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Table of Content

    20 April 2010, Volume 29 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Progress in Geography
    Studies on land types: Academic significance, function and prospect
    SHEN Yuan-cun
    2010, 29 (4):  575-583.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (433KB) ( )   Save

    Land type, as a basic research object of integrated physical geography, reflects the law of small-scale differentiation and integrated features of the overall environment. It is important to define the direction of land type of academic significance, function and future development of academic disciplines for the development of typology of land and its application functions. Firstly, the paper summed up the academic significance and function of land type. Land type is a basic subject for the bottom-up integrated natural divisions, establishment of regional land-structure, ecological research and ecological building design, agriculture restructuring including forestry, animal husbandry, as well as disaster prevention and mitigation. Secondly, based on the current situation and problems of land types in domestic and foreign research, the paper discussed the key academic problems that we need to solve, including the basic land type classification hierarchy, indicator system at all levels, connection of remote sensing data with multi-indicator system with classification of computer graphics technology. Thirdly, the paper suggests that the following are important for the land type studies, i.e., the combination of remote sensing, computer and field studies, the establishment of the basic land type classification system and a type of indicators at all levels, as well as the classification of multivariate data index system based on case studies with the aid of remote sensing and computer mapping.

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    The foundation and theoretical development of integrated physical geography of China
    YUE Da-peng, LIU Yin-han
    2010, 29 (4):  584-596.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (363KB) ( )   Save

    After reviewing the forming and development of Integrated Physical Geography since the founding of People's Republic of China in 1949, this paper obtained some cognition results as follows. Since 1950, the IPG of China has been formed and developed gradually by continuous practice and theoretical summarization of some geographers with several generations. Relative to overseas researches, China's IPG has made some progress and relevant theoretical development in the research aspects such as gradation, structure, succession, series-mapping of land system, natural regionalization, division of natural belts, and down-up combination of small natural area etc. In the future, modern IPG should carry on studies of integrated geographical regionalization by systematic integration of every factor such as natural, human, ecological and economic conditions in the field of physical region system research, in order to promote the theoretic and practical values of regionalization. In the field of land system, the studies of structure and evolvement should be developed. Also the studies of features, driving power and ecological effects of land use/land cover should be emphasized by combination of scale, structure and process. In the research field of physical geographical process, unfolding integrated study of physical, chemical and biological processes in soil-plant-atmosphere continuous system is the main trend.

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    Environment and Ecology
    Benefits and standards of ecological compensation: International experiences and revelations for China
    ZHAO Cui-wei, WANG Shi-jie
    2010, 29 (4):  597-606.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040003
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    With environment pressures growing significantly, Payments for Environmental Services(PES) have attracted increasing interest as an innovative mechanism to resolve environmental problems. How to enhance the benefits of compensation is its key issue. By reviewing the main issues in PES design and implementation at home and abroad in recent years, we found that(1)both prioritizing sites to be compensated and setting subsidy standards reasonably are very important for enhancing the benefit of compensation;(2)logic standard of payments for environmental services is between opportunity cost and ecosystem services value. But the results of valuation on ecosystem services vary with methods. So opportunity-cost method is the way widely used to determine ecological compensation standard. Opportunity cost depends on natural and socio-economic conditions and changes among areas. By synthesizing the information presented, we make a comparison in respect of choosing compensation regions, setting compensation standards, and environmental effectiveness at home and abroad. It was shown that less attention was paid to regional differences in China so that sometimes subsidies were insufficient to cover the real costs on environment protection of peasant household. Two problems emerged, that is, subsidies were lower than costs of providing eco-service, and regions with smaller deforestation risk were compensated. Both can lead to low efficiency of distribution compensation funds. In foreign countries, a payment scheme that took variation in land conditions into account, which had better effects on ecological compensation benefits and on encouraging behavior of protecting environment. Finally, according to the existing problems in China and taking international examples, a framework to set a reasonable standard of ecological compensation was proposed.

