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    The impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the development of economic globalization
    LIU Weidong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1439-1449.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200514
    Abstract2007)   HTML248)    PDF (1361KB)(367)      

    The COVID-19 pandemic is considered the biggest crisis confronted with the world after the Second World War, which has brought huge impacts on people’s health and daily life, economic growth and employment as well as national and international governance. Increasing pessimism is buzzing among scholars, critics, entrepreneurs, the mass and even government officials, and views like the end of economic globalization, large-scale spatial restructuring of global supply chains and fundamental change of the world economic governance structure are becoming prevailing on the media. This paper tries to address the issue of the development trend of economic globalization in the post-pandemic era by developing a framework of globalization’s Triangle Structure to understand its dynamics in addition to a summary of the on-going impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that the spatial fix of capital accumulation, time-space compression led by technological advance and openness of nations are the three major drivers of economic globalization, and the changes and interactions of these three drivers decide the development trend of economic globalization. From such a dynamic viewpoint, economic globalization is an ever-changing integration process without an end but constant fluctuations. The cost of decoupling of nations from globalization would be very huge because they have been highly integrated by global production networks and trade networks and no nation can afford a complete decoupling. The so-called de-globalization phenomena are just short-term adjusting strategies of nations to cope with power reconfigurations brought by economic globalization. The pandemic will have little impacts, or probably nothing, on the spatial fix of capital accumulation and time-space compression led by technological advance, but may temporarily influence some nations' openness. If the pandemic does not last long, economic globalization will resume from the shock soon after the world goes back to normal, and develop and restructure according to its own dynamics. Thus, we tend to believe the pandemic at most slams the brake of globalization and would not be able to put it into reverse. Economic globalization will not stop or reverse, but develop towards a more inclusive stage.

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    The development of COVID-19 in China: Spatial diffusion and geographical pattern
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Delin, WEI Ye, YANG Haoran
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1450-1462.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200329
    Abstract972)   HTML217)    PDF (13259KB)(955)      

    The study of the spatial diffusion and geographical mode of COVID-19 is of great significance for the rational allocation of health resources, the management and response of public health emergencies, and the improvement of public health system in the future. Based on multiple spatio-temporal scale, this paper studied the spatial spreading process of COVID-19 between cities and its evolution characteristics in China, and then explored its influencing factors. The results are shown in the following: the inter-city spreading process of COVID-19 in China mainly experienced six stages, namely, stage I: diffusion in Wuhan, stage II: rapid multi-point diffusion in space, stage III: rapid increase of confirmed cases, stage IV : gradual decrease of new confirmed cases, stage V: the epidemic under control, and stage VI: cases imported from overseas. In the context of globalization and open regional system, the social and economic development of regions are closely related to each other. With the development of fast and convenient high-speed railway network, the spatial characteristic of population migration shows a cross-regional and hierarchical pattern, and forms a certain spatial cascade structure along the transport corridor. Accordingly, the spatial spread of COVID-19 mainly showsthe characteristics of adjacent diffusion, relocation diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and corridor diffusion. The study found that geographical proximity, population migration and population size, traffic network, epidemic prevention and control measures have significant influence on the spatial diffusion process of COVID-19. Among different modes of transportation, airplanes play agreater role than others in the early stage of the epidemic. In addition, the population flow during the Spring Festival had a certain impact on the spread of the epidemic. In conclusion, to some extent, the spatial spread process and pattern of COVID-19 epidemic reflects the spatial organization pattern of social and economic activities under the "space of flows" network, which is closely related to the geographical proximity, the social and economic linkages between regions, and the spatial an temporal patterns of human activities. From the perspective of geography, this paper analyzed the inter-city spread pattern of COVID-19 epidemic and provided some implications for prevention and control measures against the epidemic in other countries, and also offered some suggestions for China to deal with public health emergency risks in the future.

