地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (10): 2402-2414.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181221

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国土空间规划的用海分类体系探讨

段健1,2,3,徐勇1,2,3(),赵燊1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-06 修回日期:2019-09-06 出版日期:2019-10-20 发布日期:2019-10-30
  • 通讯作者: 徐勇
  • 作者简介:段健(1986- ),女,湖南沅陵人,博士研究生。研究方向为土地利用、区域可持续发展。E-mail: duanj. 16b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630644);中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA230201)

Discussion on marine classification system for territory spatial planning

DUAN Jian1,2,3,XU Yong1,2,3(),ZHAO Shen1,2,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-11-06 Revised:2019-09-06 Online:2019-10-20 Published:2019-10-30
  • Contact: XU Yong

摘要:

为建立健全统一衔接的空间规划体系,国家将“形成空间规划用海分类标准”列入了《省级空间规划试点方案》,并作为统一规划基础的重要任务之一。在总结评析中国现行用海分类体系特点及存在问题的基础上,结合空间规划和涉海部门对用海分类的要求,通过历史继承、类型细化和综合集成,提出了一套既希望服务空间规划、又能满足部门行业需求的基础性用海分类体系。研究建立的用海分类体系采用了海域用途功能-用海方式-属性特征相结合的三级分类层序结构,包括9个一级类、28个二级类和43个三级类;一级类和二级类继承了现行海域使用分类体系的层序架构和主要内容,增加的三级类吸纳和集成了用海方式分类体系和海域使用金征收标准用海类型划分体系的合理成分,重在突出海域使用的具体属性特征。进而以该分类体系为基础,阐释并归类了不同海洋功能空间的含义及用海类型构成,表明业已建立的空间规划用海分类体系具备作为“规范统一的基础性用海分类体系”的特质。

关键词: 用海分类, 海域使用, 用海方式, 海洋功能空间, 国土空间规划

Abstract:

In order to establish a sound and unified spatial planning system, the state has included "the marine classification standard for spatial planning" into the "Pilot Program of Provincial Space Planning" and listed it as one of the important tasks of the foundation of unified planning. On the basis of summarizing and analyzing the characteristics and existing problems of China's current marine classification system, and combined with the requirements of spatial planning and marine-related departments for the marine classification, this study proposed a basic marine classification system that not only satisfied service space planning but also met the needs of departmental industries by historical inheritance, type refinement and comprehensive integration. Based on the classification system, this paper explained and classified the meanings of different marine functional spaces and the composition of marine types. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) China's marine classification research started late, and the development process can be roughly divided into two periods: before and after 2001. Before 2001, the research was in its infancy, with academic inquiry as the mainstay and less achievements. Since 2001, the research has been driven by national needs and government actions. Aiming at different uses of various classification systems of marine utilization including marine space utilization, marine utilization way and marine function zoning have been established in succession. (2) Due to the differences in classification objectives, classification sequences, type composition, and type naming in China's current marine classification system, there is a lack of organic linkage among different classification systems, and the results and data are not comparable with each other, which not only restricts the integration and application of the results data, but also causes huge waste of manpower, material resources and financial resources. China's current marine classification system is still in the stage when multiple systems coexist, and has not yet formed a standardized and unified basic marine classification system. (3) This study established a marine classification system including 9 first-level types, 28 second-level types, and 43 third-level types for spatial planning by using a three-level classification sequence structure consisting of the functions of marine space, the way of marine utilization and attribute characteristics. The first-level and second-level types inherit the sequence structure and main content of the current marine space classification systems. The newly added three-level type absorbs and integrates the rational components of the marine classification system and standards for expropriation of marine space utilization fee, and focuses on the specific attribute characteristics of marine space utilization. (4) Based on the newly-developed marine classification system for spatial planning and aiming at spatial planning topics such as spatial planning, marine major function oriented planning, and marine function zoning, this study has carried out the classification of marine functional space by marine type, which indicates that the newly-developed marine classification system has the characteristics of "standardized and unified basic marine classification system".

Key words: classification of marine utilization, marine space utilization, marine utilization way, marine function space, territory spatial planning