Table of Content

    20 June 2010, Volume 29 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Experts Forum
    Discussion on mountain area resource and environment carrying capacity
    DENG Wei
    2010, 29 (6):  959-969.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (432KB) ( )   Save

    Carrying capacity is an important parameter to measure region sustainable development. This article briefly discriminated the relevant concepts of resource and environment carrying capacity, region carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity, and also reviewed the process of carrying capacity research development at home and abroad. Moreover, the paper discussed the shortcomings and problems and finally suggested several key issues of the research in future. It found that the studies of mountain area resource and environment carrying capacity were very insufficient, and the shortages in the correlative studies mainly displayed as: the theoretical system of carrying capacity had not been constructed completely; the lack of effective methods impeded the development of theory; most of researches focused on the static analysis but rarely engaged in dynamic forecast; the studies on mountain area resource and environment carrying capacity applied mechanically the research pattern of the plain area, which did not correspond to the mountain area's reality. Aiming at the above disadvantages, the author pointed out that perfecting the theory system frame of resource and environment carrying capacity, exploring the quantitative research methods of resource and environment carrying capacity in depth, and paying great attention to the mountain area resource and environment carrying capacity's characteristic of a nation, the influence of minority nationalities culture on resource and environment carrying capacity and the mountain area resource and environment carrying capacity's characteristic of spatial differentiation were five important issues for further study.

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    Geo-information Science
    Research and compilation of the Geomorphological Atlas of the People's Republic of China
    ZHOU Cheng-hu, CHENG Wei-ming
    2010, 29 (6):  970-979.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (335KB) ( )   Save
    Geomorphological maps are one of the most fundamental maps of the natural environment. They have been used widely in scientific research, resource exploration and extraction, education, and military affairs. An editorial committee was founded in 2001 to collect materials for a set of new 1:1,000,000 geomorphological maps of China. A digital geomorphological database was created in ArcGIS with visual interpretation from Landsat TM/ETM imageries, SRTM-DEM, and published geomorphological maps. The maps were compiled from this database with MAPGIS and published by Science Press in 2009. The characteristics of the main map are as follows. Firstly, Landsat TM/ETM imagery, published geomorphological maps or sketches, geographical base maps, geological maps, and other thematic maps were collected, uniformly geometrically rectified, clipped into uniform sheets, and stored in the foundation database. Secondly, a uniform geomorphological classification was built by combining morphology and genesis types, which comprises seven hierarchical layers: basic morphology, genesis, sub-genesis, morphology, sub-morphology, slope and aspect, material composition and lithology. These layers were stored in the database during visual image interpretation. Thirdly, according to the three-leveled representation of surface relief and bathymetry in China, color and symbol bases were built in MAPGIS, and visualization standards and procedures were developed. In particular, computer cartography of the desert regions was improved greatly compared with hand-drawing. Finally, a uniform 1:1,000,000 geomorphological map was produced and compiled in MAPGIS. The 1:1.000,000 geomorphological map of China will fill the blanks in basic scale thematic maps, which could lead to significant progress in geomorphology and cartography. It is expected that the geomorphological database will be used widely in many fields.
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    Study of evaluation of forest and grass fire risk gradein Sichuan Province
    YANG Cun-jian, FENG Liang, YANG Hong-zhong, CHENG Xi
    2010, 29 (6):  980-988.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (609KB) ( )   Save

    It is an important strategy to build Sichuan into the ecological shelter of the upper Yangtze River. As the forest and grass fire prevention is one of the important parts of the construction of ecological shelter and ecological security indemnity in Sichuan Province, the evaluation of the forest and grass fire risk is of great significance to the forest and grass fire prevention. Therefore, the forest and grass fire risk grade was evaluated by using remote sensing, GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in Sichuan Province. The study shows: the fifth fire risk grade accounts for 0.8%, the fourth accounts for 20.2%, and the third grade, 47.2% in Sichuan Province. The highest fire risk is mainly distributed in Ganzi, Liangshan, Aba, Panzhihua and Ya'an, accounting for 49.2%, 24.7%, 15.7%, 3.5% and 3.4% respectively of the total area in the risk zone. The high fire risk is mainly distributed in the prefectures of Ganzi, Liangshan and Aba, which account for 72.1% of the total area in the risk region. We suggest that Ganzi, Liangshan, Aba, Panzhihua and Ya'an should be regarded as the key areas of the forest and grass fire prevention and should be given priority in getting labors, funds and goods for forest and grass fire prevention.