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    The restructuring of regional governance under the city regionalism of China: A case study of the Pearl River Delta intercity railway
    ZHANG Xianchun, LUAN Xiaofan, LI Zhigang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 483-494.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190207
    Abstract724)   HTML22)    PDF (2380KB)(107)      

    Regional governance in China has shown the periodic feature, notably under the city regionalism in recent years. Examining the formation of regional governance in China is conducive to probing the China’s city-regionalization as well as the features of institutional architecture oriented integrated development. The dynamic and continuing game process in terms of power configuration has replaced the traditional multi-level governmental system. Based upon a case study of Pearl River Delta intercity railway, this article examines the dynamic evolution of power and financial right relation in the planning, construction, and operation process systemically. The Pearl River Delta intercity railway is a large-scale infrastructure project in which multiple governments are fully involved and actively sought for their interests. Thereby, the primary objective of this article is to explore the dynamics of regional governance restructuring in China through interrogating the role of provincial government and the evolution of provincial-local relation. There are two important findings reported by this article. First, the role of provincial government has been transformed from subcontractor and coordinator to “subcontractor plus contractor” and “coordinator plus developer”. This indicates that the provincial government has operated towards both gatekeeper and competitor. The financial authority is essential to determining this role transformation. Second, the structural administrative subcontract of provincial-local relation has transformed to serval opposed and cooperation waves of continuum. This continuum has been driven by different types of interests and the provincial-local relation constitutes to the stability and structural coherence of regional governance in China. This finding rectifies existing understanding around the regional governance mechanism, that is top-down and bottom-up mechanisms. As such, the regional governance has generally manifested as the hybrid model in which different governmental agencies co-shaped. The changing regional governance in the Pearl River Delta intercity railway also implies that the regional governance is sensitive to the concrete socioeconomic environment and varied case by case. In this vein, we contribute to the understanding of recentralization of state space as well as the restructuring of provincial-local relation beyond administrative subcontractor. It concludes that China’s city-regionalization is orchestrated by different levels of government and the actual effect and modality of regional governance are determined by inter-scalar politics oriented economic growth.

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    Characteristics analyses of major physical geographic elements of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (VIIRS) active fire in Laos
    LIU Yiyuan, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei, LIU Ying, RAO Didi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 749-760.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190029
    Abstract683)   HTML13)    PDF (10950KB)(58)      

    Using US NASA's Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) VIIRS V1 (or Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Version 1) active fire location vector data, ASTER GDEM (30 m, or Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 1 km) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), and Global Land Cover products (30 m), based on GIS, the dynamic changes in active fire events were quantitatively analyzed from provincial to national scales in Laos in 2012-2017. In addition, characteristics analyses of major physical geographic elements of VIIRS V1 active fires, including topography (elevation and slope), MODIS vegetation-moisture indices (NDVI and LSWI) and land cover types, were conducted in detail in the 2015 El Niño. The results showed that: (1) the number of active fire events in Laos increased first and then decreased in 2012-2017, with the peak in 2015. Active fires in Laos were mainly concentrated in the northern and central regions. Luang Prabang, Sayaburi and Savannakhet had the top number of active fires at the provincial level, while Vientiane City, Sekong and Xaisomboun in sequence ranked the last. (2) The relationship between the frequency of active fires in Laos and topographic factors (elevation and slope) in 2012-2017 was basically the same. Active fires primarily occurred in the hilly and low mountainous areas with elevations of less than 1000 m (86.10%) and slopes of less than 30° (92.45%). Among them, active fires in the northern region were concentrated in the mountainous areas with elevations of 500-1000 m and slopes of 10-30°, while others in the central and southern regions were concentrated in the hilly areas below 500 m and gentle slopes of 2°-20°. (3) Seasonally, the active fires in Laos mainly happened during the dry season (94.75%), with the most number in March and April (82.24%) and in the medium-high coverage vegetation area with NDVI of 0.4-0.8 (92.05%) and LSWI of 0.2-0.6 (75.70%). (4) Active fires were mostly distributed in the forests of Laos, especially in the northern part, while the counterparts in the central and southern parts mainly occurred in farmland, grassland and shrubland. (5) In summary, characteristics analyses of major physical geographic elements of VIIRS active fires can be used to determine its fire type, that is, active fires in Laos were mainly caused by swidden agriculture.

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    Human-land coupling and sustainable human settlements in the Yellow River Basin
    WANG Fang, AN Lizhe, DANG Anrong, HAN Jianye, MIAO Changhong, WANG Jing, ZHANG Guanghan, ZHAO Yong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1707-1724.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200217
    Abstract635)   HTML33)    PDF (1743KB)(468)      

    The Yellow River Basin is one of the regions with the most complex human-land relationship in China, and takes responsibility for the construction of ecological security and economic and social development. Since ancient times, human beings and the Yellow River has been in the process of coevolution. In recent years, there is an increasing pressure of ecological protection brought about by economic development. And there is a higher risk and greater vulnerability of water resources in the river basin. In order to resolve the human-land contradiction, it is necessary to explore the dynamic coupling mechanism of urban settlements and rivers. As "ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin" has become a major national strategy, this study focuses on the spatial differentiation and evolution of human-land relationship in this basin, as well as the difficulties and opportunities of resources and ecological protection, from the perspective of urban and rural planning, physical geography, environmental archaeology, ecology, hydrology and water resources, land resource management and other related fields. The balance between built environment and natural environment is the basis of sustainable development. The Yellow River Basin should be regarded as a “community of life”, in which the natural and human environment interact and depend on each other, and sustainable development strategies should be discussed from the aspects of systematization, intersection, locality and adaptability.

