地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 836-852.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190246

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

场域视角下清代北京宣南雅文化核心区范围及空间关联特征

郭岩1,2, 杨昌鸣1,3(), 张雨洋4   

  1. 1.天津大学建筑学院,天津 300072
    2.北京建筑大学继续教育学院,北京 100044
    3.北京工业大学建筑与城市规划学院,北京 100124
    4.清华大学建筑学院,北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-08 修回日期:2019-09-25 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-06-24
  • 通讯作者: 杨昌鸣
  • 作者简介:郭岩(1984- ),女,山西河津人,博士研究生,助理研究员,主要从事遗产建筑文化保护与GIS应用研究。E-mail: guoyan_715@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51478007);国家自然科学基金项目(51178016);北京市教委科研计划项目(KM201110005025)

The scope and spatial correlation features of the core area of hierarchic culture of Beijing Xuannan in Qing Dynasty from the field view

GUO Yan1,2, YANG Changming1,3(), ZHANG Yuyang4   

  1. 1.School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
    2.Continuing Education School, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
    3.College of Architecture & Urban Planning, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
    4.School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2019-04-08 Revised:2019-09-25 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-06-24
  • Contact: YANG Changming

摘要:

清代北京“宣南文化”是以名人雅士为主体的“雅文化”,宣南地区可视为雅文化大场域。抽提影响雅文化形成的三类核心建筑载体要素:寺庙、名人居所、会馆,在场域视角下用GIS分析三要素微场域的空间分布、关联和聚集,从而递进探析宣南“雅文化核心区”区域性子场域的存在和范围,以及内部要素微场域聚集形成的空间特征和成因。结论包括:① 雅文化核心区范围为清代北京外城西部的中部、中北部“双肾”形区域;其与俗文化区空间临近,没有绝对清晰的边界,投射出雅俗文化间的排斥依存、融渗互补。② 核心区子场域内部的空间关联特征为“三要素、两聚集”的“链条式”“中心-过渡中心”层次性空间结构。③ 量化印证微观街区尺度下“同乡之情”是名人居所与会馆聚集的内在驱动力。在北京“文化中心”战略定位下,为传统文化保护更新策略的提出奠定历史研究基础;在历史文化研究方面,具有方法上的实践创新和借鉴意义。

关键词: 宣南, 雅文化, 核心区, GIS, 场域, 空间自相关

Abstract:

The "Xuannan culture", as an important part of Beijing history and culture, which formed in the Xuannan district of Beijing in the Qing Dynasty, was a kind of "hierarchic culture" with celebrities and scholars. From the "field" view, Xuannan district was a field of hierarchic culture. By extracting POI of the three kinds of core architectural culture landscape elements: 327 temples, 211 celebrity residences, 535 guild halls, which mainly bore the hierarchic culture of Xuannan district, this study analyzed the spatial distribution of the three types of "micro field" respectively and as a whole, as well as the relation and aggregation between two. Thus, it proactively explored the existence, scope and spatial characteristics of the core area of hierarchic culture of Xuannan as "sub-field", and the aggregation of the elements and the internal causes of its formation. The conclusions mainly include: (1) By using the average nearest neighbor calculation and spatial density analysis, we found that the core area of hierarchic culture was the "two-kidney" shaped area in the central and north-central part of the western outer city, which was close to the secular culture area, and its range was stable and had no absolute clear boundary. The locations of the core hierarchic and the secular culture areas reflected the relation of the two cultures: exclusive and dependent, infiltrative and complementary. (2) By using the overlapping analysis of core density, OD distance and the bivariate spatial correlation analysis, we concluded that the spatial characteristic of the core area of hierarchic culture was "chain type" of "three elements, and two gatherings". The first gathering was the relationship between the temples and the celebrity residences. The second was that between the celebrity residences and the guild halls. Through two cluster analyses, it is found that the hierarchical spatial structure of "center -- transition center" was formed in the core area of Xuannan hierarchic culture. (3) It is quantitatively verified that "the feeling of hometown" was the driving force of celebrity residences and guild halls gathering. Under the strategic positioning of Beijing "cultural center", this article lays a historical research foundation for the proposal of Xuannan culture protection and inheritance strategy. In the history and culture research field, this research has innovation and reference significance in perspective and method.

Key words: Xuannan, hierarchic culture, core area, GIS, field, spatial autocorrelation