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    Characteristics and development process of spoon-shaped gully in the Loess Plateau
    YANG Xin, TANG Guoan, YUAN Baoyin, LIU Hailong, HUANG Xiaoli, LI Chenrui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (7): 1870-1886.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200727
    Abstract12847)   HTML417)    PDF (9351KB)(7089)      

    Gully is characterized by the frequent material exchanges and strong morphological changes in the Loess Plateau. Under the combined action of internal and external forces, various kinds of gullies in different development stages have shaped the unique geomorphologic landscape in the Loess Plateau. And a special loess gully, namely, the spoon-shaped gully is widely distributed in this plateau. At present, there is limited research on its formation, development process, mechanism, and spatial distribution characteristics. Using high-resolution remote sensing images and DEM data, and based on the sufficient field investigation and expert knowledge, this paper put forward the concept of loess spoon-shaped gully, and pointed out that the loess spoon-shaped gully is a kind of permanent discontinuous gully independently developed on the loess slope. Then, the characteristics of loess spoon-shaped gully were analyzed from the aspects of gully shape, confluence relationship, erosion process, and distribution characteristics, which were different from other existing gullies. Furthermore, the loess spoon-shaped gully was classified from the perspectives of development morphology, development scale and development location. Based on the space-for-time substitution theory, the morphological evolution characteristics of the spoon-shaped gully were analyzed quantitatively, and the development process of loess spoon-shaped gully was further discussed. It was proved that loess spoon-shaped gully was the initial stage of loess bank gully. Finally, on the basis of systematical summary on the characteristics of spoon-shaped gullies, the development process of spoon-shaped gullies was deduced, and it was pointed out that the formation of spoon-shaped gullies was closely related to the formation and development of loess sinkholes and dark caves. The further development was accompanied by the process of hydraulic erosion and gravity erosion. The reason for the shrinkage or the disappearence of the tail of the spoon-shaped gully can be attribute to the underground caves, loess permeability, rainfall conditions and surface cover. The results of this paper are expected to contribute to the further understanding of the landform development, erosion process and mechanism of the loess gully, and to provide references for soil and water conservation in the Loess Plateau.

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    Spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of ski resorts in China
    WANG Jinwei, GUO Jiaxin, LIU Yi, LU Guangjuan, FENG Ling
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (2): 390-405.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210194
    Abstract1857)   HTML25)    PDF (7539KB)(120)      

    China won the successful bid of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games in 2015. Since then, the ice and snow industry has developed rapidly in China, and the number of ski resorts has also increased. Ski resorts are the space carrier of ice and snow sports and the important support of ice and snow industry development. It is very important to study the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of ski resorts for ice and snow industry development. Based on Baidu map, we identified 770 ski resorts in China with the keywords of “ski resorts”, “ski”, “ski field” and “ice and snow”; then, by using ArcGIS, the spatial distribution types, equilibrium situation and distribution density of 770 ski resorts were quantitatively expressed by means of nearest neighbor indicator, disequilibrium index and kernel density, and the characteristics of their spatial distribution are revealed. Meanwhile, this paper chose six variables, namely, terrain, temperature, population, economy, city and traffic, to construct a geographically weighted regression model. The results show that: (1) The ski resorts in China are mainly distributed in the northern part of Heilongjiang, Shandong, Xinjiang and Hebei, characterized by cluster distribution with aggregation and disequilibrium. (2) There are two high density regions (Heilongjiang region with Harbin as the center, and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region with Beijing as the center), and one secondary high density region (Shanxi-Hebei-Henan region with Changzhi as the center) in the spatial distribution. (3) In addition to population, the factors of terrain, temperature, economy, city and traffic, all have significant spatial differences on the spatial distribution of ski resorts in China, including positive and negative differences and high and low value differences. (4) The influence of natural and social factors on the spatial distribution of ski resorts in China prohibits internal differences. Specifically, natural factors have more significant spatial differences, while social factors have a consistent effect on the spatial distribution of ski resorts in China. Social factors mainly affect ski resorts in northern China, which are positively related to the spatial distribution of ski resorts as a whole. This research can not only provide references for the scientific planning and rational layout of ski resorts, but also for the transformation and upgrading of the ice and snow industry in China.

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    The econometric analysis of the effect of city housing prices on fertility rates:A study from cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China
    FANG Huifen, CHEN Jianglong, YUAN Feng, GAO Jinlong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2426-2441.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201069
    Abstract1032)   HTML45)    PDF (3335KB)(388)      

