地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 1511-1533.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190637

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

污染企业/产业转移的特征、模式与动力机制

戴其文1,2, 杨靖云1, 张晓奇3(), 胡森林4   

  1. 1. 广西师范大学经济管理学院,桂林 541004
    2. 广西师范大学珠江-西江经济带发展研究院,桂林 541004
    3. 东南大学国家发展研究所,北京 100083
    4. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-28 修回日期:2019-10-17 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 张晓奇
  • 作者简介:戴其文(1985-),男,安徽郎溪人,博士,副教授,研究员,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为环境经济学。E-mail: sxsfdx520@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社科研究项目(17XJC790001);国家民委民族研究项目(2018-GMD-025);广西文科中心专项项目(GZL2019005);广西青年创新人才科研专项(2019AC20283);广西师范大学博士科研启动项目;珠江-西江经济带发展研究院成果

Transfer characteristics, patterns and mechanisms of polluting enterprises and industries

DAI Qiwen1,2, YANG Jingyun1, ZHANG Xiaoqi3(), HU Senlin4   

  1. 1. School of Economics and Management, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China
    2. Development Research Institute of Pearl River-Xijiang River Economic Belt, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China
    3. National Development Institute, Southeast University, Beijing 100083, China
    4. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2019-07-28 Revised:2019-10-17 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-20
  • Contact: ZHANG Xiaoqi

摘要:

污染企业/产业的转移不仅重塑了区域发展格局,也改变了环境污染的分布,对区域可持续发展产生了显著影响。探讨污染企业/产业转移对于污染治理和区域协调发展具有重要意义。基于对相关文献的梳理,系统归纳了污染企业/产业的概念和类别,总结了污染企业/产业的转移特征、模式和动力机制。研究表明:① 官方文件、污染排放强度、污染排放规模是污染产业界定和分类的主要依据。② 污染企业/产业在不同的地理尺度上形成不同的转移模式:在城市内部形成分散式外围区转移、集中式功能区转移、远离敏感区转移三种模式;在省内城市间呈现出由发达城市向欠发达城市、由环境规制强的核心区向环境规制弱的边缘区的转移特征。邻省转移模式以经济较发达和环境规制较强的省份为中心,向邻近省份扩散,并形成向多省交界处、由河流上游省份向下游省份、沿交通线向次级城市的三种转移路径。跨省转移形成成本导向型、市场扩张型和政策推动型三种模式。③ 污染企业/产业的转移方向呈现出一定的特征和模式,包括区域、地理、经济、功能区、政策5种研究视角和15种转移方向。④ 污染企业的迁移方式包括整体迁移和部分迁移两种模式,后者包括迁移生产基地、工序外包、绿色并购与对外收购、建立子公司或分厂等。⑤ 影响污染企业/产业转移的因素既包括经济、社会、地理、政策等单因素,也包括多种因素的交互作用。在多维的复杂影响机制中,政府扮演了重要角色,企业的异质性、空间集聚效应、制度等都产生了重要的影响。最后讨论了国内相关研究的不足,并在此基础上提出一些思考和建议。

关键词: 污染企业/产业, 转移特征, 转移模式, 动力机制

Abstract:

The transfer of polluting enterprises/industries has reshaped regional development pattern and changed the distribution of environmental pollution, which has a significant impact on regional sustainable development. The research on this transfer is of great significance for pollution control and regional coordinated development. Based on literature review, the article generalizes systematically the concepts and categories of polluting enterprises/industries and summarizes their transfer characteristics, laws, patterns and dynamic mechanisms. The review of the literature showed that: (1) official documents, pollution emission intensity, pollution emission scale are the main basis of polluting enterprises/industries definition and classification. (2) Polluting enterprises/industries form different transfer patterns on different geographical scales, and they transfer in municipal, provincial, and national scales. Three modes (decentralized peripheral areas transfer, centralized functional areas transfer, and moving away from sensitive areas) are formed within the city. The polluting enterprises/industries transfer both from developed cities to less developed cities and from areas with strong environmental regulations to marginal areas with weak environmental regulations among the cities in the province. Neighboring province has the transfer mode that is centered on developed provinces with stronger environmental regulations and spread to neighboring provinces. This transfer pattern has three paths that tend to move to the boundary of multiple provinces, move from the upstream provinces of the river to downstream provinces and move to secondary cities along the traffic line. Inter-provincial transfer of the polluting enterprises/industries forms three modes of cost-oriented, market-expanding and policy-driven factors. ③ The transfer direction of the polluting enterprises/industries presents certain characteristics and laws. We conclude fifteen kinds of transfer directions based on regional, geographic, economic, functional areas, and policy perspectives. (4) The transfer modes of polluting enterprises includes overall transfer and partial transfer. The partial transfer includes migration of production base, process outsourcing, green mergers and acquisitions, establishment of subsidiaries or branches, etc. (5) Economic, social, geographical and policy factors not only affect the transfer of polluting enterprises/industries separately, but also comprehensively form the complex transfer mechanism. In the multi-dimensional complex influence mechanism, the government plays an important role and enterprise heterogeneity, spatial agglomeration effect and system have a significant impact. Finally, the shortcomings of relevant domestic research are discussed, and some thoughts and policy recommendations for polluting enterprise/industry transfer are proposed.

Key words: polluting enterprises/industries, transfer characteristic, transfer mode, dynamic mechanism