地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 414-429.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181123

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国陆地边境旅游发展区域差异及其影响因素

张生瑞1, 王英杰2(), 鞠洪润3, 钟林生2   

  1. 1. 中国海洋大学管理学院,青岛 266100
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 青岛大学旅游与地理科学学院,青岛 266071
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-16 修回日期:2019-07-10 出版日期:2020-02-20 发布日期:2020-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 王英杰
  • 作者简介:张生瑞(1990- ),男,山东莱芜人,博士,讲师,研究方向为旅游资源开发与管理。 E-mail: zhangsr.12s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项(202013012);新世纪版《中华人民共和国国家大地图集》编研项目(2013FY112800)

The regional differences of land border tourism development in China and influencing factors

ZHANG Shengrui1, WANG Yingjie2(), JU Hongrun3, ZHONG Linsheng2   

  1. 1. Management College of Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Qingdao University, School of Tourism and Geography Science, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
  • Received:2018-10-16 Revised:2019-07-10 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-05-20
  • Contact: WANG Yingjie

摘要:

边境旅游是中国陆地边境地区的支柱产业和国际合作的重要内容。依据文献资料和实地考察,分析中国陆地边境旅游资源单体的数量、类型和质量,并结合陆地边境地级行政区接待入境旅游人数和国际旅游外汇收入两个指标,从空间差异性和空间自相关两个方面刻画中国陆地边境旅游发展格局,探讨中国陆地边境旅游业发展的影响因素并提出相关建议。研究范围共涉及3 341个陆地边境旅游资源单体,其中优良级旅游资源约占34.36%,建筑与设施是旅游资源单体数量最多的类型。西南地区和东北地区分别是中国陆地边境旅游资源“高高集聚”和“低低集聚”地区。在2006—2015年间,边境旅游经济发展最快的是新疆西北部和黑龙江东部边境地区;边境旅游经济发展的热点地区主要集中在东北边境地区,冷点地区主要集中在新疆东部、西南部以及西藏西南部边境地区。地形条件、文化多样性、区位条件、国际地缘政治关系以及旅游设施水平是影响边境旅游业发展的重要因素。建议政府因地制宜地制定边境旅游发展政策,加强不同类型旅游资源之间的组合开发和区域旅游合作,完善旅游设施,积极探索开发与保护兼顾的发展模式。

关键词: 陆地边境旅游, 旅游资源, 旅游经济, 区域差异, 空间自相关, 影响因素

Abstract:

The land border tourism in China serves as a pillar industry in the local economic development and is becoming an important sector for international cooperation. Based on literature review and field surveys, this paper investigated the quantity, types and quality of land border tourism resources of prefectural-level city in China. In addition, the Chinese Land Border Tourism Development Database was established with another two indicators of land border tourist number and land border tourism revenue between 2006-2015. The paper further analyzed the spatial pattern of land border tourism development from the view of spatial variation and spatial association. The influencing factors and suggestions for land border tourism development were offered. The results showed that there were 3341 units of land border tourism resources in China, 34.36% of which were of high quality. Buildings and facilities were the most common types of tourism resources. The spatial difference of the land border tourism resources was obvious. The overall coefficient of variation (CV) is 70.55% and the CVs of astronomical phenomena and meteorological landscapes, tourism commodities and human activities were higher than 100%. The high-high clusters and low-low clusters were apparent in the southwest and northeast of China, indicating that the land border tourism resources in the southwest region were rich and that in the northeast needs to be better developed. During 2006-2015, the land border tourism economy grew fastest in the northwest of Xinjiang and the east of Heilongjiang province. The hot spots of the land border tourism economy occurred in the northeast of China, while the cold spots appeared in the east and southwest of Xinjiang as well as the southwest of Tibet. The location advantage, terrain, cultural diversity, the relationships between neighboring countries and public facilities were the main factors influencing the patterns of land border tourism resources and economy. It was suggested that the government should adjust the management policies based on the characteristics of local resources, develop different types of resources comprehensively, strengthen the cooperation domestically and internationally, improve the public facilities and protect the local environment and ethnic culture.

Key words: land border tourism, tourism resources, tourism economy, regional differences, spatial association, influencing factors