    The nexus between housing prices and population has long been the hot topic for scholars in fields of humanities, economics, and geography. Taking 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta as examples, this article explored the influence of housing prices on fertility rates with the panel data from 2008 to 2018. Employing the differential GMM (Dif-GMM) and Biased-corrected LSDV (LSDVC) approaches, we modeled the underlying mechanism at regional and sub-group levels. The result of Dif-GMM model indicated that the rocketing housing prices in the study area largely triggered the decline of fertility rates. The faster the housing price rose, the faster the fertility rate declined. Besides, by using the variable of housing price to income ratio, we measured the home affordability of residents in every city. The result indicated that the faster the home affordability decreased, the faster the fertility rate decreased. Furthermore, the result of LSDVC model shed further light on the heterogeneity of nexus across sub-groups. Specifically, the fertility rates in cities with medium or low housing prices were more vulnerable to the fluctuation of housing purchasing ability, while in cities with high or medium-high housing prices, the situation was opposite. Besides, different types of cities showed distinct variations in the fertility rates when facing changes of regional economic development, which depended on the income expectation and cost expectation brought by the economic development. Stemming from the aforementioned findings, we finally proposed some policy suggestions on how to increase people’ fertility intention. The primary one is to control the speed of housing prices rise. The second one is to improve the home affordability of residents through increasing housing subsidies or residents’ income. In addition, the regulation of rising housing price in cities with low or medium housing price should not be ignored. Instead, more targeted policies should be formulated in these regions, with a view to increasing residents’ overall willingness to have children and promoting sustainable population development in the whole region.

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    Connection modeling and optimization strategies of terminal logistics network of community-oriented new retail stores: A case study of Freshippo stores and Cainiao stations in Shenzhen city
    HUANG Yushan, LI Gang, JIN Annan, YU Yue
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2542-2557.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201041
    Abstract954)   HTML31)    PDF (6282KB)(155)      

    The "new retail" of the integrated development of online shopping and offline delivery brings vitality to the advance of the retail industry. Focusing on the problems of terminal logistics network of the "new retail", the exploration of optimization strategies for the connection with parcel collection & delivery points could provide a reference for improving the quality and efficiency of community-oriented new retail stores. Based on the data of areas of interest (AOIs) of Freshippo stores and points of interest (POIs) of Cainiao stations in Shenzhen City, this paper demonstrated the feasibility of spatial connection between community-oriented new retail stores and parcel collection & delivery points, put forward the optimization plans and simulated the optimization effects. The foundation of connection between community-oriented new retail stores and parcel collection & delivery points was examined by methods of spatial analysis and quantitative statistics. The results are as follows: 1) Freshippo stores which offer services of “new retail” mainly for communities are evenly dispersed in Shenzhen City. Most Freshippo stores are located at the edges of commercial circles, but with lots of service-blank areas. Cainiao stations which mainly provide parcel collection & delivery service for communities have large and contiguous service range covering various facilities. Most of Cainiao stations are close to the entrances of various facilities. 2) Both Freshippo stores and Cainiao stations are market-oriented and community-targeted. Freshippo stores are located in the urban business circle while Cainiao stations are located in the community life circle. Freshippo stores and Cainiao stations have similar and complementary features in terms of operating mode, service targets, and spatial distribution, and offer different solutions for terminal logistics, which proves the feasibility of the connection between them. 3) The optimization of the terminal logistics network can be achieved through transforming the logistics distribution mode of community-oriented new retail from "self-operated" to "self-operated + release". A delivery chain of "new retail stores - delivery riders-parcel collection and delivery points - community residents" will be established through optimization. 4) The optimization of the connection between community-oriented new retail stores and parcel collection & delivery points has a significant positive impact on the expansion of service scope and the coverage of facilities of community-based new retail stores. Meanwhile, to realize the fairness and raise efficiency in space, the new retail stores can adapt to different consumption scenarios in various regions.

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    The return decision making of floating population in large cities of central China: A case study of Wuhan
    LIU Da, GUO Yan, LUAN Xiaofan, LI Zhigang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (8): 2220-2234.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200832
    Abstract809)   HTML19)    PDF (2987KB)(538)      

    The return of floating population has become a new trend in China's recent urbanization. Against the context of China's new strategy of ‘new-type urbanization’, the research of return floating population is of great significance to promote ‘in-situ urbanization’ of central China. Although many studies have examined the return decision making of floating population in eastern China, few are known about the case of central China. The differences in decision making between inter- and intra-provincial floating population also need further examination. Using descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression models, this study explores the return intention and determinants of inter- and intra-provincial floating population in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei in central China. Firstly, the results show that floating population did not have a very strong return intention. The return intention of intra-provincial floating population is lower than that of the inter-provincial. Secondly, the return intention is significantly related to individual, family, and social factors. Gender, education, family structure, annual household income, and satisfaction with family economic conditions are internal factors to motivate the returning. External factors, such as social trust and identification with the city, restrain return intention. Thirdly, significant differences exist between return decision making of inter- and intra-provincial floating population. The return intention of intra-provincial floating population is greatly affected by individual and regional factors, while family and social factors are increasingly important for inter-provincial floating population. We argue that the promotion of new-type urbanization in central China should pay more attention to this heterogeneity. The large cities should stimulate settlement intention of inter-provincial floating population by increasing wages and inclusive social policy. Also, the state should expand the job markets of small and medium-sized cities to attract intra-provincial floating population.

