地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 611-626.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190035

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江经济带产业的集聚与演化——基于开发区的视角

胡森林1, 曾刚1(), 滕堂伟1, 庄良2, 刘海猛3, 孙蓉1   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学地理科学学院,上海 200241
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-11 修回日期:2019-07-12 出版日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2020-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 曾刚
  • 作者简介:胡森林(1991-),男,安徽黄山人,博士研究生,研究方向为城市与区域创新。E-mail: hsllh520@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFC0502701);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(17JJD790006)

Industrial agglomeration and evolution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt: From the perspective of development zone

HU Senlin1, ZENG Gang1(), TENG Tangwei1, ZHUANG Liang2, LIU Haimeng3, SUN Rong1   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies & School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-01-11 Revised:2019-07-12 Online:2020-03-20 Published:2020-05-20
  • Contact: ZENG Gang

摘要:

推进产业集群培育和产业有序转移,对实现长江经济带产业转型及协同发展具有重要意义。以开发区为研究视角,从时空两个维度刻画了长江经济带的产业结构特征及空间集聚状态,重点剖析了技术密集型、资本密集型和劳动密集型产业的演化特征。结果表明:长江经济带开发区的装备制造、电子信息、汽车及零部件等技术密集型产业相对于全国而言优势显著,但下游、中游和上游地区开发区的产业能级存在梯度差异;开发区产业布局主要依托“城市群-中心城市”,劳动密集型产业呈“小集聚、大分散”的格局,资本密集型产业主要集聚在资本雄厚、矿产资源丰富或沿海沿江地区,技术密集型产业已形成规模不等的集聚连绵区。从演变特征看,开发区的产业结构高级度与其设立时间正向相关,且存在上中下游间的差异性,下游地区的开发区产业结构更加高级化;同时,技术密集型、资本密集型和劳动密集型产业之间的空间关联性逐渐增强。最后,本文初步构建了一个基于开发区的产业集群培育和产业有序转移的理论分析框架,并提出相应的政策建议:未来长江经济带世界级产业集群的建设应重点依托国家级和省级开发区,通过开发区产业分阶段的集群化发展模式来带动区域经济发展;同时,也应以各类开发区为载体,推进关联地区产业的有序转移。

关键词: 开发区, 产业结构, 空间集聚, 产业转型, 发展演化与关联, 长江经济带

Abstract:

To realize the coordinated development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, it is important to promote the industrial cluster cultivation and orderly industrial transfer. Based on an analysis on development zones, this paper depicts the characteristic differentiations of industrial structures and industrial agglomeration patterns in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Then we specially look into the evolution characteristics of technology, capital and labor intensive industries in development zones. The results show that compared with the whole China, there exist obvious advantages for the equipment manufacturing, electronic information, automobile and parts, new material, new energy and other technology-intensive industries in development zones of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. However, in the development zones, there are significant gradient differences among downstream, middle and upstream of the Yangtze River Economic Belt in terms of the industrial development levels. Secondly, the industrial distribution mainly relies on the “urban agglomeration and central city” in space. Labor-intensive industries are partially aggregate and averagely disperse, and capital-intensive industries mostly flourish in places that are favorable in capital, natural resource endowment or geographical location while technology-intensive industries have formed clusters of different scales. We find that, how to advance the industrial structure in development zones of the Yangtze River Economic Belt is related to its establishment time. The earlier the development zone is established, the more advanced industrial level will be. Furthermore, the industrial development stages of different areas’ development zones are distinguished, and the development of downstream areas is more advanced. Besides, the spatial correlation among three categories of industries appears to be stronger and stronger, from relatively unbalanced to coordinated development. Finally, combined with the case analysis of the Yangtze River Economic Belt and relevant theoretical basis, this paper constructs a theoretical analysis framework of industrial cluster cultivation and orderly industrial transfer based on development zones and puts forward some policy recommendations. In the future, during the construction of world-class industrial clusters in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the role of either national-level or provincial-level development zones acting in industry-cluster growth mode is indispensable. At the same time, in combination with industrial development gradient and industrial (technological) linkages, various development zones will be formed as carriers to promote orderly industrial transfer, which is an important way to realize regional cooperation and coordinated development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

Key words: development zone, industrial structure, spatial agglomeration, industrial transformation, development evolution and spatial association, Yangtze River Economic Belt