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    Mangrove and the construction of regional ecological security pattern in Zhanjiang
    ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Yi-feng, ZHANG Hong-ye, HAN Wei-dong, YANG Lin-sheng, JIA Da-meng, SUN Rui-feng
    2010, 29 (4):  607-616.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040004
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    Mangrove is a unique forestry community that exists in the coastal areas of tropics and subtropics. It plays a vital role in some aspects, such as seawater purification, marine calamity reduction, biodiversity maintenance, ecological security protection, and so on. However, due to its lower direct economic values, and its habitats with frequent human activities, mangrove wetland has become ecologically vulnerable in coastal zones. This paper, taking Zhanjiang as an example, conducted investigations and analyses, and pointed out the problems that exist in the protection of mangrove wetland. The reasons are summarized as follows: (1) We are unaware of the strategic importance of mangrove in regional ecological security pattern. (2) Mangrove suffered certain negative impacts from the development of local socio-economy. (3) The resource exploitation of mangrove has lagged behind. Aiming at solving those problems, firstly, this paper focuses on the strategic status of mangrove in two aspects: ocean-land integration, and coastal development; then proposed some suggestions to Zhanjiang: (1) to reconstruct the regional ecological security pattern with mangrove as a kernel; (2) to reconstruct the mangrove ecosystem; (3) to intensify the ecological restoration of mangrove in coastal areas; (4) to promote the development of mangrove eco-tourism.

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    Soil animals and their responses to soil heavy metal pollution in sewage irrigated farmland: A case study of the sewage irrigated area of Huafei River, Kaifeng City
    DU Xi-le, MA Jian-hua, LU Chang-he, LI Wen-jun
    2010, 29 (4):  617-628.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040005
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    The sewage irrigated area of Huafei River is located in the eastern suburbs of Kaifeng City, Henan Province. Soil animals were collected twice in spring and autumn of 2007. Soil macrofauna were collected by hand-sorting method, small and medium-sized soil animals were collected by Tullgren funnel method and humidogene soil animals were collected by Baermann funnel method. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in spring of 2007, and five heavy metals ( Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni ) and main soil properties ( pH, organic matter content and texture ) were analyzed using the corresponding national standard methods. According to heavy metal pollution, soils in the sewage irrigation area were divided into three types of different pollution levels. Further, soil animal distributions, soil animal group characteristics, and their responses to soil pollution were analyzed by use of ecological analysis and statistical analysis methods. The research results showed that: (1)Throughout the sewage irrigated area, Nemata and Isotomidae were dominant groups. The number of soil animals in spring was 3158 heads, much more than 1963 heads in autumn, and the number of groups performed similarly, with 74 species in spring and 57 species in autumn.(2)However, in soils of three different pollution levels the group number of spring was less than that of autumn. Similarity coefficients of groups between sampling sites were higher in spring than that in autumn. (3)Heavy metal pollution had a great influence on the horizontal distribution of soil animals, which resulted in a significant difference of soil animal quantities between polluted soil and control soil. The more serious the pollution was, the lower the surface aggregation of soil animals was. (4)The heavy metals pollution resulted in a decline of the density-group index, which was bigger in autumn than in spring. (5) The responses of the soil animals to heavy metals pollution showed that: the individual number was more sensitive than the group number, the horizontal distribution was more significant than the vertical distribution, and their responses were more obvious in spring than in autumn.

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    Water chemistry and nitrate pollution in the Liangtan River basin in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    LIU Xiang-chao, ZU Bo, SONG Xian-fang, XIA Jun, TANG Chang-yuan, ZHANG Yi-zhang
    2010, 29 (4):  629-639.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040006
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    By using the water chemistry and water quality analysis technology, the water chemistry components and nitrate nitrogen concentrations of surface water bodies and groundwater bodies in the Liangtan River basin in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were measured to reveal the spatial distribution rules, sources and circulation processes of the water chemistry components and nitrate pollution in the water bodies in the study basin. The results show that: a tendency of becoming severe for the nitrate pollution in the surface water bodies exists in the Liangtan River basin from the headstream to the downstream along the surface water flow paths, and this tendency presents the direct relationship with the direct discharge of waste and polluted water from the breed aquatics, housing and farming industry along the surface water flow paths. A spatial distribution of nitrate nitrogen pollution of groundwater displays a lighter pollution level for the headstream and downstream reaches area in the basin, while a heavier pollution level for the eastern branch in the middle reaches area. There is a close relationship between the spatial distribution of nitrate nitrogen pollution and the factors such as the ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen concentrations of the surface water bodies, the recharge and discharge interrelationship between the surface water and groundwater bodies, the existence of thick unsaturated zone and land use condition. The analysis shows that application of livestock manure and widespread use of nitrogen fertilizers are potential sources of nitrate contamination. Generally, the ground water bodies in the agricultural watersheds are polluted by long-term trend of nitrate contamination, which coincides with higher mineralized water due to agricultural-related land use practices. In a basin where severe human activities are dominant, the evolvement tendency of the ground water nitrate may disobey the rule that ground water nitrate concentrations decrease substantially along the groundwater flow paths. As for the Liangtan River basin, along the groundwater flow paths, there is a sharp increase in the groundwater nitrate concentrations from the headwater area to the area between the upper and middle reaches of the river, while a sharp decrease appears in the area between the upper-middle reaches and the middle-lower reaches of the river.

