地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 2302-2313.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181187

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江荆南三口河系水位演变规律及对江湖水量交换关系的响应

汪雁佳1,2,李景保1(),李雅妮1,吕殿青1,代稳1   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,长沙 410081
    2. 中国科学院华南植物园,广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-30 修回日期:2019-04-26 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 李景保 E-mail:lijingbao1951@126.com
  • 作者简介:汪雁隹(1995-),女,重庆合川人,硕士,主要从事生态水文学研究。E-mall: 1373933450@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571100);湖南省自然科学基金项目(2019JJ40188)

The evolution of water level in Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River and its response to water exchange in the Dongting Lake

WANG Yanjia1,2,LI Jingbao1(),LI Yani1,LV Dianqing1,DAI Wen1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    2. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
  • Received:2018-10-30 Revised:2019-04-26 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-11
  • Contact: Jingbao LI E-mail:lijingbao1951@126.com

摘要:

为分析荆南三口河系水位演变规律与江湖水量交换关系。依据1956—2017年荆南三口、湖南四水、洞庭湖城陵矶站以及长江干流枝城站月平均水位及流量和该流域8个雨量站的降水数据,运用Mann-Kendall趋势检验法、回归分析、流量年特征值等方法研究了三口水位的时序演变特征及其与流量、降水、江湖水量交换、人类活动的关系。结果表明:① 与阶段一(1956—1966年)相比,阶段二(1967—1980年)、三(1981—2002年)、四(2003—2017年)河系年平均水位、年最高水位分别下降0.74 m、0.37 m,年最低水位上升0.07 m;② 在涨(4—5月)、丰(6—9月)、退(10—11月)、枯(12月—次年3月)四个水文节点上,最低水位降幅最大(-0.98 m),平均水位次之(-0.78 m),最高水位最小(0.55 m),并将其降幅按水文节点排序依次为退水期(-0.95 m)>丰水期(-0.61 m)>涨水期(-0.21 m)>枯水期(0.15 m);③ 河系水位变化与其流量变化有着较好的一致性(二者的相关系数r =0.65),与降水量相关性较弱(r =-0.16),但2002—2017年相对干旱的气候加剧了河系水位的下降。从总体上看,长江枝城来水量减少和以水利工程为代表的人类活动方式是导致荆南三口河系特征水位下降的主要驱动因素。

关键词: 水位时序变化, 回归分析, Mann-Kendall法, 江湖水量交换关系, 荆南三口河系

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the relationship between the water level evolution of the Three Outlets in the Southern Jingjiang River system and the exchange of river and lake water volume. Based on the monthly mean water level and discharge data obtained from 10 stations concerning the Three Outlets, Four Rivers and Chenglingji station of Dongting Lake and Zhicheng station along the Yangtze River Mainstream, as well as the precipitation data from another eight stations from 1956 to 2017, the temporal evolution of the Three Outlets' water level and its relationship with precipitation and water exchange in the Dongting Lake and human activities were studied by using Mann-Kendall trend test method, regression analysis and flow year eigenvalue method. The results show that: (1) Compared with the first stage (1956-1966), the average mean water level and the average highest water level of the second (1967-1980), third (1981-2002) and fourth (2003-2017) stages decreased by 0.74 m, and 0.37 m respectively, while the average lowest water level increased by 0.07 m. (2) The average lowest water level of the Three Outlets dropped by the largest volume (-0.98 m), followed by the average water level (-0.78 m). The average highest water level of the Three Outlets rose by 0.55 m in the four hydrological seasons, including the water-rising season (April-May), wet season (June-September), water-falling season (October-November) and dry season (December-March of the following year). In terms of the hydrological season, the drop of the Three Outlets' characteristic water level was in the order of water-falling season (-0.95 m) > wet season (-0.61 m) > water-rising season (-0.21 m) > dry season (0.15 m). (3) The change of the water level in the Three Outlets had a good consistency with its discharge (correlation coefficient of the two r=0.65), but had a weak correlation with precipitation (r=-0.16). However, the drought climate from 2002 to 2017 aggravated the decline of the water level of the Three Outlets. Generally speaking, water reduction at Zhicheng station in the Yangtze River and human activities represented by water conservancy projects were the main driving factors leading to the overall decline of the characteristic water level of the Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River.

Key words: time series change of water level, regression analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test method, water exchange relationship in lake, the Three Outlets of the Southern Jingjiang River