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    Transitional geospace from the perspective of human-nature coupling: Concept, connotations, attributes, and the research framework
    DENG Wei, ZHANG Shaoyao, ZHANG Hao, PENG Li, LIU Ying
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (4): 761-771.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200189
    Abstract609)   HTML22)    PDF (5683KB)(132)      

    From the perspective of the coupling of socioeconomic and natural sciences, transitional geospace is the composite zones between natural-socioeconomic system, highlighting the particularity and complexity of the regional system of human-nature relationship. In terms of the type, the mountainous transitional geospace, which we need to focus on and deepen its understanding and cognitionis, is the key areas for the high-quality development and management of modern territorial space in China, as well as one of the important issues of the frontiers of geographical research. In the light of the elaboration of the concept, connotation and attributes of transitional geospace from the perspective of the coupling of socioeconomic and natural systems, and referring to multidisciplinary concepts, theories and methods, inspired by the principle of color gradients, this study exploratively proposes a scientific research framework for transitional geospace based on the geocoding and decoding technologies, aiming to explain the socioeconomic-natural coupling evolutionary process and its mechanisms in transitional geospace, and to provide scientific decision guidance and basis for improving the territorial space function and optimizing its development pattern in the transitional geospace. It also has application values to enrich the explorations and practices for the research of human-nature relationship and regional systems.

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    Hotspot discovery and its spatial pattern analysis for catering service in cities based on field model in GIS
    ZHANG Haiping, ZHOU Xingxing, TANG Guoan, ZHOU Lei, YE Xinyue
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 354-369.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181104
    Abstract540)   HTML20)    PDF (28323KB)(142)      

    Catering service is an important part of urban life. Extracting urban hotspots for catering services and identifying their spatial distribution patterns is important for our understanding urban space and urban structures. In view of the shortcomings of quantitative analysis of urban morphological features based on POI in the past, the GIS field model was used to identify the spatial distribution patterns of urban feature elements, and the Geo-information Tupu was used to visualize the patterns. Taking the 47100-catering service POIs in the main urban area of Jinan city as the main data source, the catering service hotspots were first extracted based on the density field hotspot detection model and classified according to the density value; then the catering service was expressed by Geo-information-Tupu of generalized symmetric structure and digital field based hierarchical Geo-information Tupu. The spatial distribution structure characteristics and scale structure features of the hotspots are presented, and their Geo-information Tupu of distribution pattern is constructed. Finally, the results are discussed. Research shows that: (1) The digital field hotspot detection model can effectively identify hotspots in different levels from POI. (2) The Geo-information-Tupu of generalized symmetric structure and digital field based hierarchical Geo-information Tupu can analyze and express the spatial distribution structure and hierarchical structure characteristics of the food hotspot from the aspect of vertical and horizontal of space. In summary, this study provides an effective quantitative analysis method for POI-based urban feature extraction and urban morphology research. The method can also be extended to the extraction, analysis and expression of other urban feature elements.

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    Progress of relational economic geography: Whether theorizing China′s experiences
    LIU Yi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1005-1017.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191002
    Abstract526)   HTML19)    PDF (2335KB)(148)      

    Relational economic geography is one of the most influential schools of studies in economic geography. Many economic geographers of China have recognized and applied its key analytic framework, the alleged Global Production Network, whereas they have seldom tackled on the perspective of relational economic geography. By identifying this theoretical gap, this paper critically reviews the origin, development, formation and recent refinement of the school of relational economic geography. It has three major conclusions. First, this paper affirms that relational economic geography has salient geographical nature, though it deals with relation, and has become a core strand of studies in the research of economic globalization, regional development and industrial upgrading. It has positively improved the relevance of economic geography in various disciplines such as development studies, international political economy and management. Second, the existing problems of relational economic geography rest in the complexity of the analytic framework and research variables which include a lot of factors, process and mechanisms. The typology of strategic coupling, the central explanatory variable, is mainly derived from empirical observation and lacks of theoretical deduction. In the meantime, studies in this school so far still heavily rely on qualitative approaches, such as case studies, after forty years of development. Third, this paper argues that theorizing back based on China's reform and opening-up in the past forty years via the perspective of relational economic geography is quite innovative and valuable. To this vein, a few Chinese geographers have made great attempts and got publications in various decent international journals. This paper offers a critique on two series of studies to elaborate how to make theoretical contribution to relational economic geography based on China's experiences. One is related to the concept of embeddedness and firm-state relationship in the transitional institutional environment in China. The other is the investigation of strategic coupling in major regional economies in China. All these studies have shown great potentials of using China's experiences to revise and advance the western-origin theories in economic geography. This paper would have salient implications for improving international relevance of the economic geography of China, as well as theoretical innovation based on China's experiences.