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    Impacts of apple tree planting on deep soil water content and groundwater recharge for the Loess Tableland of China
    CHENG Liping, WANG Yaping, QI Guang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2684-2694.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200908
    Abstract782)   HTML33)    PDF (3106KB)(234)      

    As an important component of terrestrial water resources, soil water and groundwater are critical factors in forestry development and human life on the Loess Plateau of China. In the past 20-30 years, large areas of farmland were converted to apple orchards, which resulted in excessive consumption of deep soil water and reduction of groundwater recharge. To quantify the impacts of apple trees on soil moisture and groundwater recharge, the soil water content and chloride concentration of soil water in 0-20 m deep profile were measured in apple orchards with different ages on the Changwu Tableland. The results showed that: the soil water content in apple orchard along the deep profile decreased from shallow to deep layer with increasing tree age, and the mean soil water contents in 5-yr, 10-yr, 13-yr, 15-yr, 18-yr, 20-yr, and 27-yr apple orchards were 20.84%, 20.31%, 19.23%, 17.88%, 15.54%, 14.93%, and 13.38%, respectively. The soil water storage in deep profile decrease in invert “S” with tree age and stabilized after 27 years. The conversion from farmland to apple orchards increased soil water depletion and further deepened the accumulation of Cl - in the deep profile. The average Cl- concentrations of soil water within 4-10 m layer in farmland, 10-yr, and 27-yr apple orchards were 30.8, 36.6, and 114.3 mg/L, respectively. Both the Cl- profiles and the 1963-tritium peak in the homogeneous loess profile reflected that the piston flow formed in the wet years is the dominant mechanism for deep percolation and groundwater recharge in the Loess Tableland. The average infiltration rate of groundwater recharge in cropland was 105 mm/a, and the average recharge rate was 30.2 mm/a, accounting for 5.2% of the annual precipitation. The conversion from farmland to apple orchard led to severely dried soil layer in the deep profile, further prevented the recharge of rainfall to groundwater and weakened the dominance of piston flow in the process of groundwater recharge. Therefore, an appropriate areal proportion between farmland and apple orchard should be coordinated based on the policy guidance, so as to achieve sustainable recharge and utilization of groundwater resources for the Loess Tableland.

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    The impact of digital economy on urban carbon emissions:Based on the analysis of spatial effects
    XU Weixiang, ZHOU Jianping, LIU Chengjun
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2022, 41 (1): 111-129.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020210459
    Abstract746)   HTML16)    PDF (3972KB)(174)      

    Global warming is a great challenge faced by all mankind. The continued increase in greenhouse gas emissions will have a negative impact on agricultural production, socio-economic activities and human life, and ultimately hinder the process of achieving global sustainable development. This study attempts to introduce the variable of digital economy development into the research framework of carbon emission impact factor theory to systematically examine the effect of digital economy development on urban carbon emissions. This study was conducted to investigate the spatial effects of the digital economy on urban carbon emissions. Based on the panel data of 286 cities from 2011 to 2017, this study analyzes the impact of digital economy development on urban carbon emissions using the spatial Durbin model and the spatial DID model. The main conclusions are as follows:(1) There is spatial heterogeneity in the development pattern of digital economy, and the development pattern changes from "multi-point" sporadic distribution to "cluster" agglomeration, but the gap between the development levels of cities has not been narrowed, and the Yangtze River Delta becomes an important digital economy agglomeration area. (2) The digital economy has a significant negative effect on urban carbon emissions, and the findings are robust to the introduction of the exogenous policy shock of "smart cities". Moreover, there is spatial heterogeneity in this effect, with the negative effect of digital economy on carbon emissions being stronger in the eastern region, and the influence of digital economy is stronger in regions located within urban agglomerations. (3) In order to investigate the spatial decay characteristics of the spillover effect of the digital economy on urban carbon emissions, the spillover effect analysis of the multi-distance economic circle is carried out, and it is found that the spillover effect of the digital economy on carbon emissions peaks at 1100 km. (4) The coverage of digital infrastructure does not have a significant negative effect on carbon emissions in the region, while digital industry development, digital innovation capacity and digital inclusive finance all have a significant negative effect on carbon emissions in the region and neighboring areas. This study adds to the lack of research on the digital economy and carbon emissions, and provides some theoretical reference for the study of the environmental improvement effects of the digital economy.

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    Rural public space governance in China
    WEI Luyao, LU Yuqi, JIN Cheng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (10): 2707-2721.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200561
    Abstract721)   HTML16)    PDF (7930KB)(136)      

    It is a powerful guarantee for the implementation of China's Rural Revitalization Strategy to clarify measures for the governance of rural public space as well as to promote the orderly reconstruction of rural space comprehensively, which is an inevitable requirement for deepening the problem and strategic orientated perspective of rural geography research. Firstly, this paper defined the connotation of rural public space and its classification clearly. Secondly, it reviewed the historical evolution process and characteristics of rural public space in China. Thirdly, it pointed out the realistic bottlenecks such as unclear ownership relationship, limited land system and disordered spatial organization in rural public space. This paper constructed a comprehensive governance system of “demand-planning-organization” in rural public space, and used a governance idea which combines “from top to down” administrative control with “from bottom to up” governance demand, so as to strengthen the important role of material space optimization and ownership integration in the rural reconstruction. Specifically, the basic demand of public space provides the prerequisite for rural reconstruction, the overall governance of rural public space clarifies the main responsibilities of participants, and the governance of public space organization is helpful to promote the coordination abilities of rural development elements. On this basis, we put forward the governance framework of rural public space, which can activate the transformation of key elements, clarify the responsibilities of ownership subjects and consolidate the institutional security system. On the one hand, rural reconstruction provides direction for rural public space governance. On the other hand, the governance of rural public space provides a guarantee for rural reconstruction. Rural reconstruction and rural public space governance are closely related to improvement of the rural spatial planning system and enhancement of the rural social governance capacity. It is beneficial to promote the modernization of rural governance system and further rural revitalization while deepening the mutual assistance mechanism between rural public space governance and rural reconstruction. It is of great significance to carry out research on the governance of rural public space in China, which will provide an important basis for improving the rural spatial planning system and promoting the modernization of rural governance system.