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    Environment and Ecology
    Concentrations and risk of heavy metals in surface soil and dust in urban squares and school campus in Beijing
    LI Xiao-yan, CHEN Tong-bin, LEI Mei, XIE Yun-feng, SONG Bo
    2010, 29 (6):  989-996.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060004
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    Heavy metals pollution of soils is a major environmental problem. Heavy metals in urban soils could cause deleterious effects on human health by contacts with skin and intakes unconsciously. Soil and dust samples in squares and school campus in Beijing were collected for assessing the concentrations and health risks of heavy metals. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils and dusts presented a lognormal distribution. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in soils, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in dusts were all higher than the background concentrations of soils in Beijing, and 67% (27%), 13% (63%), 83% (100%), 73% (100%), 83% (100%) and 53% (100%) of the soils (dusts) samples exceeded the background values of soils in Beijing for As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Relatively speaking, Zn was accumulated in soils, while Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were accumulated in dusts. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in dusts were significantly higher than in soils. The concentrations of Ni, Pb and Zn in dusts in school campus were significantly higher than in squares. There are no significant health risks of heavy metals from dusts in school campus.
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    Situation and evaluation of water environmental quality in Wulingyuan world natural heritage site
    LENG Zhi-ming
    2010, 29 (6):  997-1004.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (565KB) ( )   Save

    Since China joined in the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985, 37 Chinese cultural relics and scenic spots have been listed in the world heritages, 7 of which are the natural sites. Every country, the United Nations and other international organizations have attached greater importance to the heritage protection and utilization, which has been a hot cultural issue nowadays. In 1992, Wulingyuan was added into the world heritage list. Due to overexploitation and lack of protection, the water environment has been severely affected and its quality has been degraded gradually since then. Based on the current researches, this paper further explores the level of water pollution and discusses the changing pattern of water environment. Because the water environment is a complex and changeable system, it is difficult to evaluate the water quality by the conventional quantitative method. This paper selects BOD5, COD, TN, TP, As, MnO-4 as evaluation factors, which have greater influence on the environment. Four main spots along the major water systems Jinbianxi and Suoxi are monitored. With fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, we adopt the standard value of pollutants to calculate the weights, and select the weights according to different pollution levels to further research the degree of water pollution and to explore its changing pattern. The evaluation results show that the water quality of Shuiraosimen, Wujiayukou, and Zicaotan is level II, and the water quality of Laomowan is level III. The evaluation results are basically in agreement with the real monitoring data. On this basis, we put forward countermeasures to improve water environmental quality, which can provide scientific evidence for enhancing water environment quality of Wulingyuan world natural heritage site.

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    Earth Surface Processes
    Impacts of tourist activity on vegetation in Dinghu Mountain Biosphere Reserve
    Xiao Guang-ming, Huang Zhong-liang
    2010, 29 (6):  1005-1016.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060006
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    The nature reserves are often faced with the contradiction between resource protection and tourist activity. It is important to study the relationship between tourist activity and vegetation environment in nature reserves. Vegetation landscapes are not only important tourism resources, but also levers of harmonizing their ecological balance. This paper analyzes the relationship between tourist activity and vegetation environment in Dinghu Mountain, and evaluates the management level in the tourism region. Six indexes are used, including the sensitive level (SL), community landscape importance value (LIV), information index of species diversity (H'), negative species proportion (NSP), proportion of plants accompanied with mankind (PPM), and tourism impact index (TII). The result shows that there are some correlations and regularity between the TII and the evaluation indexes of vegetation environment, among the evaluation indexes of the vegetation environment quality, and among the factors of tourist impact index. The larger the SL is, the larger the H', PPM and TII are, and the smaller the LIV and NSP are. However, the larger the TII is, the smaller the LIV and NSP are, and the larger the SL, H' and PPM are. The TII is positively correlated to each factor, including rubbish impact index, damaging branches impact index, woods regeneration impact index, and meadow situation index. The regularity is that the larger the TII is, the smaller the dead sticks and humus thickness, meadow coverage, sapling number are, and the larger the damaging branches number and rubbish number are. These facts indicate the regularity of tourist activity has an impact on vegetation objectively, and this accords with the fact of tourism practice in Dinghu Mountain. Based on evaluation class of TII, the management level of tourism region in Dinghu Mountain is good and middle level on the whole nature reserve, but there are some dangers in some regions which need to raise the tourism management level further. Finally, the paper puts forward some management tactics in the tourism region.