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    The definition of urban fringe based on multi-source data and deep learning
    LIU Xingnan, WU Zhifeng, LUO Renbo, WU Yanyan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 243-256.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181085
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    With the development of the economy, most cities will expand continuously to the surrounding areas, thus leading to the emergence of urban fringe areas with both urban and rural characteristics. The urban fringe area, located between urban and rural areas, is the most intense area of urban land use change and one of the most likely areas for urban construction land expansion in the future. How to identify urban fringe accurately and quantitatively is of great significance for urban planning and sustainable land use. However, most existing methods about the delineation of urban fringe area is just based on one or one type of indicators, and the judgment result is too fragmented to reflect the continuity of the urban spatial structure. What's more, the urban preset boundary range, the water body and the urban green space have great interference with the judgment results of urban fringe. In view of the above problems and from multi-perspective of nature, population and social economy, this paper defines urban fringe based on deep learning and multi-source data (remote sensing image, population density and POI big data). Furthermore, the proposed method has been used to detect the urban fringe area of Guangzhou city in our experiments. The results show that: (1) This method can divide the city into urban core area, urban fringe and rural area accurately without the impact of the preset boundary range. Eventually, this way can eliminate the fragmentation caused by the internal water and green space of urban areas. (2) The results of urban fringe area are well coupled with the road network. Network distribution of the urban core area is densest, followed by the urban fringe area. (3) The spatial distribution of urban core area of Guangzhou from the experiments is reasonable and consistent with the actual situation. All in all, the proposed method can consider comprehensively multi- perspective factors and detect urban fringe effectively, thus can provide better guidance for formulation of policies for urban development, such as urban planning, sustainable development, and urban statistical analysis.

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    Spatial heterogeneity of driving factors of urban haze pollution in China based on GWR model
    WANG Shaojian, GAO Shuang, CHEN Jing
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 651-668.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181389
    Abstract442)   HTML22)    PDF (29651KB)(188)      

    Based on the PM2.5 monitoring data of China's cities, we identified the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations, and used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to analyze emphatically the spatial heterogeneity of the influence of natural factors and socio-economic factors on PM2.5 concentrations. The results showed that: in 2015, the average annual concentrations of PM2.5 in China was 50.3 μg/m 3, and the monthly concentration change presented a "U-shaped" pattern with a higher level in autumn and winter while a lower one in spring and summer. In addition, PM2.5 concentrations were high in cities of eastern and northern China, but low in cities of southern and western China. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration was the center of PM2.5 pollutions in China. The results of geographically weighted regression showed that: (1) in terms of natural factors, elevation had a negative correlation with the urban PM2.5 concentrations, while positive and negative correlations exist for other indexes, and negative correlation effect dominated, which is conducive to reducing PM2.5 concentrations in most cities. Thus it can be seen that the influence indexes of PM2.5 concentrations have significant spatial difference characteristics. From the mean contribution of the regression coefficient, the ranking of the influence intensity of natural indexes on PM2.5 concentrations were: digital elevation model, relative humidity, temperature, rainfall, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index. (2) In terms of socio-economic factors, all the indicators showed positive and negative effects, with significant spatial heterogeneity. Among them, the build-up and GDP per capita were conducive to reducing PM2.5 concentrations in most cities, while population density, foreign direct investment, industrial structure and research and development expenditure can aggravate the air pollution in regions. The ranking of the influence intensity of socio-economic factors on PM2.5 concentrations were: population density, research and development expenditure, built-up, industrial structure, foreign direct investment, GDP per capita. (3) Due to the spatial heterogeneity of the influence of various factors on urban PM2.5 concentrations, the spatial difference of the influence of various indexes can be taken into account in the formulation of atmospheric governance countermeasures. Moreover, although natural factors have a more significant influence on PM2.5 concentrations, since it is difficult to change the natural conditions of cities artificially, specific strategies should be proposed from the perspective of social and economic factors in tackling haze.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Spatial distribution and driving factors of small towns in China
    WANG Xueqin, QI Wei, LIU Shenghe
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 319-336.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190173
    Abstract440)   HTML16)    PDF (12907KB)(182)      

