地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 152-171.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190502

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

农业景观保护路径历史回顾及启示

余慧容(), 杜鹏飞()   

  1. 清华大学环境学院,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-24 接受日期:2020-09-30 出版日期:2021-01-10 发布日期:2021-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 杜鹏飞
  • 作者简介:余慧容(1987-),女,福建泉州人,博士,助理研究员,主要研究方向为资源与景观可持续利用。E-mail: hyu@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFE0103100)

A review of agricultural landscape conservation pathways and its implications

YU Huirong(), DU Pengfei()   

  1. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2019-06-24 Accepted:2020-09-30 Online:2021-01-10 Published:2021-03-10
  • Contact: DU Pengfei

摘要:

农业景观保护是实现农业景观可持续发展的重要举措,关系到中国粮食安全保障、农耕文明传承、乡村风貌维系、生态安全格局构建乃至社会经济稳定发展。本文借助对发达国家农业景观保护路径的长时间尺度历史回顾,总结归纳出农业景观保护路径发展的一般规律,即其在社会经济发展进程中一般经历传统保护、应对保护、管制保护、治理保护和管护保护五个发展阶段。从最初的传统保护阶段到最近的管护保护阶段,农业景观保护目标从自给生产维续逐渐转变为可持续发展,景观可持续性先降后升。在此基础上,结合中国农业景观保护状况,提炼出增强主体管护意识、提升景观功能服务、优化信息沟通渠道、完善政策弹性结构等四方面启示。

关键词: 农业景观, 保护路径, 发展规律, 可持续发展, 景观管护

Abstract:

Sustainable development of agricultural landscape is the cornerstone for ensuring food security, farming civilization, rural maintenance, eco-environmental security and even stable socioeconomic development. But the vulnerability of agricultural landscape calls for efficient landscape conservation to ensure its sustainability. That is typically the case in China: hyper urbanization and rapid economic development have highly risked the sustainability of agricultural landscape. Learning from the rich experience of developed countries in conserving agricultural landscape is urgently needed. As such, this paper makes a comprehensive review on the long-term pathways of agricultural landscape conservation in some typical developed countries like European countries, the USA and Japan, with the aims of exploring general pathways of agricultural landscape conservation, learning lessons from the experiences of developed countries and also providing some possible implications for agricultural landscape conservation in China.
The main results are as follows: (1) There are typically five agricultural landscape conservation patterns in the long-term pathways of developed countries’ agricultural landscape conservation. From ancient times to the present, many developed countries have gone through traditional-use of conservation pattern, exploitation conservation pattern, control conservation pattern, and governance conservation pattern to current stewardship conservation pattern. (2) We summarized the characteristics of each agricultural landscape conservation pattern. It was revealed that the goals of conservation patterns gradually transformed from ancient self-fed production to current sustainable development, with their landscape sustainability level first decreasing then rising. (3) We also identified that the pathway of agricultural landscape conservation in China generally kept consistent with the pathways of developed countries, that is, following the pathway of “traditional-use of conservation pattern→exploitation conservation pattern→control conservation pattern→governance conservation pattern→stewardship conservation pattern”. Nowadays, China is pursuing long-term sustainable development of agricultural landscape through the construction of Ecological Civilization System, which makes it somewhere in between governance conservation pattern and stewardship conservation pattern. (4) At the end of this paper, we proposed some possible implications and directions for the future agricultural landscape conservation in China, which include enhancing stakeholders’ awareness of landscape stewardship, optimizing multi-scale landscape patterns and services, securing information symmetry and communication channels, and improving policy resilience and efficiency.

Key words: agricultural landscape, conservation pathways, developmental patterns, sustainable development, landscape stewardship