地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 2313-2329.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190799

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中华老字号企业空间分异及影响因素研究

马斌斌1,2(), 陈兴鹏1,2(), 陈芳婷3, 陈艳碧1,2, 丁博文鹏1,2   

  1. 1.兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
    2.兰州大学县域经济发展研究院,兰州 730000
    3.西北师范大学旅游学院,兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-12 修回日期:2020-03-22 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈兴鹏
  • 作者简介:马斌斌(1990-),男,甘肃天水人,博士研究生,研究方向为旅游地理、旅游资源规划与开发。E-mail:mabinbinly@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划重点专项(2018YFC0704702);国家文化和旅游部2018年度万名旅游英才计划—研究型英才培养项目(WMYC20181-033);甘肃省软科学专项(18CX1ZA042)

Spatial differentiation and influencing factors of China time-honored brand

MA Binbin1,2(), CHEN Xingpeng1,2(), CHEN Fangting3, CHEN Yanbi1,2, DINGBO Wenpeng1,2   

  1. 1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. County Economic Development Research Institute, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    3. School of Tourism, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2019-09-12 Revised:2020-03-22 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-12-20
  • Contact: CHEN Xingpeng

摘要:

以全国1128家中华老字号企业为研究对象,运用平均最邻近指数、核密度分析、不均衡指数、空间自相关分析、热点分析等经济地理分析模型,借助ArcGIS软件,对中华老字号的空间分布密度、区域分异特征、均衡态势、空间自相关性进行了计量分析。在此基础上,就中华老字号的行业类型结构特征进行了系统梳理,并揭示了其空异间分异格局与特征。最后,运用地理联系率、矢量数据缓冲区分析、相关性分析等方法揭示了其内在影响因素。研究发现:① 中华老字号的空间分异呈现2个高密度区、1个次级高密度区和多个高集聚区,核心-边缘结构较为明显,老字号企业主要集中在近现代以来经济基础较好、市场开放程度较高的华北、东部沿海地区,多以沿海开放口岸、省会城市、主干路网为核心,呈寄生状集聚。② 中华老字号企业在空间上并非随机性分布,而是呈现显著的空间自相关性。老字号企业在全国的分布呈现“集聚化,纺锤状”的分异格局,极化现象较为突出。③ 中华老字号企业的冷、热点区由长江中下游平原向南北依次呈现为“热点区-次热点区-次冷点区-冷点区”的梯度分异格局。④ 酒类、医药类、餐饮服务类老字号企业分布呈现“地区集聚化,行业集群化”格局,其他类型老字号企业在全国各地区的分布则呈现“地域均衡化,行业多元化”特征。⑤ 中华老字号的空间分异格局、类型结构特征是资源禀赋与发展基础、地域传统与社会变迁、经济发展与消费市场、文化旅游与消费需求等生产与消费多元因素共同作用及影响的结果。基于此,从中华老字号空间管理、统筹发展、资源要素优化配置、传承创新等方面提出了发展建议。

关键词: 中华老字号, 民族品牌, 空间分异格局, 类型结构特征, 影响因素

Abstract:

The study chooses 1128 China time-honored brand (CTHB) as the research object, and applies the average nearest neighbor index, nuclear density analysis, unbalanced index, spatial auto-correlation analysis and hot spot analysis model. With the help of ArcGIS software, the spatial distribution density, regional differentiation characteristics, equilibrium situation and spatial auto-correlation of time-honored Chinese brand are analyzed. On this basis, the industrial structure characteristics of CTHB are systematically sorted out, and the patterns and characteristics of spatial differentiation are revealed. Finally, the paper reveals the inner influence mechanism by using the methods of geographic contact rate, vector data buffer analysis and correlation analysis. Results showed that: (1) CTHB space differentiation presents an obvious core-edge structure, namely, one high density area, one sub-high density area and multiple high concentrated areas. CTHB has mainly concentrated in the developed economy since modern times, which has a high degree of market opening in northern China, eastern coastal areas, open seaports, provincial capitals, arterial road network cores, and parasitic shaped agglomeration. (2) CTHB is not randomly distributed in space, but presents significant spatial auto-correlation. The distribution of CTHB shows a pattern of "agglomeration and spindle", and the polarization phenomenon is prominent. (3) The cold and hot spots of CTHB show a gradient pattern of "hotspots - sub-hotspots - sub-coldspots - cold spots" from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river plain to the northern and southern China. (4) The distribution of CTHB in wine, medicine and catering services shows a pattern of "regional agglomeration and industrial clustering". The distribution of other CTHB in different regions of the country is characterized by "regional balance and industrial diversification". (5) The spatial differentiation pattern and type structure characteristics of CTHB are the result of the combined effect and interaction of multiple production and consumption factors such as resource endowment and development foundation, regional tradition and social change, economic development and consumption market, as well as cultural tourism and consumption demand. Based on this, this paper puts forward suggestions from the aspects of space management, overall development, optimal allocation of resource elements, inheritance and innovation.

Key words: China time-honored brand, national brand, spatial differentiation, type structure feature, influencing factor