    Small towns are regarded as an important carrier to promote China's new urbanization. Understanding the spatial characteristics of small towns in China has become an important issue. This paper explored spatial distribution pattern of small towns in China using the nearest neighbor distance, point density and other spatial analysis methods. In addition, the driving factors, including economy, population, location and natural environment, were analyzed. Our main results were summarized as follows: (1) From the perspective of the national level, spatial density of small towns in southeast China was higher than that in the northeast China. There were three clusters of small towns. The first one was the bow-shaped cluster, covering the Yangtze River Delta, Shandong Peninsula and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The second one was the inverted T-shaped cluster, covering the Pearl River Delta and central Hunan. The third one was a circle-shaped cluster, which was mainly distributed in the Chengdu-Chongqing region. (2) In addition to the clusters, small towns were mainly located along π-shaped belts, along the Lianyungang-Lanzhou Railway, the Yangtze River and the coastline. (3) From the perspective of regional level, small towns in most provincial-level units were evenly distributed. However, the gaps of spatial densities of small towns between different provinces were significant. (4) Only a few provincial-level units were characterized by the concentrated pattern of small towns, including the border provincial-level units and Sichuan province. (5) Spatial distribution of small towns was affected by multiple factors, including natural environment, population density, economic development level, location advantage, road traffic conditions and political factors. In the future, more preferential policies are suggested to enhance the development of small towns in northwest China. Small towns around urban clusters and provincial capitals should focus on improving the development quality. In the small towns located in agricultural areas, mountainous areas and remote rural areas, more attention should be paid to economic construction and enhancement of road accessibility. Our research aimed to promote development of small towns and accelerate the implementation of new urbanization and rural revitalization strategies.

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    The evolution of urban landscape pattern and its driving forces of Shenzhen from 1996 to 2015
    WU Jiansheng, LUO Keyu, ZHAO Yuhao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1725-1738.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190539
    Abstract431)   HTML22)    PDF (6333KB)(100)      

    Since China's reform and opening up, Shenzhen has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic changes in landscape patterns. On the basis of the land use dataset of Shenzhen city from 1996 to 2015, this study utilized landscape metrics, transition matrix and, expansion index to detect the spatiotemporal changes of urban landscape pattern, which analyzed the trend of landscape transfer and urban expansion. Also the major driving forces for landscape pattern changes on municipal and district scales were identified through the Binary Logit regression model. The results showed that: (1) the dominance of construction land landscape in Shenzhen gradually increased during the study period, with the construction land increasing by 15.81%, which occupied a large area of woodland (157.59 km2). The edge-expansion and infilling are the two main growth types of newly developed urban land, accounting for 61.19% and 36.27% respectively. (2) The rapid urbanization occurred from 1996 to 2006, during which landscape diversity and uniformity increased. (3) There was a low-speed urbanization transition from 2006 to 2015, during which landscape fragmentation intensified. The boundaries of the built-up areas became complex. However, due to the influence of land policy and red line of ecological protection, the rate of urban expansion slowed down. The pattern of urban expansion was mainly west-oriented, with the center continuing to shift northwards. (4) On the municipal scale, the GDP density and population density had a significant positive impact on the evolution of landscape pattern, while the ecological control line, elevation, slope and the distance to the road had a significant negative impact. The driving factors had the difference in scale and region, with GDP in Baoan, Nanshan and Pingshan districts, population growth in Baoan and Longhua districts, and traffic accessibility in Dapeng and Longgang districts being the most prominent drivers, respectively. This study can provide scientific practice for landscape pattern change in the process of rapid urban expansion in China.

