地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 1862-1876.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181156

• 专栏:流动的地理学 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球人才流动网络复杂性的时空演化——基于全球高校留学生流动数据

侯纯光1,2,3,杜德斌1,2,3,刘承良1,2,翟晨阳1,2,3   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学全球创新与发展研究院,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
    3. 华东师范大学国家教育宏观政策研究院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-23 修回日期:2019-06-24 出版日期:2019-08-20 发布日期:2019-08-20
  • 作者简介:侯纯光(1990- ),男,安徽利辛人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为世界地理和科技创新。 E-mail: 1570846532@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA20100311);中国科协“高端科技创新智库青年项目”——博士生项目(CXY-ZKQN-2019-043);华东师范大学优秀博士生学术创新能力提升计划项目(YBNLTS2019-033)

Spatiotemporal evolution of global talent mobility network based on the data of international student mobility

HOU Chunguang1,2,3,DU Debin1,2,3,LIU Chengliang1,2,ZHAI Chenyang1,2,3   

  1. 1. Institute for Global Innovation and Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. National Institutes of Educational Policy Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2018-10-23 Revised:2019-06-24 Online:2019-08-20 Published:2019-08-20

摘要:

高质量的人才跨越地理的流动影响和驱动着全球范围内的创新活动,正在重塑世界经济格局。研究基于全球高校留学生流动数据,构建加权有向网络模型,对2001—2015年全球人才流动网络复杂性时空演化进行全面刻画。主要结论如下:① 全球人才流动网络规模迅速扩大,网络发育具有明显的小世界性,两级分化显著。② 全球人才流动网络呈典型“金字塔结构”特征,基本呈“东向西,南到北”的地理格局,新兴国家作为人才吸纳国的角色逐渐上升。③ 全球人才流动网络核心-边缘结构显著,核心国家间存在较强的关系流,边缘国家间联系较弱,其人才主要流向了核心国家和半边缘国家。④ 全球人才流动网络分化成美国社团、欧盟社团、中国社团、南美和南非社团、马来西亚社团、独联体社团等6个凝聚子群。

关键词: 全球人才, 留学生, 复杂网络, 空间格局

Abstract:

High-quality talents are reshaping the world economic landscape by transcending geographic flows and driving global innovative activities. Based on the data of international student mobility, this paper draws on complex network theory to construct a multidimensional weighted directed network heterogeneity model. This model uses the GIS spatial analysis method to study spatiotemporal evolution of global talent mobility network complexity from 2001 to 2015. The results are as follows. First, the scale of the global talent mobility network is expanding rapidly, and the relationship is becoming closer and closer. In the network, both the number of talents and the choices of overseas routines are mounting. The network development has obvious small-world characteristics. However, the two levels of network differentiation are significant, and the difference is decreasing year by year. Second, the rank-size distributions of network nodes weighted degree of accession and weighted degree of output conform to the law of power distribution, showing a typical "pyramid structure" characteristics, reflecting that the global talent mobility network is controlled by a small number of pivotal node countries. The spatial patterns of the global talent mobility network are basically "from east to west, and from south to north", but the trend of mobile regionalization is gradually emerging, and the role of emerging countries attracting talents has gradually increased. Thirdly, the core-periphery structure of the global talent mobility network is remarkable. The countries in the core, strong semi-periphery and semi-periphery alternate with countries from other tiers. There is a strong mobility of relations between the core countries. The marginal countries are not connected with each other, or have weak links with each other. The talent of the marginal countries mainly flows to the core countries and semi-marginal countries. Finally, the global talent mobility network community has been significantly differentiated. The network has evolved into six associations, including American associations, EU associations, Chinese associations, South American and South African associations, Malaysian associations, and CIS associations. The scale of associations varies widely. Like the overall network, each community has a similar "pyramid structure" feature.

Key words: global talent, international students, complex network, spatial pattern