地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 33-44.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180442

所属专题: 人口与城市研究

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国人口迁移,流动人口与城市化——现实,理论与对策

沈建法()   

  1. 香港中文大学地理与资源管理学系,香港亚太研究所城市与区域发展研究中心,中国香港
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-11 修回日期:2018-10-23 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-01-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:沈建法(1963-),男,浙江宁波人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事城市化、人口迁移、城市与区域发展、城市管治与城市竞争力研究。E-mail: jianfa@cuhk.edu.hk

  • 基金资助:
    香港中文大学研究基金项目(4052139)

Migration, floating population and urbanization in China: Realities, theories, and strategies

Jianfa SHEN()   

  1. Department of Geography and Resource Management and Research Centre for Urban and Regional Development, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • Received:2018-07-11 Revised:2018-10-23 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-01-29

摘要:

中国改革前的城乡不平等关系已演变成城市中拥有本地户口的居民与没有本地户口的流动人口的不平等关系。目前的城市化可以说是不完全和排斥性的城市化。要达到完全的城市化,必须关注三个重要方面,包括常规的城乡迁移、城市对流动人口的融合与包容以及城市边缘区的城乡一体化。流动人口地位低下的情况,政府和企业对此负有部分责任。讨论在户口制度背景下城市化的基本理论和城市流动人口融合的理论,认为应使用系统方法去研究城市化和城乡一体化的课题,该方法可应用于不同尺度的人与自然共生系统的规划、发展、建设和扩展,同时以香港的马鞍山新市镇作为例子来展示如何规划和发展一个可持续社区,以满足现代城市居民的期望。

关键词: 人口迁移, 流动人口, 城市化理论, 可持续城市化, 中国

Abstract:

The unequal urban-rural relation in the pre-reform period has been shifted into urban areas in the form of unequal intra-urban relation between residents with local hukou and floating population without local hukou. Thus current urbanization of China is incomplete and not inclusive. To achieve complete urbanization in China, attention should be paid to three important aspects: the usual rural to urban migration, the integration or inclusion of floating population in urban areas, and the urban-rural integration in the urban periphery. The government and enterprises are partly responsible for the problems facing the temporary population. The paper discusses the basic theories of urbanization in the context of hukou system as well as the theories of urban integration of floating population. The author argues that the system approach should be used to study the urbanization and urban-rural integration issues. The approach can be applied to the planning, development, construction and expansion of people-nature symbio-tic systems at various scales. A new town example from Hong Kong is used to demonstrate what kind of sustainable communities may be planned and developed to meet the aspiration of residents in modern cities.

Key words: migration, floating population, urbanization theory, sustainable urbanization, China