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    Industrial agglomeration and economic complexity of regional exports in China
    HE Canfei, REN Zhuoran, YE Yaling
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (8): 2119-2140.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200779
    Abstract720)   HTML49)    PDF (8533KB)(421)      

    China is in the process of upgrading its industrial structure and exploring the factors that influence China's economic complexity helps in formulating industrial policies of the next period. This study employs China Customs database to analyze the evolution of industrial agglomeration of Chinese cities' export economic complexity with the help of three mainstream complexity indicators, and the relationship between industrial agglomeration and economic complexity is tested empirically with econometric model. The results show that industrial geographic agglomeration in China generally presents a spatial pattern of being high in eastern region and scattering in central and western regions, and the regions with high industrial geographic agglomeration are the Bohai Rim, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the West Coast of the Taiwan Straits, and the Sichuan-Chongqing Region. Along the passage of time, the geographic agglomeration index of most cities has risen, and the difference between cities has gradually decreased. The spatial distribution pattern of economic complexity of regional exports is consistent with the industrial geographic agglomeration. The eastern region has the highest average economic complexity while the western region has the lowest. High-complexity regions mainly consist of the Bohai Rim, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and developed cities in the central and western regions, and the gap between cities has narrowed over time. Comparing the three economic complexity measurement methods, the study finds that the ECI indicator is not applicable to China while the Fitness and ECI+ indicators perform better. The econometric model shows that industrial geographic agglomeration can bring positive effects through knowledge spillovers and sharing of production factors, as well as negative effects through competition crowding. In general, the positive effects of agglomeration are greater than the negative and agglomeration has promoted the economic complexity of China's regional exports. This study further examines the mechanism of increasing economic complexity through industrial agglomeration, and finds that agglomeration can accelerate urban industrial upgrading and increase economic complexity by promoting the entry of high-complexity industries and the exit of low-complexity industries.

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    Geographical expression and quantitative exploration of the China′s north-south transitional zone
    LI Yanan, LIU Gangjun, LIU Dexin, QIN Yaochen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (7): 1857-1869.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200679
    Abstract703)   HTML39)    PDF (7269KB)(304)      

    Under the climate change, the dynamic change of China′s north-south transitional zone and the detection of its regional scope are the basis of identifying the sensitive areas of agricultural production and studying the adaptive behavior of agriculture. Based on the "top-down" or "bottom-up" method, the predecessors used different demarcation indicators to explore the scope of the north-south transitional zone in China. However, the geographical expression and quantitative detection of the range of the China′s north-south transitional zone under climate change are rarely involved. The daily observation data of temperature and precipitation of more than 2400 national meteorological stations from 1951 to 2018 are used. The 800 mm precipitation isoline, the 0℃ average temperature of January, the accumulated temperature with daily average temperature ≥10 ℃, the number of days with daily average temperature ≥ 10 ℃ and the aridity index are used as the demarcation indexes. The ArcGIS grid calculation and the mean standard deviation are used to explain the geographic expression of the China′s north-south transitional zone. The results show that the boundary between the north and the south of China is a transitional zone with different widths. The isolines of each demarcation index change obviously under the climate change. The general range of variation of each meteorological element in the southwest is more stable than that in the northeast. The range of change of accumulated temperature with daily average temperature ≥ 10 ℃ and aridity index is greater than that of the 800 mm precipitation isoline and that of the 0 ℃ average temperature of January. The northernmost boundary of China′s transitional zone passed through Lixian, Yaoxian, Hancheng, Anze, Shexian and Jinghai counties from west to east. The southernmost boundary of China's transitional zone passed through Beichuan, Ningqiang, Xixiang, Fangxian, Xichuan, Luoshan, Shangcheng, Dingyuan and Lin'an counties from west to east. Among the 637 counties extracted in this area, 256 counties are located in the climate change stable area of the north-south transitional zone, while 187 counties are located in the climate change sensitive area. The research can provide scientific basis for agricultural production in the north-south transitional zone to adapt to climate change in China.

