地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (12): 2927-2940.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181293

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

新石器时代晚期华北地区耕地重建

陈强强1, 刘峰贵2(), 方修琦3, 周强1, 陈琼1, 陈锐杰1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学地理科学学院, 西宁 810008
    2. 高原科学与可持续发展研究院, 西宁 810008
    3. 北京师范大学地理科学学部, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-21 修回日期:2019-04-09 出版日期:2019-12-20 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘峰贵
  • 作者简介:陈强强(1992- ),男,甘肃榆中人,硕士,主要从事自然地理综合研究。E-mail: qqc921025@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0603304);国家自然科学基金项目(41271123)

Reconstruction of cropland distribution in the Late Neolithic period in Northern China

CHEN Qiangqiang1, LIU Fenggui2(), FANG Xiuqi3, ZHOU Qiang1, CHEN qiong1, CHEN Ruijie1   

  1. 1. College of Geographic Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2. Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability, Xining 810008, China
    3. Department of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2018-11-21 Revised:2019-04-09 Online:2019-12-20 Published:2019-12-25
  • Contact: LIU Fenggui

摘要:

全新世以来农业的起源使全球人类活动日益加剧,而新石器时代晚期(在中国大约距今7 ka—5 ka)农业发展正处于从刀耕火种向耒耜翻耕过渡阶段,由此被认为是人类活动改变自然植被的关键时期。中国华北地区丰富的考古遗迹记录了该时期人类活动的状况。基于已发现和挖掘的考古资料,运用考古学关联建模方法推算出新石器时代晚期华北地区各聚落遗址的人口规模与耕地面积,并在此基础上重建了耕地空间分布格局。结果显示:① 新石器时代晚期华北地区的人口规模至少为50.61×10 4人。其中,河南地区人口最多,约为30.46×10 4人,山东地区约13.72×10 4人,河北地区约6.43×10 4人。② 耕地面积至少约102.22×10 4 hm2,约是现代耕地的4.6%,整个华北地区垦殖率达到1.99%。河南地区耕地面积最大,约为61.52×10 4 hm2,垦殖率达3.68%;山东地区次之,约为27.72×10 4 hm2,垦殖率为1.75%;河北地区最少,约为12.98×10 4 hm2,垦殖率为0.69%。③ 遗址周围3 km范围内是个体聚落耕地的主要分布区,约占总耕地面积的83.43%。④ 在地形分布上,63.36%的耕地分布在低海拔的平原和台地,仅2.43%分布在海拔1000 m以上的地区。就耕地分布的坡度而言,81.55%的耕地分布在坡度小于2°的地区;16.61%的耕地介于2°~6°的缓坡地区;6°~15°的坡地地区仅占耕地的1.84%。

关键词: 新石器时代晚期, 华北地区, 耕地, 空间分布

Abstract:

Since the Holocene, the origin of agriculture has contributed to the intensification of human activities across the globe, and its development in the Late Neolithic period (about 7-5 ka B.P. in China) was in the transition from slash-and-burn agriculture to lei-and-si ploughing, which was considered to be the key period for human activities to change the natural environment. Fortunately, the rich archaeological sites in Northern China documented various human activities during this period. In this study, we choose the archaeological data and using the archaeology associated modeling method to calculate the size of the population and the cultivated land area of the settlement sites in Northern China in the Late Neolithic period, and then to reconstruct the spatial pattern of the cultivated land. The results showed that: (1) There were at least 506 100 people in Northern China in the Late Neolithic period, and Henan province had the largest population (about 304 600), followed by Shandong and Hebei provinces (about 137 200 and 64 300 people, respectively). (2) In the study period, the area of cultivated land was 102.22×10 4 hm 2, which accounted for 4.6% of the modern cultivated land. For the whole study area, the average reclamation index reached 1.99% in this period. Like the pattern of population size, the cultivated land area and the reclamation rate for Henan province were the largest, reaching 61.52×10 4 hm 2 and 3.68%, respectively, followed by Shandong and Hebei provinces, both the cultivated land area and the reclamation rate were approximately 27.72×10 4 hm 2 and 1.75%, and 12.98 ×10 4 hm and 0.69%, respectively. (3) In the 3-km range of the historical sites, the main distribution area of individual settlement cultivated land accounted for about 83.43% of the total cultivated area; (4) On spatial scale, 63.36% of cultivated land was located in the low-altitude plain and platform areas, and only 2.43% was located in the higher-altitude areas (above 1000 m). In terms of slope, 81.55% of cultivated land was located in areas less than 2°, 16.61% was found between 2°~6° of the gentle slope, and in the 6°~15° slope areas, the cultivated land area only accounted for 1.84%.

Key words: Late Neolithic, Northern China, cropland, spatial distribution