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    Spatial pattern and influencing factors of oasis rural settlements in Xinjiang, China
    LIN Jinping, LEI Jun, WU Shixin, YANG Zhen, LI Jiangang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1182-1199.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190368
    Abstract428)   HTML28)    PDF (10953KB)(119)      

    The study of rural settlements is the core content of rural geography. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to explore the spatial characteristics and influencing factors of regional rural settlements. Based on the remote sensing interpretation data, the spatial pattern and influencing factors of rural settlements in Xinjiang oasis areas were analyzed by using the methods of spatial analysis and geographical detector technique. To reveal the rural settlement spatial influencing mechanism, and explore the rural settlement space reconstruction and optimization approaches, we selected Altay area, north slope of Tianshan Mountains area, Turpan Basin area and Kashgar area as sample areas for further analysis. The results show that: the oasis rural settlements in Xinjiang are small both in density and in scale, and are mainly concentrated in the distribution mode, characterized by a spatial distribution pattern of "dense plain, sparse mountain, no village desert", which presents two major density core belts of oasis on the north and south slopes of Tianshan Mountains. Firstly, rural settlements are mainly distributed in middle- and high-altitude areas (500-3500 m), flat and gentle slope areas (<15 °) and warm areas (annual average temperature 0-10 ℃). Secondly, rural settlements are distributed near the center of towns, which are less affected by the radiation from the center of cities and counties. Finally, rural settlements obviously gather along the roads and rivers, with the feature that the closer they are to the roads and rivers, the larger the number and scale of rural settlements. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Xinjiang is mainly influenced by factors such as the accessibility of roads to towns, the accessibility of roads to counties, slope, proximity to rivers, temperatures and elevations. In other words, under these extreme geographical and ecological environment conditions in arid areas, the natural environment and geographical conditions are still the main influencing factors, and the traffic factors play an important guiding role, while the influence of economic and social factors are not significant. There are obvious differences in natural conditions and social-economic development levels in the four sample areas, and so do the dominant factors of the distribution of rural settlements. The north slope of Tianshan Mountains area and Kashgar area are affected by road accessibility factors, while Altay area and Turpan Basin area by terrain and water source, respectively. Road accessibility factors have different influences on the spatial distribution of rural settlements in various areas. In the future, the optimization and development of rural settlements should focus on the strengthening of the planning of transportation lines and the improvement of transportation infrastructure, so as to promote the flow and sharing of urban-rural elements, as well as the integration and sustainable development of urban and rural areas.

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    Evaluation, influencing factors and spatial spillover of innovation efficiency in five major urban agglomerations in coastal China
    SHENG Yanwen, LUO Huasong, SONG Jinping, ZHAO Jinli, ZAHNG Xuebo
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 257-271.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181124
    Abstract411)   HTML20)    PDF (5763KB)(111)      

    As the strategic core regions of national economic development, the urban agglomerations in the eastern coastal area of China has played a critical role in the implementation of innovation-driven development strategy and construction of the innovative country. Based on the dataset of innovation input and output spanning the 2001-2015 period, the SFA method and spatial Durbin model are applied to measure and examine the innovation efficiency and its influencing factors and spatial spillover effect in the five major urban agglomerations. Our results suggest that the innovation efficiency of five major urban agglomerations showed a steady increase over the studied period. Among the five urban agglomerations, the innovation efficiency in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region rises slowly while that of Shandong Peninsula has increased relatively fast. The growth rate and average of innovation efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta fell behind the Shandong Peninsula and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Meanwhile, innovation efficiency in core cities of urban agglomerations is low, although they have high-input in innovation resources. Moreover, there is a significantly positive spatial spillover effect of innovation efficiency between cities in the five urban agglomerations. Economic development, agglomeration economies, FDI, the quality of labor force, the financial support by government, infrastructure, secondary industrial ratio and high-tech industries have direct and indirect effects on innovation efficiency in the urban agglomerations.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of coordination between economic and environmental development of three major urban agglomerations in China
    ZHANG Guojun, WANG Juehan, WU Kunjin, XU Zhihua
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 272-288.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181241
    Abstract387)   HTML10)    PDF (9574KB)(117)      

    This paper analyzed the spatial-temporal pattern of the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta from 2006 to 2016 by means of entropy method, Theil index, Markov chain and spatial autocorrelation, and then explored the influencing factors with Tobit model. The results showed that: (1) The degree of coordination between economic and environmental development of the three major urban agglomerations grew continuously from 2006 to 2016. In addition, the differences between the cities gradually narrowed. (2) Path dependence played a role in the evolution of the level of economic and environmental coordination. However, the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development tended to reach a higher level with the passage of time. (3) Cities with higher administrative levels and some developed cities along rivers or the sea continued to be at a higher level of degree of coordination between economic and environmental development. (4) The spatial characteristics of the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development of the three major urban agglomerations had changed from decentralization to agglomeration. (5) Regarding the type of development, the economically developed cities tended to develop simultaneously with the environment. (6) Energy consumption, progress in science and technology, investment in fixed assets, dependence on foreign investment and ownership structure have impacts on the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development of the three urban agglomerations as a whole and each urban agglomeration, but the significant degree of the influence of each factor is different.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Human-environment system in the Guangdong-Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area: Global model and local response
    LIU Yi, YANG Yu, KANG Lei, WANG Yun
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (9): 1949-1957.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200820
    Abstract374)   HTML32)    PDF (938KB)(159)      