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    Driving factors and carbon transfer of industrial carbon emissions in Guangdong province under the background of industrial transfer
    WANG Shaojian, TIAN Shasha, CAI Qingnan, WU Huiqing, WU Canxi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2606-2622.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200916
    Abstract678)   HTML29)    PDF (4859KB)(295)      

    The continuous increase of industrial carbon emissions, one of the causes for global warming, has become a hot topic, which attracts wide attention in the world. At the same time, the spatial remodeling and differences of industrial carbon emissions are caused by industrial upgrades and transfers. Therefore, these topics have consisted of a new direction for research related with low-carbon city construction. This article uses methods, such as carbon emissions material balance method and structural decomposition model, to calculate the carbon emissions of various industries in Guangdong's cities at the prefecture level, from 2001 to 2017. Besides, this article analyzes the driving factors of industrial carbon emissions differences and explores the pattern of industrial transfer and its carbon transfer under the background of industrial transfer policies in Guangdong. With the above methods and models, the study found that, as a whole, industrial carbon emissions of the province showed an increasing trend, and regional differences gradually increased, which means that the gap among cities has enlarged during the period 2001-2017 in terms of industrial carbon emissions. The distribution pattern of industrial carbon emissions within the province showed that a trend of changing from spreading from a single core to the surroundings to eventually evolving into a “fractal T-shaped” pattern. The environmental effects brought by the development of the industrial industry are determined comprehensively by three factors, which are the economic scale, industrial structure, and technological strength. Among them, the scale effect has the largest influence, while the structure factor is rather weak. The technical effect can play a more important role in regions with low-carbon emission intensity. The Pearl River Delta region is the place where the main high-energy-consuming industries are transferred out, and the inter-annual change in carbon emissions is relatively large. The cities of eastern and western Guangdong are the main places where the medium-energy-consuming and high-energy-consuming industries are transferred in, and the inter-annual change in carbon emissions is small.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions in the Yellow River Basin: Based on the DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data
    DU Haibo, WEI Wei, ZHANG Xueyuan, JI Xuepeng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (7): 2051-2065.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200646
    Abstract651)   HTML28)    PDF (5686KB)(399)      

    Scientific estimation and dynamic monitoring for the development trend of carbon emissions from energy consumption with long time series can provide the scientific basis for formulating and implementing regional carbon reduction strategies. Based on the integrated DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS nighttime light datasets, this study simulated the spatial and temporal characteristics of energy-related carbon emissions in the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2018, and analyzed its influencing factors from the perspective of geographical environment differentiation. The results were as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2018, the total amount of energy consumption carbon emissions in the Yellow River Basin grew continually but the growth rate tended to decrease with a convergent trend, but the carbon peak has not yet been reached; the carbon emissions within the basin presented the geographical differentiation characteristics in the order of the middle reaches > the lower reaches > the upper reaches. (2) The core cities connected by the main stream of the Yellow River and its tributaries formed several high-density carbon emissions centers of different scales from the pixel scale. (3) The carbon emissions of the basin showed a significant positive spatial autocorrelation, and formed a high-high aggregation in the middle and upper reaches of the resource-based cities in Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia, and a low-low aggregation in the upper reaches within Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia. (4) The level of economic development had the greatest impact on the spatial differentiation of energy carbon emissions in the study area, followed by urbanization level and population size. The interaction of "GDP+" energy structure, energy intensity and industrial structure was the main driving force leading to the continuous growth of carbon emissions. From the perspective of building a watershed life community, combining the natural environmental and economic and social characteristics of the river basin, and coordinating the relationship between upper and lower reaches, the left and right banks, main stream and tributaries, the strategy of zoning and time-sharing is of great significance for the ecological protection and sustainable development in the Yellow River Basin with the goal of carbon emissions reduction.

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    A review of the Badain Jaran Sand Sea and its megadune
    XIAO Nan, DONG Zhibao, LIU Zhengyao, TUO Yu, SHI Huanyu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (7): 1887-1901.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200713
    Abstract644)   HTML17)    PDF (1574KB)(194)      

    The inland aridification in Asia is a hot topic in paleoenvironmental research. The Badain Jaran Sand Sea is the second largest mobile sand sea in the Asian inland. It has the world′s highest aeolian landforms—megadune. Thus, it is an important carrier for the study of inland aridification in Asia. The formation and evolution of megadune are related to the environmental changes of the sand sea where they are located. Megadune recorded the regional and global climate changes. Therefore, the study on the formation and development of megadune should start from regional geology and environmental evolution. This paper expounded the formation and evolution of megadune, lakes and the sand sea itself in the Badain Jaran Sand Sea from six aspects: geological evolution, environmental evolution, sedimentology, hydrology, megadune landforms, and the formation and development of megadune. It is considered that for inland aridification in Asia tectonic/climatic events are the primary factor and the Earth′s orbital changes are the secondary factor. From the beginning of the neotectonic movement to its slowing down, tectonic/climatic events had always been the main factor controlling the climate in the Badain Jaran Sand Sea, and the Earth′s orbital changes had also played a significant role. At that time, the westerly circulation was the main driving force of the climate for these areas. After the moderating of neotectonic movement, the Earth′s orbital changes were the main controlling factor of climate in the sand sea belt of northern China. The influence of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on atmospheric circulation had gradually emerged. The East Asian monsoon circulation was the main driving force of climate in this region. In addition, effective moisture was controlled by summer monsoon, while winter monsoon dominated aeolian activities. These were different from the unified model under the action of westerly circulation. The paleo-source recharge hypothesis can better explain the origin of lake water. Lakes are replenished by the ancient water preserved underground through shallow underground waterways. On the macro level, lakes are wind-eroded lakes. Thus, there is no inevitable causal relationship between lakes and the maintenance of megadune. The aeolian hypothesis can better explain the formation of megadune. One of the important researches in the future will be to reconstruct the evolutionary history of megadune and sand seas and to explore the relationship between them.