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    Climate and Global Change
    Spatial-temporal changes of temperature in Anhui Province during 1970~2008
    ZHA Liang-song, CHEN Xiao-hong, JI Zhong-hui, ZHAO Ping, PENG Yang, WANG Ying-ying
    2010, 29 (4):  640-654.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040007
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    The average temperature, extreme maximum and minimum temperature in Anhui Province during 1970-2008 are interpolated according to Co-kriging in this paper. The results are as follows. Firstly, the average temperature is 15.7℃, and the southern part of the province and the zones along the Yangtze River are the high temperature regions where the temperature is higher than 16℃; Secondly, the average daily extreme maximum temperature (DETmax) is 37.5℃, higher in the southern and northern parts but lower in the middle part, and even sometimes the average DETmax in the south is lower than that in the north. Thirdly, the average daily extreme minimum temperature (DETmin) is about -8.3℃. It is below -9.4℃ to the north of Huaihe River, and above -7.0℃ in the areas along the Yangtze River. The centers of the maximum temperature are Wangjiang, Susong, Huaining and Dongzhi where the temperature is above -6.9℃. Therefore, the distribution of average DETmax is inconsistent with that of the average temperature, while the distribution of average DETmin is consistent with that of the average temperature. The former shows that the spatial-temporal pattern of the DETmax is unstable, while the latter shows that the spatial-temporal pattern of the DETmin is stable. It is found that the inter-decadal variation of the DETmin is low in the 1970s and 1990s and high in the 1980s and the first ten years of the 21st century (hereafter 2000s). The annual average temperature and DETmax rose in the 1970s, 1990s and 2000s, and fell in the 1980s. It is worth noting that the increase of average temperature in the 2000s is 0.1℃ lower than that in the 1990s. The cities along the Yangtze River, such as Wuhu, Anqing and Ma'anshan, have made great contributions to temperature increase. The annual average temperature in the 2000s is 0.8℃ higher than that in the 1990s. The DETmin in the 2000s is 1.13℃ higher than that in the 1990s. The annual average temperature in the 1990s is 0.7℃ higher than that in the 1980s. The DETmax in the 1990s is 0.25℃higher than that in the 1980s. The increase in cities along the Yangtze River exceeds twice in comparison to the Dabieshan mountainous area. Therefore, the temperature variation can be slowed down if urban construction is reasonably programmed, the forest cover rate is raised and the environment is protected.

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    Urban flash-flood risk assessment: A case study inWenshan City, Yunnan
    ZHU Jing
    2010, 29 (4):  655-664.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040008
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    For the vulnerability reduction of mountainous cities affected by flood hazards, flash-flood risk assessment is very important for flood disaster mitigation measures. This paper explores a quick, simple and accurate GIS and RS based method for flash-flood risk assessment. With the flood for 20 return period occurring on July 26th, 1998 as a case, the study shows that through the inundation analysis carried out by combining DEM and actually observed floodwater level and maximum discharge runoff, the possibly inundated area can be accurately simulated and water depth distribution can be calculated within inundated area. Based on water depth index, flood hazard zonation was finished by using the GIS tool. This paper conducted cost calculation based on information of inundated ground objects acquired from remotely sensed image of high spatial resolution so as to provide the reliable and accurate data source for vulnerability analysis and flood expected damage estimation. According to the sampling survey for the property loss of the typical zones within the inundated area in 1998, this study established the relationship between different flooded object types and floodwater depth, and defined flood damage ratio on this basis. The adopted new methodology, namely the integration with the function of GIS spatial data processing and analysis greatly simplified the complex damage estimation and improved its accuracy. Flash-flood risk assessment can be completed by dividing the expected degree of loss due to potentially damaging phenomena. The study results show that the GIS and RS based method performs well in flash-flood risk assessment, thus it can be widely used for other inundated areas.