    In the era of globalization, key production factors such as population, industry, energy, and trade are flowing rapidly across regions. The relationship between human and environment has changed from a static to a dynamic status, from isolation to networking, and the geographical scale has been fully enlarged, indicating the transformation of human-land relationship from regional to global scale. As the frontiers of China’s opening up, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has undergone profound changes in its man-land relationship in the past 40 years of reform and openning-up. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to re-recognize, study and adjust the global and local modes of the man-land relationship in the study area, so as to provide information on how the bay area can rationally allocate the core elements on global and regional scales and develop into a world-class bay area. This paper reviews the global transformation of man-land relationship in the new era, and prospects the study of man-land relationship in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. It aims to: (1) examine the general man-land relationship patterns and laws of the world-class bay area from regional to global in theory; (2) analyze the global allocation process and changing influencing factors of man-land relationship in the Greater Bay Area since the reform and opening-up in the late 1970s; (3) reveal the local response and regional system mechanism within the bay area based on the global model; (4) explore the path of reconstruction of the “innovation-industry-environment” key system; (5) propose the optimization and regulation pathways of the man-land relationship in the region in the new era.

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    Some problems in the application of potential ecological risk index
    MA Jianhua, HAN Changxu, JIANG Yuling
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (6): 1233-1241.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190632
    Abstract364)   HTML19)    PDF (1482KB)(60)      

    Through reviewing 2323 papers on the potential ecological risk index (RI) proposed by Håkanson during 2001-2018, especially focusing on 203 papers published in some famous journals at home and abroad since 2008, the following problems were found: (1) Håkanson's RI is an ecological risk assessment method based on the theory of water environment sedimentology. Therefore it is not suitable to be applied to soil, especially not to water solute, atmospheric particulate matter, surface dust, plant or crop, etc. However, 49.29% of the 2323 papers have misplaced evaluation objects. (2) The grading criteria of potential ecological risk factor (Er) and RI proposed by Håkanson can not be mechanically copied. So, it should be adjusted according to the specific types and quantities of pollutants studied. The limit value of the first level of Er should be the maximum value of toxic coefficient (Stmax) of all the evaluated pollutants, and the limit value of the first level of RI can be obtained by ∑St i×1.13 with ten integers. However, most of the studies ignored the types and quantities of the pollutants, and copied indiscriminatingly the Er and RI classification criteria of Håkanson, which led to incorrect conclusions. The papers used the incorrect criteria of Er and RI, taking up 49.01% and 61.40% of the 203 papers, respectively. Although some researchers had adjusted the RI classification criteria according to the types and quantities of pollutants, only 23.81% of the papers are correct. (3) When only single ecological risk of Hg or comprehensive ecological risk of multiple heavy metals including Hg are evaluated, the St Hg can not be replaced by Tr Hg.

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    Structure and evolution of global cross-border M&A network
    JI Qidi, CHEN Wei, LIU Weidong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (3): 527-538.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190168
    Abstract360)   HTML13)    PDF (6819KB)(52)      

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are one of the important globalization strategies of multinational corporations. Using data from Zephyr global M&A database, this study built the global cross-border M&A network from 1997 to 2017 and analyzed the evolution of topology characteristics and structure. The analysis results are as follows. (1) Since the 1990s, global cross-border M&A have developed in a fluctuating manner. The topological characteristics show different features at different points, of which the global financial crisis in 2008 was an important turning point. (2) The small world characteristic of the global cross-border M&A network is prominent. The network is scale-free, and rich-club phenomenon of the acquiring party is more obvious than that of the acquired party. However, the rich-club phenomenon of both shows a decrease as the process of economic globalization with more and more developing countries/regions participating in the competition of cross-border M&A market. (3) The global cross-border M&A network shows a “core-edge” structure. The center has gradually transformed from dual-core (North America and Western Europe) structure to “global triangle” structure since the global financial crisis in 2008, of which East Asia and Southeast Asia constitute the third core. Nevertheless, Africa, South America and parts of Asia are the persistent peripheries. (4) Countries/regions play a different role in the global cross-border M&A network, so they can be divided into outward or inward in terms of net capital flow and core, active or potential players in terms of the scale of cross-border M&A. The performance of different countries/regions has changed a lot in 1997-2017, especially European regions. (5) Although some countries (Singapore, Poland, Czech, United Arab Emirates, etc.) become more and more important in the global cross-border M&A network, countries along the Belt and Road as a whole are not active in cross-border M&A, most of which are in a position of the edge. (6) China has grown from a potential player to a core player by attracting foreign investment and encouraging capital exports, but the link between China and Belt and Road countries in the aspect of cross-border M&A is weak and should be strengthened appropriately on the basis of host country’s resource endowment, industrial development, and institutional environment.