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    The spatiotemporal differentiation pattern of Chinese urban housing price, income and housing price-to-income ratio
    CHEN Yanru, GU Yue, SONG Weixuan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2442-2458.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200817
    Abstract600)   HTML16)    PDF (6542KB)(134)      

    Amid the fast-growing housing price in Chinese cities, the spatial pattern of urban housing price, income and housing price-to-income ratio shows both similarities and differences, characterized by internal spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. This paper targets 337 prefecture-level administrative units and applies the Theil index, rank-size and spatial Markov chain to the analysis of the spatiotemporal differentiation pattern, overall stability and spatial dependence of Chinese urban housing price, income and housing price-to-income ratio from 2009 to 2018. It finds the following results. Firstly, the growth of Chinese urban housing price is phase-based and fluctuated. When the overall differentiation enlarges, the urban system of housing price takes on a structure of “pyramid” and income shows sustained and stable growth. When the overall differentiation shrinks, the urban system presents a structure of “olive”. Under the combined influence of housing price and income, the overall differentiation of housing price-to-income ratio is obviously strengthened. Secondly, housing prices, income and housing price-to-income ratios in Chinese cities are all spatially heterogeneous and agglomerated. The spatial pattern of housing price is different in both zonality and hierarchy, while income is particularly different in zonality and housing price-to-income ratio is particularly different in hierarchy. Due to the coexistence of similarities and differences between housing prices and income patterns in Chinese cities, the housing price-to-income ratio pattern presents a more complex and discrete structure. Thirdly, the stability and spatial dependence of urban housing price and the type of income is stronger, while the stability of housing price-to-income ratio is relatively weak as there are polarization and club convergence in cities at different levels. Housing prices to the north of the "Hu Huanyong Line" shifted downwards, income shifted upwards, and the housing price-to-income ratio declined. In the southern regions, housing prices generally rose rapidly, with income shifts showing stable in the east, downwards in the central region, and upwards in the west, leading to the discrete and broken pattern of housing price-to-income ratios. Moreover, the type shifts of urban housing price, income and housing price-to-income ratio are not spatially independent, but related to the neighboring cities. The analysis of the spatiotemporal differentiation pattern and spatial correlation effect of Chinese urban housing price, income, and housing price-to-income ratio lays a foundation for research on the spatial differentiation pattern and mechanism of Chinese urban housing price-to-income ratio.

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    Analysis on the national geo-setting of geo-strategic intersection area: Take Ukraine as an example
    YE Shuai, HU Zhiding, GE Yuejing, HUANG Yu, HU Wei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2591-2605.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201033
    Abstract596)   HTML14)    PDF (3004KB)(135)      

    The research of geo-setting is the realistic demand of strengthening the study of world geography and the innovative transformation of the revival of domestic geopolitics under the Belt and Road Initiative. The current research on geo-setting focuses on the level of standardized guidelines for the analysis of universal attributes, but the objective existence of spatial heterogeneity requires the classification discussion and analysis of geo-setting. Based on the spatial perspective of geo-strategic practice, this paper identifies three types of national geo-setting: single strategy, strategic intersection, and permanent neutrality, and constructs an analytical framework of strategic intersection type of national geo-setting oriented by national crisis events. This paper takes Ukraine as an example to carry out empirical research. The results show that: (1) Ukraine presents significant regional differences in both physical geography, social, economy, and culture, which provides the possibility and operability for the intervention of external forces. (2) Under the influence of causality, the common Slavic historical origin leads to the high degree of dependence of Ukraine on Russia in the social and cultural field. Under the influence of subjective construction, Russia, Europe, and the United States are actively constructing the geographical relationship with Ukraine for its unqiue strategic position and superior resource conditions. However, the subjectively constructed relations based on national interests fluctuate violently. At the same time, the maintenance time of bilateral mutual construction is longer than that of unilateral construction. (3) Russia, Europe, the United States, and Ukraine have formed not only spatial and material dominant structure, but also implicit subjective structure, and historical evolution process structure among them. Under the comprehensive action of the significantly different geographical environments, highly dependent geopolitical relationships, and inter-subject geopolitical structures, Ukraine has witnessed frequent crisis events within the country. The significance of this study lies in the fact that, for China, in the critical period of the rise, deepening the research on the national geo-setting in the geostrategic intersection area has a certain reference value to deal with the geo-crisis events in the surrounding areas.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and influence mechanism of shorelines and tidal flat reclamation during 2000-2020 in Rudong, Jiangsu province
    LIU Rongjuan, PU Lijie, ZHU Ming, QIE Lu, ZHOU Yangfan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (8): 2367-2379.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200744
    Abstract540)   HTML22)    PDF (6316KB)(536)      