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    Flood risk assessment of coastal community: A case study in Longwan District of Wenzhou City
    ZHAO Qing-liang, WANG Jun, XU Shi-yuan, CHEN Zhen-lou, LIU Yao-long, XIE Cui-na, HU Ying-jie
    2010, 29 (4):  665-674.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040009
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    Coastal cities are not only regions with frequent natural disasters, but also important regions and strategic centers with high population density and highly-developed economy. Owing to the global warming, sea-level rising, and the interaction of land and ocean, the vulnerability and the natural disasters risk level of the coastal cities have remarkably increased, and the losses caused by natural disasters are enormous. Therefore, the research on the natural disaster risk of the coastal cities has become a focus owing to the importance and the high risk of the coastal cities exposure to natural disasters. Longwan District of Wenzhou City has seriously affected by flood disaster resulted from rainstorm of typhoon and storm surge. Beach aquaculture and fishery in Longwan District are well developed, but the annual typhoon flood season often results in casualties and great economic losses. Flood risk assessment and regionalization research in this region is not only able to make up inadequate studies on flood risk in mountainous and hilly cities, but also able to enrich and develop the theories and methodologies of urban flood risk management. Scenario-based studies on rainstorm flood risk assessment are especially carried out on the basis of mountainous and hilly regions in mediumand small watersheds down streams and flooding scenarios at different return periods in Longwan District, Wenzhou. By calculating the frequency of precipitation of heavy rain in Longwan District of Wenzhou City, the different precipitation and flow depths of different return periods were obtained. With the aid of self-compiled GIS program and flood scenario simulation on the basis of "precipitation volumetric method", and taking consideration of natural factors such as surface runoff, topographic relief and infiltration, this article simulates flood surface level at different return periods, calculates respective flooding areas corresponded to different submerge depths range, and evaluates rainstorm flood risk in Longwan District in terms of flood submerge depths. The paper simulates typical flooding scenario caused by history-recorded typhoon rainstorms and evaluates the risk with the data observed when typhoon "Haitang" occurred in Longwan District in 2005.

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    Urban and Rural Studies
    A study on office activities cluster in Beijing city
    ZHANG Jing-qiu, JIA Lei, MENG Bin
    2010, 29 (4):  675-682.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040010
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    Office space agglomeration problem is one of the main topics in urban geography research. Office cluster, as an important form of industry cluster, reflects a characteristic of new economic growth space after urban economies transformation. Furthermore, there is an inevitable outcome of urban development to top-ranked level. On the basis of the locations of 976 office buildings in Beijing city including Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area (Yizhuang), this paper uses the kernel method firstly to analyze the respective concentrative degree of the spatial distribution of urban office activities. Then, with the aid of Crimestat software, it distinguishes different order clusters, investigates the present situation of office cluster, and demonstrates its distributional features and the formation causes. The results show that there are obvious office clusters in Beijing city, and three features are identified. The first is that there is remarkable difference between south and north with the Chang'an Avenue as the divide. The first order clusters are mostly situated in the north, and there is also difference between east and west separated by the traditional central axis, in particular they tend to be concentrated east of the axis, presenting a dispersal pattern on the whole with partial concentration. The second is that the first order clusters come along with transportation lines and the direction of long axis parallel lines. The third is that nearly 3/4 of office clusters are concentrated in urban functional expanding area, consisting of four districts in outer city, and that only 1/4 of office clusters are concentrated in inner city, which is different from office activities agglomeration in inner city in the western metropolises. The reasons can be summarized as follows. First, economic function division has promoted the formation of office clusters. Second, the boundaries of administration districts have become the natural obstacles to the expansion of office space. Third, the distribution of office clusters has been greatly affected by urban function. So, CBD, financial street, Zhongguancun and Shangdi are the representative office clusters in Beijing city.