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    Study on optimized patterns of soil and water conservation measures on sloping fields in earth-rocky mountainous area of northern China
    HE Ji-jun, CAI Qiang-guo, WANG Xue-qiang
    2010, 29 (6):  1017-1026.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (486KB) ( )   Save
    The important source of soil and water losses is sloping fields in rocky area of northern China. In order to reduce soil and water losses in sloping fields and improve sustainability on fragile slopes, the applied range of different soil and water conservation measures in sloping fields was researched. The results showed the larger the gradient of sloping fields is, the less the soil and water conservation benefits of farming measures are, and the optimized benefits could be achieved on slopes of 0°~6°.Terrace measures had a larger applying range, and their water conservation benefits were higher and steadier. However, the cost, difficulties, and land loss rate would be increasing observably with the increase of slope. At the same time, the level terrace with higher standard is not suitable for larger area extension in a poor mountainous area. Hedgerows measures could be used on slopes less than 25°, and the investment was less, which was fit in a poor mountainous area. Therefore, based on characteristics of sloping fields and the optimal range of different soil and water conservation measures in rocky area of northern China, the sloping lands were partitioned for 4 slope ranges to collocate different soil and water conservation measures, that is, farming measures were the main pattern for sloping fields with gradients from 0° to 5° , terrace measures were the main pattern for sloping fields with gradients from 5° to 15°, hedgerows measures was the main pattern for sloping fields with gradients from 15° to 25°.For sloping fields with gradients over 25°,the converting cultivated land into forests or grassland program must be put in practice.
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    Climate and Global Change
    Study on the primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in China
    GUO Yi-qiang, ZHENG Jing-yun, GE Quan-sheng
    2010, 29 (6):  1027-1036.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060008
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    Global change is an important scientific issue that concerns the survival and development of all human beings. According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, over 90% of the possibilities of global warming are attributed to greenhouse gases produced by human use of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide produced by energy consumption has great pushing effects on global climate change. The studies concerning energy consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide have become the academic focus in current energy environment studies, and they are necessary for the security of economic development and diplomatic negotiations of China. In order to promote the sustainable development of economy, energy and environment of China, the paper analyzes the domestic energy consumption and the present status and various emission scenarios of carbon dioxide emissions in China. Firstly, according to the consumption of primary energy in China, the paper summarizes the carbon dioxide emission factors and methods that are adapt to the situation of China. Secondly, it analyzes the primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions during the period 1995-2006 from different fossil fuels and in different regions. The primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions present a trend 'first decrease and later increase' from 1995 to 2006. The inflexion of the changes was 2000, the carbon dioxide emissions since 2001 are bigger than those before 2000. The total carbon dioxide emissions increased from 786.78 million tons carbon to 1 469.19 million tons carbon, and the per capita emissions increased from 0.62 tons carbon to 1.12 tons carbon from 1995 to 2006, with an annual rate of 5.84%. The structural difference in the primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions was relatively great, among which coal accounts for 79%~85%, oil, 14%~19%, and natural gas is 1.23%~1.96%. The seven regions and most of provinces (municipalities or autonomous regions) have a similar trend in the total China's carbon dioxide emissions. The average carbon dioxide emissions for North China and Northeast China are the highest among the seven regions of China. The annual amount of carbon dioxide emissions and the growing rates of Liaoning, Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Henan are much greater than those of the other provinces (municipalities or autonomous regions).

