地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 2027-2043.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180441

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

武陵山片区城镇化的农户生计响应及影响因素研究——基于3个典型乡镇355户农户调查数据的分析

丁建军,金宁波,贾武,易肖肖,王永明   

  1. 吉首大学商学院,武陵山片区扶贫与发展协同创新中心,吉首 416000
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-06 修回日期:2018-07-25 出版日期:2019-08-20 发布日期:2019-08-20
  • 作者简介:丁建军(1980- ),男,湖南衡东人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为区域贫困与发展。 E-mail: latt514@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761022);国家自然科学基金项目(41761023);国家自然科学基金项目(41761029);湖南省社会科学基金重点项目(18ZDB031);湖南省武陵山片区区域发展研究中心重点项目(17JDZB054);湖南省武陵山片区扶贫与发展协同创新中心一般项目(17JDZB079)

The livelihood response of rural households to urbanization and its influencing factors in Wuling Mountain area: With the survey data of 355 households in three typical towns

DING Jianjun,JIN Ningbo,JIA Wu,YI Xiaoxiao,WANG Yongming   

  1. Business School of Jishou University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Wuling Mountain Area's Poverty Alleviation and Regional Development, Jishou 416000, Hunan, China
  • Received:2018-05-06 Revised:2018-07-25 Online:2019-08-20 Published:2019-08-20

摘要:

基于3个典型乡镇355户农户的调查数据考察武陵山片区农户的城镇化生计响应发现:① 农户生计响应是“城乡连续体”的“人业地”关系重构中乡村聚落的决策单元对城镇聚落吸附与扩散效应的综合反应,受宏观环境、外部条件和家庭因素的影响;② 区域性中心城市郊区、革命老区红色旅游景区和县城近郊特色农业种植区周边农户的生计综合响应、生计空间响应和生计产出响应依次递减,但生计资本和生计方式响应及各维度的响应强度排序不一致;③ 城乡二元体制的演变与新型城镇化战略、乡村振兴战略动态地规制与诱导农户,使其生计响应与国家阶段性战略目标相适应。地形平缓、距离县城较近、经济发展水平较高以及区域性中心城市郊区休闲驱动型城镇化对应于更广维度和更高强度的农户生计响应。收入来源以经商、务工为主,家庭成员中有小孩或老人,有较高教育程度家庭成员以及社会资本较高的农户,其生计响应的维度更广且强度更高。

关键词: 城镇化, 农户, 生计响应, 武陵山片区

Abstract:

Urbanization, as one of the most important ways to reduce poverty, influences rural poverty with the help of backward correlation effect, migration effect, wage effect and spillover effect. However, the empirical conclusions of urbanization's poverty reduction effectiveness were inconsistent, and even conflicting. One of the reasons is that the net poverty reduction effect of urbanization is closely related to the poor's livelihood response to urbanization. Therefore, rural households' livelihood response is an important perspective to understand the differences of poverty reduction effectiveness of urbanization. Yet unfortunately, there were few papers that have paid attention to rural households' livelihood response to urbanization, especially in the Contiguous Areas of China. In order to start a discussion, this paper, based on the survey data of 355 rural households in three typical towns, investigated the livelihood response, influencing factors and response mechanism and path of rural households under urbanization background in the Wuling Mountain area. The results showed that: (1) The farmer's livelihood response was the comprehensive reaction of the decision unit of rural settlements in the process of recombination of three basic factors (human activities and environment of the Urban and Rural Continuum. It was the result of mixture effect of background macroregulation and induction, external conditions and urban settlements' adsorption and diffusion and family factors' internal driving force. (2) The comprehensive livelihood response, livelihood space response and livelihood production response of rural households were decreasing orderly from regional central city suburbs, red tourism scenic spots of old revolutionary base areas to characteristic agriculture towns nearby county town, but the order of response of livelihood capital and means of livelihood were different, and the response intensity of each dimension was not consistent. (3) At the macro level, the regulation and induction of the evolution of the urban-rural dual system and the strategies of new-type urbanization and rural revitalization made farmers' livelihood response adapt to the national stage strategic goal. In the external condition, more gentle reliefs, closer to the county town, higher level of economic development and leisure driven urbanization of the regional central city suburbs were corresponded to wider dimension and higher strength of farmers' livelihood response. Family factors, such as incomes priority from business operation and employment, there were children or the aged family members, at least one higher degree of education family member as well as higher social capital, which made farmers' livelihood response wider and more intensively.

Key words: urbanization, rural household, livelihood response, Wuling Mountain area