地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 447-460.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181315

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

明代省域耕地数量重建及时空特征分析

李美娇1,2,3, 何凡能1(), 杨帆1,3, 赵亮1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 山西财经大学资源环境学院,太原 030006
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-04 修回日期:2019-03-08 出版日期:2020-02-20 发布日期:2020-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 何凡能
  • 作者简介:李美娇(1989- ),女,山西武乡人,博士,讲师,研究方向为历史土地利用与土地覆被变化。E-mail: limj.16b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0603304);国家自然科学基金项目(41671149)

Reconstruction of provincial cropland area and its spatial-temporal characteristics in the Ming Dynasty

LI Meijiao1,2,3, HE Fanneng1(), YANG Fan1,3, ZHAO Liang1,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, College of Resources and Environment, Taiyuan 030006, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-12-04 Revised:2019-03-08 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-05-20
  • Contact: HE Fanneng

摘要:

基于明代册载田亩、屯田和人口数据,以及相关赋役制度和土地制度等史料,考察了明代册载田亩和屯田数据的合理性,辨识了导致明代册载数据失实的主要因素,重建了明代典型时点省域耕地面积。结果表明:① 册籍讹误、官民田和卫所屯田的分类统计及山、塘、湖、荡等非耕地的登册起科,是导致洪武和万历年间册载数据失实的主要原因。② 洪武年间河南和湖广册载田亩数据人均耕地面积畸高,其原因为“册籍讹误”,订正后的数值分别为41万今亩和18万今亩;该时期研究区阙载的屯田总额约为5620万今亩。③ 非耕地的登册起科主要出现在南方地区,且洪武和万历年间浙江、南直隶、江西、湖广等省的册载田土数据中非耕地占比分别为24.7%、23.3%、4.4%、3.7%和28.9%、16.2%、19.2%、11.6%。④ 洪武二十六年(1393年)至万历十一年(1583年),研究区耕地总量由49 550万今亩增至75 430万今亩;省域土地垦殖变化呈现明显的区域差异,河南和山东两省垦殖率增量超过15个百分点,湖广和四川超过3个百分点,而其余各省增量低于1个百分点。区域历史时期土地利用/覆被变化数据重建,不仅是区域生态环境效应模拟的客观需求,也可为充实和完善全球数据集提供参考。

关键词: 历史土地利用/土地覆被变化, 耕地面积重建, 历史文献, 明代

Abstract:

Based on the historical registered data on taxes-cropland and military-oriented cropland, population data, and the historical records on taxation system and land system in the Ming Dynasty, this paper analyzed the reliability of these data, and identified the main impact factors which may lead to the difference between historical registered data and real cropland area. Then, the provincial cropland areas for 1393 and 1583 were reconstructed. The results are shown as follows: (1) The main factors which lead to the difference between historical registered data and real cropland area include record errors, classified statistics of taxes-cropland and military-oriented cropland, and registration and taxation of non-cropland, including mountain, pond, lake, and marsh. (2) Because of the record errors, the registered taxes-cropland areas of Henan and Huguang provinces for 1393 were greater than their actual taxes-cropland areas. And the revised results of the two provinces were 0.41×10 6 mu (Chinese area unit, 1 mu=666.7 m 2) and 0.18×10 6 mu. The total military-oriented cropland area of the study area was 56.2×10 6 mu in 1393. (3) According to the historical records, in 1391, the proportion values of non-cropland data to the total taxes-cropland data were 24.7%, 23.3%, 4.4%, and 3.7% in Zhejiang, South Zhili, Jiangxi, and Huguang provinces, respectively. And in 1583, the proportion values of non-cropland data to the total areas of taxes-cropland and military-oriented cropland in the four provinces were 28.9%, 16.2%, 19.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. (4) The total cropland area of the whole study area increased from 495.5×10 6 mu in 1393 to 754.3×10 6 mu in 1583. In the study period, changes of the reclamation rate presented obvious regional differences. The reclamation rates of Henan and Shandong provinces increased by roughly 15 percentage points, Huguang and Sichuan provinces increased by more than 3 percentage points, and Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, and border areas increased by less than 1 percentage point. Reconstruction of historical land use and cover change at regional level is not only an objective requirement for regional eco-environmental effects simulation, which can provide a reference for enriching and improving global datasets.

Key words: historical land use and land cover change, reconstruction of cropland area, historical documents, Ming Dynasty