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    Relationship between population distribution and topography of the Wujiang River Watershed in Guizhou province
    CHENG Dongya, LI Xudong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (6): 1427-1438.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181409
    Abstract353)   HTML28)    PDF (9207KB)(170)      

    The Wujiang River Watershed in Guizhou province is one of the most important plateau mountain basin in Southwest China. It is of great significance to examine the relationship between population distribution and topography of this watershed. This paper can help to understand the impact of the geographical environment of the study area on population distribution. The article selects digital elevation model (DEM) data and population raster data, and uses digital elevation model (DEM) to extract topographic factors such as altitude, slope, and topographic relief. Then, it studies the relationship between topographic factors and population distribution. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The population of the study area is inportantly distributed between 800 and 1400 m, accounting for more than 60%, and the highest population density is found between 1000 and 1200 m. (2) As the slope increases, the population and population density are in a downward trend. When the slope is less than 5 o, the population density is more than 500 people/km 2. It is also shown, to a certain extent, that the slope has a restrictive effect on human activities and is one of the key topographic factors that affect the population distribution. (3) With the rise of topographic relief, the population density generally shows a downward trend. When the topographic relief is less than 50 m, the population density exceeds 1000 people/km 2. Topographic relief is an important factor affecting population distribution. The results could provide a reference for the local government to formulate policies on population and eco-environment protection so as to achieve harmony between nature and people. In addition, this article can be further expanded in the following aspects: (1) using the latest population raster data to analyze the relationship between population and topography, and explore the characteristics and laws of population changes in the watershed in the background of rapid economic development in Guizhou province in recent years; (2) using the digital elevation model (DEM) with a lower accuracy to analyze the relationship between population and topography.

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    Critical reflections on the geography of innovation: A prospect of theoretical progress from Chinese scenarios
    FU Wenying, YANG Jiarui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1018-1027.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191115
    Abstract341)   HTML16)    PDF (1051KB)(69)      

    Through the critical engagement with current literature on the geography of innovation, this paper proposes that this sub-discipline of human geography has been developing within the context of post-Fordist and neoliberal transformation of western society since the 1990s whereby international and inter-regional competition became the accepted development ideology and policy discourse. Thus, the endogenous nature of local and regional traits and their role in promoting innovativeness and development are highly emphasized in the face of place competition, whilst paying undue attention to exogenous dynamism in innovation processes. With the recent new technological progress, as well as the increasing needs of innovation to address grand societal challenges, however, it becomes more pressing to upscale process of innovation activities. Moreover, the exogenous processes have been playing a key role in China’s after-reform development, and the globalization and localization has become highly interdependent and dialectical against the context of gradual institutional reform. Therefore, this paper attempts to discuss the potentials of Chinese studies to advancing the field from three aspects. First, it analyses the specific institutional arrangements of innovation through its evolution from pre-reform to post-reform era, and summarizes how it is characterized as a state-led system with aggressive investment in innovative inputs. Secondly, the development of territorial innovation system in China has been analysed through the lens of inter-scalar processes. It is noted that we must highlight the interplay between scalar forces, as illustrated in modern and global innovation systems framework to address the challenges such as aging society, public health, and climate change. Last but not least, the Chinese innovation dynamics within the emerging context of worldwide economic restructuring has been envisaged. As China’s innovation organization has been centered around the rising notion of techno-nationalism, the geopolitical tensions and power struggle inexorably influences the innovation processes. In general, it advocates that the diverse geography, governmentality and exogenous-driven model of Chinese innovation system jointly define the significance of Chinese studies to reconceptualise modern innovation geography. Finally, it is suggested that contemporary worldview should incorporate China into the fundamental system of global capital circulation, so that the dialectical geographic process of multi-scalar and multi-processes nesting and feedback system of innovation could be reflected in depth.

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