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    Tempo-spatial analysis of the residential land’s spatial pattern in Beijing
    WU Wen-jie, ZHANG Wen-zhong, LIU Zhi-lin, HUANG Xing-wen
    2010, 29 (4):  683-692.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040011
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    Since the 1980s Chinese cities have experienced dramatic transformation of its land use system from free allocation toward a leasehold system. Recent literature has drawn attention to spatial features of land market in transitional Chinese cities, in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless, research on this issue haven been limited by the lack of systematic data-especially spatial data-on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. Based on about 2600 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2006 and Beijing Digital City integrated data, this paper is processing general evaluation and actual description of the tempo-spatial characteristics of the residential lands' expansion since China launched the market-oriented land-leasing policy in 1992. The authors choose the spatial analysis methods with the aid of GIS, to evaluate the spatial pattern in the downtown area of Beijing. Generally speaking, the residential land market has a "Classic Concentric" overall pattern and an obvious spatial differentiation structure over time. In particular, we studied some major residential districts of Beijing including CBD, Zhongguancun, and Olympic-Park district etc. Based on the analysis, we found that: (1) The residential land-leasing market of Beijing showed a growing trend from 1992 to 2006, with the expansion of the residential lands' number, size, and the flat tendency of residential land price; (2) Residential land price showed a "North high-South low" spatial pattern, and residential land number and size showed an "East high-West low" spatial distribution structure; (3) The high residential land price sections extended from city center to the outside from 1992 to 2006 gradually; (4) The Tianqiao and CBD districts have become the highest residential land price sections of the North-South axis and the East-West axis, respectively. And the residential land price is relatively high in some districts with better locations. We believe our research would enrich the existing knowledge of the emerging urban land market in transitional China, and provide information for further land and housing policy making.

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    On the hampers of redevelopment of 'Transitional Community&rsquo|under the high-speed urbanization in China: Cases in Guangzhou and Shenzhen
    LIU Xuan
    2010, 29 (4):  693-702.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040012
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    Facing the huge gaps between the urban villages and urban area around them in land use efficiency, landscape, social life and planning control, local developmental states initiate institutional transition—land ownership is changed from collective owned to state owned land, villagers are admitted as citizens and collectives are reorganized as companies to manage their assets. 'Transitional Communities’ thus emerged. Simultaneously, redevelopment of the physical environment of transitional communities is launched. This research aims at identifying the existing problems of land use in transitional communities, and analyzing the hampers for redevelopment. It has been revealed that institutional transition has not eliminated the hampers for redevelopment but aggravated them. This conclusion is based on three facts as follows: 1. land ownership of new 'state-owned land' is incomplete, and could not promote land users to redevelop; 2. legal and illegal land is interwoven, increasing the cost for land assembly and redevelopment; 3. cost and revenue for land use in 'transitional communities' are disequilibrium for different land users, causing the low proportion of public facility provision by the collectives, the high density development of villager houses and low quality of factories and workshops. According to this, the research suggests that, 1. local governments should provide public facilities in which collectives could hardly burden and reclaim the cost by introducing public facility tax, etc.; 2. the governments should punish the former urban villagers for illegal housing development to avoid overuse of the land; 3. complete property rights should be offered to land in 'transitional community' to increase the value of the land and crease incentive for higher and better development; 4. redevelopment area could cover not only previously collective owned land but also some state owned land to make overall plans and take all factors into consideration for redevelopment.

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    Poverty profiles and poverty determinants of different social groups in Nanjing
    HE Shen-jing, LIU Yu-ting, WU Fu-long
    2010, 29 (4):  703-715.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040013
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    Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in Nanjing in 2005, this study aims to provide a better understanding of poverty incidence in a contemporary Chinese city and poverty concentration in different social groups, and also profiles poverty groups. Covering not only urban working residents, but also urban unemployed/laid-off residents and rural migrants, this study reveals a more realistic poverty incidence than the official figure would suggest. To understand poverty concentration in different social groups, a total of 1370 cases are categorized into urban households without unemployed, urban households with unemployed, and rural migrants. Two types of poverty measures, poverty line and the sense of deprivation, are compared across different social groups to show different patterns of poverty concentration, in particular the variation in three types of households. To capture an initial portrait of the urban poor, the Nanjing study focuses on the most essential elements of their daily lives, i.e. demographic characteristics, access to social entitlements, housing conditions, neighbourhood interactions and social networks. Urban households with unemployed have a similar poverty incidence to rural migrants; and the latter suffer a series of interrelated disadvantages. There are distinct groups of urban poor, each being affected by a particular set of impoverishing factors. Poor urban-registered households are typically characterised by unfavourable personal or household characteristics, such as a large number of dependent household members and prior employment in a state owned enterprise. The impoverishment of rural migrants is largely connected with institutional discrimination such as lack of rights to social security benefits and unfavourable employment opportunities, rural migrants remain as outsiders of the urban society in terms of both living conditions and social welfare provision on the other.