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    The construction of cold damage models of late rice for spatial analysis and zoning in Guangxi
    HE Yan, LI Zheng, ZHONG Shi-quan, XU Shi-hong, DING Mei-hua, OU Zhao-rong, TAN Zong-kun
    2010, 29 (6):  1037-1044.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060009
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    The climate in Guangxi is complex due to the environment in geographical location and terrains as well as the alternation of summer and winter monsoons. It resulted in frequent weather disasters such as cold damage. And the cold damage, especially the weather of cold dew wind, has been one of the main constraint factors for high yield rice in Guangxi. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out disaster division research into cold damage of the late rice in Guangxi by GIS. And this research is of practical significance to making science countermeasure of disaster prevention and mitigation, in promoting high and stable yield of foodstuff and in maintaining social harmony and stability. According to the relationship among late rice growth, the degree of injury and the intensity of cold damage, the grading indices of cold damage for late rice were analyzed and decided. Using the climatic data from 1961 to 2006 and geographical information data of 90 weather stations in Guangxi, space calculating models for the zoning index of cold damage are built by the regression method of mathematical statistics, supported by GIS technology and simulation analysis method of small grids models of climate resources, and the use of the basic Guangxi geographic data on a scale of 1:250000, calculation of small gridding and correction of error are operated for those zoning indexes. The actual distribution for the zoning index of cold damage is worked out on a small grid of l km×l km, which gives different values under different geographical conditions. Using the function of spatial analyses and multi-overlapping method of GIS, and according to the grading indices of cold damage, grid data of the zoning index are calculated in the climate zone by the method of scoring to sort out the kinds. Then the spatial distribution of cold damage for late rice in Guangxi was analyzed, which gave out the divisional result of cold damage: zero, light, moderate and serious degree, and the results of assessment for different cold damage regions were summarized. The map of climatic division of cold damage for late rice in Guangxi can be drawn by GIS, and it provides a scientific basis for optimal distribution of late rice planting in Guangxi, and for making use of advantage and avoiding disadvantage.

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    Reconstruction and comparative analysis of dry/wet series in last 500 years in Hubei Province
    XU Xin-chuang, GE Quan-sheng, ZHENG Jing-yun, LIU Cheng-wu
    2010, 29 (6):  1045-1055.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060010
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    The reconstruction of long series climate with annual resolution is an objective proposed by the IGBP-PAGES. Historical records on drought/flood are an important data source for reconstructing historical climate series. There are abundant and sequential drought/flood records in the Chinese historic documents. This research employed 6 regional drought/flood series within Hubei Province, which were derived from Collection of Historical Records on Climate in Hubei Province during Past 500 Years and covered a period from 1470 to 2000. By classification analysis of the 6 regional drought/flood series, they were classified into 3 categories which individually represented eastern, northern and southwestern regions of Hubei Province. After testing validity of the reconstructed series, we analyzed regional dry/wet variability, cycles and abrupt changes. The results showed that on multiple decades scale 1570~1770 and 1890~1950 were wet episodes and 1470~1520 and 1790~1830 were dry episodes in eastern region; 1470~1530, 1710~1750 and 1850~1910 were three wet episodes and 1470~1530 and 1770~1830 were two dry episodes in northern region; 1550~1610, 1650~1710, 1830~1890 and 1930~1990 were four wet episodes and there were no obvious dry episodes in southwestern region. The spectrum analysis and wavelet analysis illustrated that the dry/wet variations of each region were featured by several significant cycles spanning from 3~4 years to 250 years. Moreover, the three regions were commonly controlled by 50~70 years cycle. Running T-test illustrated that on centurial scale 2, 4 and 5 abrupt changes occurred individually in southwestern, northern and eastern regions while on 30-year scale 5, 4 and 7 abrupt changes occurred individually in southwestern, northern and eastern regions. The abrupt changes simultaneously occurring in three or any two regions had the same trends; the abrupt changes from dry to wet in 1822 occurred in all of the three regions.