    Research on the characteristics and reasons of the shorelines' spatio-temporal evolution is of great significance for remote sensing monitoring, coastal resources sustainable utilization, and ecological environment management of the coastal zone. With the remote sensing and GIS technology, based on 8 remote sensing images and land use data from 2000 to 2020, etc., the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS), modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), and Pearson correlation coefficient method were used in this study. The spatio-temporal dynamic characteristics of shorelines and tidal flat reclamation area, combined with the change of land use in the reclamation area, extracted the correlation characteristics of the shorelines and reclamation changes from 2000-2020 were studied, and the reason and impact of their changes were analyzed. The results indicated that the shorelines of Rudong in Jiangsu province showed an overall growth trend during 2000-2020. In the last 21 years, the shoreline has been extended by 18.79 km, and at the same time it has expanded to the sea at a rate of 63.84 m/a (end point rate, EPR) and 74.47 m/a (linear regression rate, LRR) respectivily, which reflected the obvious spatial difference. Until 2020, 46,359.53 hm2 of tidal flats have been reclaimed in Rudong, and the land area increased by 9089.25 hm2. The land area expansion rate was the largest from 2010 to 2015. Among the seven types of land use in the reclamation area (farmland, aquafarm land, residential land, unused land, other land for construction, salt farmland and port), the area of farmland and other land for construction showed an increasing trend while the area of unused land showed a decreasing trend. The reclamation area has a significant positive correlation with the length of the shorelines. Port construction significantly affected shoreline variation, followed by unused land, salt farmland, and aquafarm land. The expansion of coastal cities and the implementation of coastal management policies played an important role in guiding and promoting changes in shorelines and reclamation activities. This research aims to provide accurate basic data support and decision-making basis for the sustainable development management and protection of coastal resources in Jiangsu.

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    The spatial characteristics and formation mechanism of multi-group conflicts in ethnic tourism community from the perspective of residents: A case study of Xijiang Qianhu Miao Village
    LIU Yang, ZHAO Zhenbin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (7): 2086-2101.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200735
    Abstract534)   HTML20)    PDF (8104KB)(345)      

    Multi-group conflicts have been increasingly noticed with the rapid development of tourism in rural community. Studying the spatial characteristics of multi-group conflicts exerts much significance on community tourism planning and management, especially from the perspective of residents. This research employed a mixed method of participatory mapping and semi-structured interview to investigate local residents’ perception towards tourism development, which mainly included the places they were dissatisfied with during the development process. In order to measure community conflicts efficiently, the whole investigation process followed the logic of “negative emotion - reasons tracing - conflict types - spatial distribution”. Surveys were conducted in the Xijiang Qianhu Miao Village of Southwest China. Through constructing the identification logics of conflict opponents, conflict types and corresponding opponents were identified. Then the spatial distribution and its formation mechanism were analyzed. Results suggested that: (1) Under the driven of tourism development, conflict types were characterized with diversification from the perspective of residents. Nevertheless, there was a primary structure constituted by everyday life interference, interest contradiction, public power dumbness, environment disruption and construction restriction, which accounted for 74.19% in all the conflicts. (2) Four conflict opponents were perceived by residents in community, which constituted four conflict opponent relationships, including residents and decision makers, residents and extraneous operators, residents and residents, and residents and tourists. The composition and proportion of conflict types varied from conflict opponents in every relationship but main conflict types existed. (3) Distribution of conflict opponent relationships presented a pattern of clustering in core regions and disperse in fringe, that is, a large number of four conflict opponent relationships were distributed in core regions but residents and decision makers as well as residents and residents were in fringe regions. Further, the high-density value areas of four relationships were different in spatial distribution. The conflicts between residents and decision makers were dispersed in core area, while those between residents were in fringe. Conflicts between residents and extraneous operators as well as tourists were axially clustered in core areas. (4) The formation mechanism of conflicts distribution was driven by micro geographical location, overall planning, market demand and stakeholders’ spatial practice. Multiple groups were competed in space, which shaped community space collectively.

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    The spatio-temporal pattern of shop rent and its influencing factors in Nanjing
    GU Yue, WANG Jiekai, HUANG Qinshi, SONG Weixuan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2459-2475.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201003
    Abstract528)   HTML20)    PDF (10393KB)(121)      

    As one of the important indexes used to evaluate the commercial vitality of a city and the commercial value of a range, shop rent is a hot issue in the field of economic geography. Nanjing, located in the economically developed Yangtze River Delta region, has been a major commercial city for a long time. This paper examines the spatio-temporal pattern of the rent of 3294 shops in the central urban areas of Nanjing from 2010 to 2019 by means of Kernel Density, Moran’s I and other methods of geographical space analysis. On this basis, this paper taps into the factors affecting the shop rent from traffic location, peripheral supporting facilities, and consumption capacity by using the geographical detector. According to the research, the average shop rent in the central urban area of Nanjing presents an obvious spatial and temporal differentiation pattern from 2010 to 2019. The changing trend of the average shop rent in the study area is characterized by a stable growth in the early stage, a significant decline in the middle stage, and a rapid rise in the later stage. The spatial distribution of shops presents a trend of increasingly intensive spatial agglomeration by centering in Xinjiekou and the areas of Hexi, Dongshan and Jiangbei in the periphery of inner city form a hierarchical commercial agglomeration pattern. Similarly, the spatial distribution of rent in primary urban areas has significant spatial positive correlation and localized spatial agglomeration, and forms the core-periphery structure with Xinjiekou as a hot spot and the southern and northern urban areas as cold spots, aggravating the rent differentiation between the primary and secondary urban areas. The shop rent in the primary urban areas is affected not only by the key external factors including the subway accessibility, surrounding housing prices and potential consumption capacity, but also by the endogenous factors such as business form and shop image. However, dwelling density and construction age of shops have a weaker impact on shop rent. The factors influencing shop rent are complex and the interaction of many factors has led to the spatio-temporal differentiation pattern of shop rent in Nanjing. This paper reveals the leading factors causing the spatial differentiation of shop rent in Nanjing and their combinations and changes, aiming to advance the research on urban commercial space in China and provide a reference for local governments, developers and shop investors and operators.

