect the continuity of the urban spatial structure. What's more, the urban preset boundary range, the water body and the urban green space have great interference with the judgment results of urban fringe. In view of the above problems and from multi-perspective of nature, population and social economy, this paper defines urban fringe based on deep learning and multi-source data (remote sensing image, population density and POI big data). Furthermore, the proposed method has been used to detect the urban fringe area of Guangzhou city in our experiments. The results show that: (1) This method can divide the city into urban core area, urban fringe and rural area accurately without the impact of the preset boundary range. Eventually, this way can eliminate the fragmentation caused by the internal water and green space of urban areas. (2) The results of urban fringe area are well coupled with the road network. Network distribution of the urban core area is densest, followed by the urban fringe area. (3) The spatial distribution of urban core area of Guangzhou from the experiments is reasonable and consistent with the actual situation. All in all, the proposed method can consider comprehensively multi- perspective factors and detect urban fringe effectively, thus can provide better guidance for formulation of policies for urban development, such as urban planning, sustainable development, and urban statistical analysis.

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    Human-land coupling and sustainable human settlements in the Yellow River Basin
    WANG Fang, AN Lizhe, DANG Anrong, HAN Jianye, MIAO Changhong, WANG Jing, ZHANG Guanghan, ZHAO Yong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1707-1724.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200217
    Abstract346)   HTML7)    PDF (1743KB)(41)      

    The Yellow River Basin is one of the regions with the most complex human-land relationship in China, and takes responsibility for the construction of ecological security and economic and social development. Since ancient times, human beings and the Yellow River has been in the process of coevolution. In recent years, there is an increasing pressure of ecological protection brought about by economic development. And there is a higher risk and greater vulnerability of water resources in the river basin. In order to resolve the human-land contradiction, it is necessary to explore the dynamic coupling mechanism of urban settlements and rivers. As "ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin" has become a major national strategy, this study focuses on the spatial differentiation and evolution of human-land relationship in this basin, as well as the difficulties and opportunities of resources and ecological protection, from the perspective of urban and rural planning, physical geography, environmental archaeology, ecology, hydrology and water resources, land resource management and other related fields. The balance between built environment and natural environment is the basis of sustainable development. The Yellow River Basin should be regarded as a “community of life”, in which the natural and human environment interact and depend on each other, and sustainable development strategies should be discussed from the aspects of systematization, intersection, locality and adaptability.

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    Spatial distribution and driving factors of small towns in China
    WANG Xueqin, QI Wei, LIU Shenghe
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 319-336.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190173
    Abstract345)   HTML12)    PDF (12907KB)(126)      

    Small towns are regarded as an important carrier to promote China's new urbanization. Understanding the spatial characteristics of small towns in China has become an important issue. This paper explored spatial distribution pattern of small towns in China using the nearest neighbor distance, point density and other spatial analysis methods. In addition, the driving factors, including economy, population, location and natural environment, were analyzed. Our main results were summarized as follows: (1) From the perspective of the national level, spatial density of small towns in southeast China was higher than that in the northeast China. There were three clusters of small towns. The first one was the bow-shaped cluster, covering the Yangtze River Delta, Shandong Peninsula and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The second one was the inverted T-shaped cluster, covering the Pearl River Delta and central Hunan. The third one was a circle-shaped cluster, which was mainly distributed in the Chengdu-Chongqing region. (2) In addition to the clusters, small towns were mainly located along π-shaped belts, along the Lianyungang-Lanzhou Railway, the Yangtze River and the coastline. (3) From the perspective of regional level, small towns in most provincial-level units were evenly distributed. However, the gaps of spatial densities of small towns between different provinces were significant. (4) Only a few provincial-level units were characterized by the concentrated pattern of small towns, including the border provincial-level units and Sichuan province. (5) Spatial distribution of small towns was affected by multiple factors, including natural environment, population density, economic development level, location advantage, road traffic conditions and political factors. In the future, more preferential policies are suggested to enhance the development of small towns in northwest China. Small towns around urban clusters and provincial capitals should focus on improving the development quality. In the small towns located in agricultural areas, mountainous areas and remote rural areas, more attention should be paid to economic construction and enhancement of road accessibility. Our research aimed to promote development of small towns and accelerate the implementation of new urbanization and rural revitalization strategies.

