地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (10): 2388-2401.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171111

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国土空间规划的土地利用分类方案研究

徐勇1,2,3,赵燊1,2,3,段健1,2,3()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-23 修回日期:2018-03-21 出版日期:2019-10-20 发布日期:2019-10-30
  • 通讯作者: 段健
  • 作者简介:徐勇(1964- ),男,陕西榆林人,博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事土地利用与人地关系机理模拟、农业与乡村发展、资源环境承载能力评价等方面的研究。E-mail:uy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630644);中国科学院科技服务网络计划项目(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-021)

Studies on the land use classification scheme for territory spatial planning

XU Yong1,2,3,ZHAO Shen1,2,3,DUAN Jian1,2,3()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2017-11-23 Revised:2018-03-21 Online:2019-10-20 Published:2019-10-30
  • Contact: DUAN Jian

摘要:

“统一用地分类,系统整合土地利用现状分类、城市用地分类,形成空间规划用地分类标准”是新时期国家推进空间规划和统一规划基础的重要任务之一。在梳理总结国内外土地利用分类体系演化特点和解析中国现行土地利用分类体系存在问题的基础上,结合空间规划和不同部门对用地分类的要求,通过历史继承、部门融合和综合集成,提出既希望服务空间规划、又能满足部门行业需求的基础性土地利用分类方案。研究表明:20世纪20年代以来国内外土地利用分类体系的演化进程大致以1960年和1985年为界分为前、中、后三个不同时期;中国现行的土地利用/覆被分类体系在分类方法、分类主体、分类层级、类型构成、类型命名以及适用的数据采集方式和精度等方面存在着巨大差异,不同体系的成果数据相互之间缺乏可比性;研究建立的空间规划土地利用分类方案由7个一级类型、27个二级类型、79个三级类型构成,与中国现行的分类体系相比,该分类除了在林地三级类型、建设用地部分三级类型吸纳了现行林地分类体系和城市用地分类体系中的合理成分外,对耕地的三级类型、园地的三级类型、草地的二级和三级类型、水域的二级类型等做了重大改进和调整。

关键词: 土地利用, 土地覆被, 分类方案, 国土空间规划

Abstract:

"Standardizing the land use classification, integrating land use and urban land use classification systematically, and establishing the land use classification for spatial planning" is an important task for promoting spatial planning and unifying the basis of planning in China for the new era. This paper firstly studied the evolution of land use classification system at home and abroad, examined the problems in the current land use classification systems in China, and proposed a systematic integration of land use classification system scheme which could support the spatial planning and also meet the demand of different industrial sectors by inheriting the reasonable elements of the current land use classification systems and integrating land use classification systems in different sectors. In the past 90 years, the evolution process of land use classification systems at home and abroad can be roughly divided into three periods by taking 1960 and 1985 as the boundaries. Before 1960, these systems were usually conducted by scholars, the land categories were simple and only suitable for the on-site inspection in small-scale regional studies. Between 1960 and 1985, they were dominated by the government, there were more land categories organized hierarchically, and the data were collected by aerial remote sensing and plot investigation methods. From 1985 till now, the classifications of subjects show a trend of diversification, and there are different levels of complexity in classification levels and types formulated by the governments, international organizations and scholars in different fields. Besides, data acquisition is mainly achieved by remote sensing image interpretation and ground sample collection. The review shows that the existing demestic land use classification systems were incompatible in conductors, codes, names, types and structures, methods, data collection technique and the precision of the data. For example, the all-coverage systems have many defects in terms of systematicness and structures, while the region-coverage systems are lack of linkage with all-coverage systems, even within the same classification system there are some inhomogeneous categories such as "countryside homestead" and "public garden". The incompatibility among the current classification systems makes it inconvenient to share data and wastes a huge amount of resources. Therefore, we established a land use classification system for spatial planning, which was organized by three hierarchies: 7 categories at the top level, 27 categories in the middle and 79 categories in the bottom. Based on the current land use classification, the urban land use classification and the forest land classification system, we made much revision and adjustment on development land types, cultivated land types, garden plots types, forest land types, grassland types and water area types.

Key words: land use, land cover, classification scheme, territory spatial planning