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    Economy and Regional Development
    The quantitative analysis of large scale supermarkets location based on time accessibility and Gasa rules
    JIANG Hai-bing, XU Jian-gang, QI Yi, CHEN Jun-ting
    2010, 29 (6):  1056-1068.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060011
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    Recently most relative quantitative modeling studies on retail location, based on GIS technology, did not consider factors simultaneously including traffic network, traffic grade, store attraction and competition. Considering shortages mentioned above, this paper attempts to integrate these factors and make quantitative analysis of large scale shops based on accessibility method, Gasa laws and GIS technique. This study, taking the large scale supermarkets in Shanghai central city as an example, applies the concentric buffer method, sector analysis and nearest neighborhood analysis to explore the supermarket spatial features. Trip cost method is used to investigate quantitatively supermarket accessibility, then delimitating market area is simulated based on trip cost analysis and Gasa rules. The result indicates that the whole accessibility of large scale supermarkets in Shanghai central city is good, and the west is better than the east. Trade areas around the outer ring are greater. There is obvious polarization among Gasa shops' trade areas and size. The characteristics mentioned above show that areas with intense competition among supermarkets coexist with areas lack of supermarkets, and there are grade differences between supermarkets' market size and functions.This study can provide references for urban planners in the aspect of retail network arrangement. Managers can quickly understand the shop trade areas and provide consult for choosing shops location. Some tips for selection of retail locations can also be provided. Although our research suggests that we provide more effective methods toward trade area definition, several problems should be solved in future. Further studies should be done on demand, and purchase ability and residential trip habits from consumers shall be taken into consideration.

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    A case study on vocation space of permanent population and floating population in the context of social stratification
    LIN Geng, WANG Lian-jun
    2010, 29 (6):  1069-1082.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060012
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    Using the 5th census data with urban districts (counties, cities) as the basic geographic units, this paper analyzes the relationship between gender and vocation space based on research into 133 samples of 21 cities. Through an analysis of vocational composition and vocational typical areas of permanent population and floating population respectively, the authors come to some conclusions: (1) Permanent population has more diversified distribution in vocation space and is more organizational than floating population. None of them have produced an effect of social polarization, and the polarization of income and vocation distribution also does not create polarization of social space, but show a feature of quasi social polarization. (2) Vocation structure of both permanent population and floating population shows characteristics of middle-class and orientation to central city in space. High income groups who are trained with professional skill and highet education are dominating in both of them. Among permanent population, some are employed in agriculture and others in service industry. But the majority of floating people are employed in manufacturing sector. The difference between them does not show a strong contrast like core and periphery. Many studies compare permanent population with floating population in the context of itself and the others. Floating population is frequently regarded as the peripheral group. This paper provides a geographical annotation. But more subsequent research is needed to demonstrate whether the difference in vocation will cause structural social stratification between permanent population and floating population.

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    Study on urban resource competition mechanism based on dynamic mode
    XIAO Yang, MAO Xian-qiang
    2010, 29 (6):  1083-1091.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060013
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    Nowadays, with the faster and faster pace of regional/global economic integration, cooperation opportunities on all scales have appeared one by one, and the urban agglomerations have been a stronge driving force to promote the persistence and rapid economic development in China. On the other hand, vicious competition between cities poses a threat to the improvement of the integrated competition capability of urban agglomeration. The resource competition between cities is a complex non-linear dynamic process, whose outcome would be influenced by population flow, gaps between per capita income, eco-efficiency and games between governments. It could be found that the resource competition is involved by market force, policies and governmental actions. Based on dynamic modes, the non-linear relationship between urban development and its resource is discussed. And an urban resource competition mode, with a risk-eluded function, is established to simulate the evolution mechanism. The results show: (1) during the process of urban evolution, there is an obvious scale effect, because of which urban areas could develop fast earlier and be held in by resource limitation when the city is oversized; (2) urban resource competition is a very complex dynamic process, with the effect of market economy, governmental action and technological factor. The economy stratagem, population and technological factors would influence the competition result. It helps to construct a harmonious resource relationship in urban agglomeration.