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    Economy and Regional Development
    The changing layer structure of manufacturing in Beijing and its factor decomposition: Based on the National Census of Basic Units
    LIU Tao, CAO Guang-zhong
    2010, 29 (4):  716-726.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040014
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    Based on the National Census of Basic Units and an analysis of 161 postal districts in Beijing, this paper studies Beijing's layer structure of manufacturing between 1996 and 2001 and its driving forces.By taking density mutation and total quantity change of manufacturing employment as the criteria, Beijing can be divided into three layers: the central urban area with manufacturing decline has extended to the Fourth Ring Road; the suburban active region of both newly-built and relocated enterprises has rapidly extended to most of the plain areas; manufacturing growth in the mountainous outer suburban counties is still slow.The factor decomposition shows that the evolution of manufacturing layer structure is driven by electric and electronic industries, metal and non-metallic products industries, private enterprises and large and medium-sized enterprises. The adjustment of scale and industrial structure also plays a certain role. We also find the trend of intra-layer diversification and equalization of industries and inter-layer convergence of industrial structure. The middle layer to which the intensification of land use is of paramount importance will maintain its manufacturing superiority in a long period. Urban industries are recommended in the central urban area and ecological conservation should be the premise of outer suburbanization.

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    Spatial analysis of urban-rural association to the major grain-producing areas of central Jilin Province
    CHENG Ye-qing, DENG Ji-xiang, FANG Yan-gang
    2010, 29 (4):  727-736.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040015
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    The central Jilin Province is one of the most important old industrial bases and major grain-producing areas in China, where the urban-rural development has its typical regional background and uniqueness. It is great practical significant and referenced value to promote the coordinated development of urban-rural system and to establish new urban-rural pattern by discussing the associativity and its regional difference of urban-rural areas. Based on statistical data and surveys of 24 spatial units, by the method of BP neural network, ESDA and GIS, the urban-rural association degrees in the major grain-producing areas of central Jilin Province were evaluated quantitatively, and the spatial relationship and regional difference were also analysed in this paper. The results are shown as follows. First, Moran's I of urban-rural association is -0.1205, which means the regional urban-rural association presents a weaker diffused trend; and the unbalanced development of economy, society and infrastructure is the key factor restricting the harmonious development of urban-rural relationship. Second, the spatial difference of urban-rural development is obvious, and the associativity of prefecture-level municipal districts are significantly superior to county-level cities, and the relationships of economy, society and infrastructure are demonstrated respectively in the spatial structure of "spheres", "cross-type" and "massive". Third, the urban-rural association takes on a weaker accumulated trend as a whole, and lower discrepant regions are mainly distributed along the Harbin-Dalian railway line, but higher discrepant regions are mainly distributed in the low mountains and hills of southeastern regions and the five prefecture-level municipal districts. Moreover, the associativity of economy, society and infrastructure are demonstrating respectively the trend of weaker diffusion, stronger proliferation and stronger diffusion.