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    Spatial heterogeneity of driving factors of urban haze pollution in China based on GWR model
    WANG Shaojian, GAO Shuang, CHEN Jing
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 651-668.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181389
    Abstract340)   HTML10)    PDF (29651KB)(137)      

    Based on the PM2.5 monitoring data of China's cities, we identified the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations, and used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to analyze emphatically the spatial heterogeneity of the influence of natural factors and socio-economic factors on PM2.5 concentrations. The results showed that: in 2015, the average annual concentrations of PM2.5 in China was 50.3 μg/m 3, and the monthly concentration change presented a "U-shaped" pattern with a higher level in autumn and winter while a lower one in spring and summer. In addition, PM2.5 concentrations were high in cities of eastern and northern China, but low in cities of southern and western China. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration was the center of PM2.5 pollutions in China. The results of geographically weighted regression showed that: (1) in terms of natural factors, elevation had a negative correlation with the urban PM2.5 concentrations, while positive and negative correlations exist for other indexes, and negative correlation effect dominated, which is conducive to reducing PM2.5 concentrations in most cities. Thus it can be seen that the influence indexes of PM2.5 concentrations have significant spatial difference characteristics. From the mean contribution of the regression coefficient, the ranking of the influence intensity of natural indexes on PM2.5 concentrations were: digital elevation model, relative humidity, temperature, rainfall, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index. (2) In terms of socio-economic factors, all the indicators showed positive and negative effects, with significant spatial heterogeneity. Among them, the build-up and GDP per capita were conducive to reducing PM2.5 concentrations in most cities, while population density, foreign direct investment, industrial structure and research and development expenditure can aggravate the air pollution in regions. The ranking of the influence intensity of socio-economic factors on PM2.5 concentrations were: population density, research and development expenditure, built-up, industrial structure, foreign direct investment, GDP per capita. (3) Due to the spatial heterogeneity of the influence of various factors on urban PM2.5 concentrations, the spatial difference of the influence of various indexes can be taken into account in the formulation of atmospheric governance countermeasures. Moreover, although natural factors have a more significant influence on PM2.5 concentrations, since it is difficult to change the natural conditions of cities artificially, specific strategies should be proposed from the perspective of social and economic factors in tackling haze.

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    The evolution of urban landscape pattern and its driving forces of Shenzhen from 1996 to 2015
    WU Jiansheng, LUO Keyu, ZHAO Yuhao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1725-1738.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190539
    Abstract326)   HTML5)    PDF (6333KB)(35)      

    Since China's reform and opening up, Shenzhen has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic changes in landscape patterns. On the basis of the land use dataset of Shenzhen city from 1996 to 2015, this study utilized landscape metrics, transition matrix and, expansion index to detect the spatiotemporal changes of urban landscape pattern, which analyzed the trend of landscape transfer and urban expansion. Also the major driving forces for landscape pattern changes on municipal and district scales were identified through the Binary Logit regression model. The results showed that: (1) the dominance of construction land landscape in Shenzhen gradually increased during the study period, with the construction land increasing by 15.81%, which occupied a large area of woodland (157.59 km2). The edge-expansion and infilling are the two main growth types of newly developed urban land, accounting for 61.19% and 36.27% respectively. (2) The rapid urbanization occurred from 1996 to 2006, during which landscape diversity and uniformity increased. (3) There was a low-speed urbanization transition from 2006 to 2015, during which landscape fragmentation intensified. The boundaries of the built-up areas became complex. However, due to the influence of land policy and red line of ecological protection, the rate of urban expansion slowed down. The pattern of urban expansion was mainly west-oriented, with the center continuing to shift northwards. (4) On the municipal scale, the GDP density and population density had a significant positive impact on the evolution of landscape pattern, while the ecological control line, elevation, slope and the distance to the road had a significant negative impact. The driving factors had the difference in scale and region, with GDP in Baoan, Nanshan and Pingshan districts, population growth in Baoan and Longhua districts, and traffic accessibility in Dapeng and Longgang districts being the most prominent drivers, respectively. This study can provide scientific practice for landscape pattern change in the process of rapid urban expansion in China.

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