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    Urban and Rural Studies
    The time allocation and spatio-temporal structure of the activities of migrants in 'village in city’: Surveys in five 'villages in city&rsquo|in Beijing
    LAN Zong-min, FENG Jian
    2010, 29 (6):  1092-1104.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060014
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    Since the 1900s, the research of human geography has changed from macro to micro perspective. Time-geography, which was born during the late 1960s, provides an effective tool for the micro-research. During the last several decades, the theory and research method of time-geography has been deeply developed. As an important part of time-geography, the research of spatio-temporal structure of daily activities has made great progress, with the trend of classified individual research. At the same time, as the special phenomenon during the development of the city, 'village in city’ has been paid more and more attention by the government, scholars and so on. Thus, the study on the migrant, which is the main body of population in 'village in city’, is significant for the transformation of 'village in city’. What is more, the study can also provide references for analyses of the spatio-temporal structure of daily activities from the classified individual research with questionnaire survey. Based on the questionnaire surveys in five 'villages in city’ in Beijing, the article analyzes the characteristics of time allocation and spatio-temporal structure of the activities of migrants in 'village in city’ through the individual perspective. The conclusion can be drawn as follows. First, work is the dominating activity on weekdays and has restrictive function on other activities, while recreation is the dominating activity on weekends. Thus, gender differences are significant in characteristics of time allocation. Second, many characteristics are consistent between men and women on the spatio-temporal structure of the activities of migrants in 'village in city’ on weekdays and weekends. Third, as to the time allocation of the activities of migrants in 'village in city’, most time is spent at home on weekends. Fourth, the people take most recreation activities in the evening and make a "busy hour". Fifth, as to the gender differences, men spend more time on recreation activities outside while women spend more time on housework, especially, men's trip distance is greater than women's. The conclusions can be useful for the policy making of 'villages in city’ and it can provide fundamental materials for the further study on urban spatio-temporal structure and urban planning through the analysis of the regularity of individual activities.
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    Port-city interface: Evolution and the spatial mechanism
    ZHUANG Pei-jun, WANG Yu-ming
    2010, 29 (6):  1105-1116.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060015
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    Port-city interface, an area interacted by the land for water-transportation-related activities and urban zones, is a coastal area representing the linkage of port land uses and urban land uses. As a projection of all social forces and technological development on a specific space, the evolution of port-city interface goes through a lifecycle of growth, mature and expansion, decline and abandon, and revitalization, showing different spatial linkage between port and city, respectively integration, mutual expansion, separation and reintegration. Spatially it migrates from inner urban core, to urban margin, and finally further away. This paper describes the evolution of port-city interface in Ningbo and aims to explain its spatial mechanism. Ports in different periods have developed port-city interfaces of various spatial forms. The ancient Jiangxia Wharves developed a complex tract of business and trade, and the port city Ningbo; while Jiangbei Terminal developed a complex district of western style business center and urban community, and the contemporary Zhenhai and Beilun terminals are developing complex zones of port-related coastal industries and logistic parks. The Ningbo case shows the mechanism of spatial evolution, that the technological revolution in maritime transportation and communication, and organization change for containerization and multi-modal transportation are the engines of its spatial migration, regional labor division in different socio-economic periods determines the industries and company agglomeration in port-city interface and the spatial patterns, the mechanism for revitalization is mostly from the urban renewal and political and economic demands, public care to environmental protection and legislation accelerate the separation of port and city, and institution reform is a critical condition. The case also shows that Ningbo is born to be a port city, with the expansion and migration of port and port-city interface, it is developing into a port metropolis. The results point to an eternal trend that the evolution of port-city interface is a basic element for the development of an active and growing port city, which calls creative policies and harmonious linkage between port and city, especially in the future regional development for environmentally and ecologically-friendly society.

