地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (7): 1594-1608.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180756

• 专栏:生活地理与城乡休闲 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于手机数据的城市公共空间活力评价方法研究——以南京市公园为例

罗桑扎西1,2(), 甄峰1,2()   

  1. 1. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京 210093
    2. 江苏省智慧城市设计仿真与可视化技术工程实验室,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-28 修回日期:2019-05-07 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-07-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:罗桑扎西(1986-),男,云南香格里拉人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为大数据与城市规划研究。E-mail: tashi_lobsang@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571146)

How to evaluate public space vitality based on mobile phone data: An empirical analysis of Nanjing’s parks

Sangzhaxi LUO1,2(), Feng ZHEN1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    2. Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Smart City Design Simulation & Visualization, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2018-07-28 Revised:2019-05-07 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-07-12

摘要:

针对已有公共空间活力评价方法存在视角单一,对活力多样性体现不足的问题,本文在深入理解活力内涵与特征的基础上,探讨了多维视角下的公共空间活力评价方法。从个体行为、空间活动、空间交互联系网络的复合视角,围绕活力的核心,综合考虑活动类型及空间联系,提出了重访性、混合性、网络交互中心性三项测度评价指标,在此基础上构建了公共空间活力评价方法框架。以南京市公园为例,采用手机大数据,进行了公园活力的综合评价。分析表明:手机数据可从多个维度快速准确的识别城市公共空间活力现状,并展开综合评价。同时,可进一步参照活力不同维度特征的测度结果,提出具有针对性的活力营造及提升策略与路径指导,体现了本方法对已有评价方法具有一定修正和延展作用。

关键词: 公共空间, 手机数据, 活力评价, 公园, 南京

Abstract:

The vitality of public space is an important indicator of urban quality, as urban public space is important for people to attain positive experiences from public life and social interactions. Measuring the vitality of public space faces challenges, because the vitality is a multi-dimensional and nebulous concept. Meanwhile existing approaches often focus on the scale of activity to indicate vitality but lack of a comprehensive assessment of vitality. To overcome this problem this paper aims to address this research gap by proposing a multi-dimensional framework for a holistic evaluation of the vitality of public space. Three aspects are identified, based on theories about the vitality of public space, as critical to assessing the vitality of public space, which include individual behavior, spatial activities, and spatial interaction networks. Accordingly, three measurements, including the ratio of tourists’ revisit, the degree of mixed activities, and the centrality of network interactions are proposed. Using the proposed measurements, a case study in the city of Nanjing was carried out. The vitality of 42 parks in the center city, as examples of public space, was evaluated. To measure tourists’ activities, a dataset of two weeks’ anonymous mobile phone signal records during the March 2018 was used. The results showed that the vitalities of parks are high overall, while there are significant differences among different types of parks. In particular, parks with more comprehensive functionalities tend to show higher scores of vitalities, and parks providing one or a few specific functionalities have lower vitality and the neighborhood parks are the lowest in vitality. Moreover, the three measurements indicate variety vitality of parks. For instance, the ratios of tourists’ revisit vary greatly among parks. The degree of mixed activities, in contrary, presents a cluster pattern in which most parks gained high scores. The centrality of network interactions also varies considerably among parks. A core network of parks was observed, which is composed of 22 parks such as Xuanwu Lake, Meihuashan, and Luboyuan. From a methodological perspective, an evaluation framework proposed in this study allows us to comprehensively understand and to quantitatively measure different constructs of the vitality. The measurements also provide useful insights into the design and planning of public space, as planners could optimize public space and improve the vitality based on the evaluation results. Through the higher resolution activity data, this analysis framework can be applied to analyze the vitality of small-scale space accurately, and combined with other information, such as tourists’ property and space facility, to further explore the influencing factors of space vitality.

Key words: public space, mobile phone data, vitality evaluation, park, Nanjing