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    Culture and Tourism
    The overall changes and regional differences of Chinese inbound tourists\' tourism consumption:1996~2005
    XI Jian-chao, GAN Meng-yu, WU Pu, GE Quan-sheng
    2010, 29 (4):  737-747.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040016
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    Inbound tourism is an important channel for one country (or region) to earn foreign exchange and to solve the employment. The number of inbound tourists and foreign exchange earnings is a main indicator of the country's (region's) tourism development level, while the inbound tourists' tourism consumption level and consumption structure is an important basis to reflect the quality of inbound tourism consumption. This paper takes the cross-section data of inbound tourists' tourism consumption from 1996 to 2005,constructs a series of the characterization indexes and takes an empirical analysis on the changes and the regional differences of the inbound tourists' tourism consumption. The result shows that in the past 10 years, per capita consumption level of inbound tourism has significantly increased, but the consumption is still lagging behind. Chinese inbound tourism consumption structure in "The Ninth 5-year Plan" has more changes,while after "The Tenth 5-year Plan" it goes stable and rational. From the regional differences of per capita consumption, compared with the regional tourism foreign exchange earnings, in the consumption structure of inbound tourists,all kinds of expenditures have shown a steady state, with uneven levels decreased over time. But compared to the level of foreign exchange earnings of tourism, the areas of hosting the more foreign tourists are low in the level of per capita consumption, where the growth of inbound tourists was more dependent on the overall expansion. So,the research conclusion has an important realistic significance to the development of the regional inbound tourism. The research shows that Chinese inbound tourism is still in a large-scale expansion phase. Owing to the effects of consumer inertia, the future increase in tourism consumption level and consumption structure optimization is still faced with many difficult tasks. Therefore, the shaping and improvement of tourism consumption systems and security system will create a relaxed environment for tourism consumption and the optimal adjustment of the tourism products' supply structure will promote the quality of tourism consumption,which will achieve the level of inbound tourism consumption and the simultaneous development of inbound tourism,and achieve inbound tourism development from quantity expansion to quality and efficiency.

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    Assessing tourism landscape health: A case study of Nanjing Jiangxinzhou
    LIU Jia-xue, SHA Run, ZHOU Nian-xing
    2010, 29 (4):  748-756.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040017
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    Healthy tourism landscape provides fundamental basis for the realization of tourism sustainable development. Assessment of tourism landscape health will be of great significance to identify potential crisis, strategy and decision making for tourism destination management. Based on the summary and analysis of landscape health theory and tourism landscape characteristics, integrated assessment indexes system was established according to the pressure-state-response model. The results of tourism landscape health assessment were classified into five categories through entropy weight-grey relation-fuzzy method. This paper, taking Nanjing Jiangxizhou as a case study, assessed tourism landscape health of 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2007. Results shows that the tourism landscape comprehensive health index decreased during the period of intensive opening up from 2001 to 2002, then the rate of decline slowed down after 2002, and began to increase after 2005, but kept a level of semi-health, hence the relationship between tourism activity and environment still needs to be adjusted. Although the tendency of state index of tourism landscape health exhibited short decreasing and then slightly uprising, under the disturbance of intense tourism activity and environmental pollution, even facing the risk of disappearing. Unreasonable infrastructure land use, agricultural pollution, deforestation and fragmentation contribute more to tourism landscape health change, which should be given more attention.

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    Micro-analysis of regional differentiation of folk beliefs: The measure and comparison of gods' niche breadth of Quanzhou three villages
    ZHENG Heng-mi, CHEN Wen-long
    2010, 29 (4):  757-766.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010040018
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    With regards to the regional differentiation of folk beliefs, most of previous researches focus on the large scale regions in which there are clear differences in dialects. Within the small scale regions which belong to villages in the same town and have no difference in dialects, people still have different gods. In this paper, niche theory and niche breadth measure model are used in the micro-analysis of folk belief differentiation in three different villages in Quanzhou Donghai Town, which are Xunpu, Baoshan and Fashi. The results show that in such small scale regions with no difference in dialects, the most important factor which influences gods' niche breadth is the correlation between gods' functions and the industries in the regions. In the region, the gods' influence, distribution and function changes are all dominated by the law. The Gods' regional differentiation due to the gods' niche breadth correlates with the differentiation of regional industries. Differentiation of regional industries is formed by geographical conditions. Therefore, the regional differentiation of the gods with specific functions is closely related with the natural geographic environment. Agricultural Gods dominate agricultural regions while gods who bless the safety of seafaring dominate regions with industries regards to marine transport and fisheries. In the transitional zone, two types of gods' niche overlap and change with competition. In small scale regions, gods with universal functions have smaller niche breadth than those with functions which are highly related with regional economy. But in large scale regions, gods with universal functions have larger niche breadth than others. In the same region, god's niche breadth changes with changes of god's functions' and regional industries. The same gods in different regions have different niche breadths according to their functions and main regional industries. The results of folk gods' niche breaths which are calculated with niche breadth model accord with the influence and distribution of gods in three villages which confirms the feasibility of applying niche theory to the regional researches of folk beliefs.

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