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    Life course and housing tenure transition in urban China: A case study of Guangzhou
    LIU Wang-bao, YAN Xiao-pei
    2010, 29 (6):  1117-1128.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060016
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    Housing tenure choice is one of the main topics in urban geography, urban planning and sociology and longitudinal analysis has become the main methodology for housing micro studies in Western countries. As an important event in the life course of a household, housing tenure transition correlates closely to the change of household profile, institutional variables and local housing market variation as well. Using COX's proportional-hazards model, this study analyzed the factors which shape the transition of house tenure by taking into consideration housing tenure together with big events of individual life course. Results reveal that renters displayed the greatest desire to change tenure status, but for those who have already obtained the ownership, partial or full ownership as it may be, the desire to change tenure status fade intermediately. For the survival time, the longest are the spells that change to full ownership, the second longest are the spells that change to partial ownership, and the shortest are the spells that change to rent. The model shows that both household characteristics and institutional variables have strong influences on the housing tenure transitions. The decision of individuals on the shift of housing tenure from rent to own is not only related to major events in the life course but also affected by the relationship between households and work units (or governments). This phenomenon is believed to be the result of interaction between the double powers of planning economy and market economy in transitional urban China.

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    Culture and Tourism
    The effect of tourists' host-guest contact preference on perceived destination image and tourist satisfaction: A case of domestic tourists in Yangshuo, Guilin
    ZHANG Hong-mei, LU Lin
    2010, 29 (6):  1129-1140.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060017
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    The tourist-host contact is generally considered helpful for improving mutual understanding and respect, but empirical studies have not obtained convincing results. Some studies show that tourist-guest contact can lead to positive attitude change, but others do not, and some studies even show negative attitude change. Factors such as the short duration and superficial nature of the tourist-guest contact make it difficult to obtain good results. Previous studies of the tourist-guest contact effect mostly focus on international tourism, but few studies have been done about domestic tourism. This study investigates the effect of tourist-guest contact on perceived destination image and tourist satisfaction in domestic context-the case of Yangshuo, China. The constructs' measurement questionnaires are adapted from previous researches. The tourist-guest contact preference scale is adapted from Reisinger & Turner's study on cultural differences. The destination image scale is adapted from Baloglu & McCleary's study on destination image formation. The tourist satisfaction scale is adapted from Yoon et al.'s study on relationship among motivation, satisfaction and loyalty. The data from 292 domestic tourists visiting Yangshuo were collected during October and November 2008, and the response rate was 91.3%. In this study, a structural equation model is used for theoretical testing and development. First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test the applicability of tourist destination image and tourist-contact preference scales. Second, confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the total measurement model. Finally, structural model analysis is used to test the hypothesis. The results show that tourist-guest contact preference has a direct significant effect on perceived destination image, perceived destination image has a direct significant effect on tourist satisfaction, but tourist-guest contact preference has no direct significant effect on tourist satisfaction. Specifically, tourist-guest contact preference is comprised of two dimensions: close contact and moderate contact. Close contact has a positive direct significant effect on cognitive image, and has a negative effect on affective image though it is insignificant at 0.05 level. Close contact has an indirect effect on satisfaction through the mediate variable of destination image, cognitive and affective images have direct significant effects on satisfaction, cognitive image has an indirect effect on satisfaction via affective image. The theoretical and managerial significance of these findings is discussed in the final section.
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    Roles and functions of provincial destinations in Chinese inbound tourist flow network
    LIU Fa-jian, ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Jin-he, CHEN Dong-dong
    2010, 29 (6):  1141-1152.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010060018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (586KB) ( )   Save

    The roles and functions of tourism destination are not only determined by the discrepancy of its tourism statistical indicators, but depended on the tourist flows relations among relative destinations as well, and the interactive relationship is vital to all of destinations. By constructing Chinese inbound tourist flow network, this article firstly classifies, compares, and positions the roles and functions of provincial destinations by structural equivalence model which is from the theory of Social Network Analysis. Then it analyzes those functions by the centralization analysis indicators quantitatively. Finally, this article tries to find out which factors and how those factors affect the function models. It is suggested that 31 provincial destinations in China could be divided into four role types, namely, national tourist center, regional tourist hub, common destination and marginal destination. Although there are many differences among every single destination, the same role type has the same centralization indicator characters. Furthermore, the roles and functions in Chinese inbound tourist flow network are largely subject to regional economic development level, tourist facilities, external contact strength etc. Meanwhile the tourism resources and internal traffic convenience have less influence. In brief, by analyzing the structural character of Chinese inbound tourist flow network and positioning the roles and functions of provincial destinations, this article provides some references for guiding the Chinese inbound tourism in every province into coordination and harmony.

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