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    The evolution theory of national need structure and its application:A case study of the Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation
    YU Huilu, LI Fei, LIN Yinghua, CUI Yating
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2399-2425.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020201029
    Abstract471)   HTML24)    PDF (4464KB)(136)      

    This paper constructs a theoretical framework describing the evolution principle of international relations, and employs it to analyze the geopolitical environment of Sino-Russian Arctic cooperation. Firstly, based on the concepts of national need and national need structure, this paper summarizes the evolution characteristics of national need structure, and puts forward three evolution models of national need structure in bilateral relations: relatively stable model, optimizing cooperation model, and tensing relationship model. It is believed that national needs are the same as individual needs, and there is an evolution trend from low-level to high-level. "Low-level needs have been satisfied" is a prerequisite for the escalation of the level of needs. Secondly, we employ evolution theory of national need structure to analyze the geopolitical environment facing Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation, and put forward counterme- asures and suggestions to maintain the good momentum of Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation: Properly handling Sino-U.S. relations is the top priority because the U.S. factor is an active obstacle for the Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation; Political mutual trust is a decisive factor in Sino-Russian Arctic cooperation, therefore strengthening cooperative research in the field of international relations theory between two countries is an effective policy instrument. We should improve the transparency of cooperative projects and share relevant data of projects' impact on the ecological environment and indigenous peoples in the international community, and strengthen strategic communication in order to expand common interests and maintain cooperative partnerships with America’s allies. As a non-Arctic country, China should adhere to the principle of "participation in Arctic affairs to a proper extent". Finally, we draw several conclusions: The evolution theory of national need structure can explain the core viewpoints of the three schools of Western international relations; the evolution model of the need structure of bilateral countries focuses on the regularity of sudden changes in international relations, and helps provide decision-making reference for the prediction of international relation crises and the formulation of emergency plans; the theory of national need structure can provide reference for the foreign policy making of different countries.

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    Construction and evaluation of urban ecological security pattern: A case study of Suzhou city
    SUN Feng, ZHANG Jinhe, WANG Peijia, WEI Guoen, CHU Guang, CAO Yu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (9): 2476-2493.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200990
    Abstract441)   HTML16)    PDF (5294KB)(113)      

    The construction of urban ecological security pattern is an important way to ensure regional ecological security and realize sustainable development. Taking Suzhou city as a case, this paper constructs and evaluates the urban ecological security pattern by integrating various methods, such as ecosystem service quantification, ecological security pattern construction and ecological security assessment. The results show that: (1) In 2017, the services of food supply, fresh water supply, air purification, flood regulation and water storage, carbon sink service, tourism and leisure, soil conservation and habitat quality in Suzhou city are 32795.94 yuan/hm2, 686.6 mm, 283.68 yuan/hm2, 28.62 mm, 86.99 t/hm2, 3736.75 yuan/hm2, 174.8 t/hm2 and 0.47, respectively. High value areas are mainly concentrated in areas densely distributed with woodland, garden, cultivated land and water area, while low value areas are mainly concentrated in the central urban area and its surrounding areas. (2) Nine important ecological source areas are identified, including Taihu Lake, Dongshan Mountain, Xishan Mountain, Qionglong Mountain, Dayang-Tianchi Mountain, Wangshan-Shangfang Mountain, Yangcheng Lake, Changyang Lake and Taipu River. (3) We extracted 36 ecological corridors and 32 ecological nodes, among which, 19, 17, 27 and 5 are important ecological corridors, general ecological corridors, important ecological nodes and general ecological nodes, respectively. The connectivity between Taihu Lake and its surrounding ecological source areas in the southwest of the region is good, and the ecological correlation is high. The connectivity between the northeast of the region and other parts is poor, and the ecological network needs to be improved. It is suggested that the width of important ecological corridors should be 100-200 m, and that of general ecological corridors should be 60-100 m in Suzhou city. (4) The overall ecological network closure is relatively low, the ecological network connection level is complex, the ecological node connectivity is relatively low, and the ecological network cost is relatively high in Suzhou city. Priority should be given to the construction of ecological corridor with great importance, namely, strengthening the construction of ecological corridor among large areas of water and wetland, and improving the connectivity between water area and surrounding mountains and hills. This study is expected to provide useful references for exploring the application value of ecosystem services, implementing the integrated development strategy of Yangtze River Delta, and assisting the construction of ecological civilization.

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