地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 185-198.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190815

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

“居住不稳定性”对中国大城市流动人口健康的影响研究

程晗蓓1,2(), 刘于琪3, 田明4, 李志刚1,2()   

  1. 1.武汉大学城市设计学院,武汉 430072
    2.湖北省人居环境工程技术研究中心,武汉 430072
    3.香港大学城市规划与设计系,香港 999077
    4.北京师范大学社会发展与公共政策学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-17 接受日期:2020-02-17 出版日期:2021-01-10 发布日期:2021-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 李志刚
  • 作者简介:程晗蓓(1990-),女,湖北武汉人,博士研究生,研究方向为人口迁移与流动、健康地理。E-mail: hanbei. cheng@whu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41771167);国家自然科学基金(41371165);国家自然科学基金(41422103);国家社科基金重大项目(16ZDA026)

The effects of residential instability on migrants′ health in urban China

CHENG Hanbei1,2(), LIU Yuqi3, TIAN Ming4, LI Zhigang1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    2. Hubei Habitat Environment Engineering Research Center, Wuhan 430072, China
    3. Faculty of Architecture, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
    4. School of Social Development and Public Policy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2019-09-17 Accepted:2020-02-17 Online:2021-01-10 Published:2021-03-10
  • Contact: LI Zhigang

摘要:

随着城镇化加速和人口“流动性”增强,中国大城市流动人口的健康问题备受关注。流动人口的居住具有典型不稳定特征,分析其对流动人口身心健康的影响具有重要意义。为此,本文采用北京、深圳、上海等9个大城市的实地调研数据,运用层级回归和分组回归,探讨影响流动人口身心健康的因素,关注“居住不稳定性”因素的影响。研究表明:城市内部多次迁居和城市间频繁流动对流动人口健康具有显著负面影响;住房因素中,自有住房和选择居住在本地人居多的邻里对其健康具有显著正面影响。另外,“性别”因素具有调节效应;居住不稳定性对主观幸福感和自评生理健康的影响程度因“性别”不同而有所差异,男性健康对时空因素更为敏感和脆弱,女性健康不佳多归因于住房和邻里。

关键词: 流动人口, 居住不稳定性, 健康, 性别差异, 影响因素

Abstract:

Health research has long recognized the importance of residential instability. However, less attention has been paid to disclose their relationships against the background of frequent mobility in urban China. Thus, this study used multilevel linear models and grouping regression to explore the impacts of residential instability on migrants′ health based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey involving 9 cities and 2573 respondents. The results were as follows: (1) Migrants in urban China exhibited an ordinary level of subjective well-being (SWB) but reported preferable value in self-rated physical health (SRH). Notably, there were significant differences in health between genders. (2) Migrants′ health was affected by sociodemography, residential instability, as well as geographical factors. For instance, migrants working overtime and those living in cities with higher housing prices exhibited lower health outcomes. Married, well-educated, and high-income migrants were happier than the rest of the migrants. No evidence has shown that marital status, education level, and monthly income were significantly related to their physical health. (3) Residential instability had a statistical significance in health outcomes, and the strength of effect varied in different gender groups. In detail, interurban and intraurban mobilities were negatively related to migrants′ health in both subjective well-being and physical health. Importantly, these relationships were prominent in terms of males. In other words, frequent mobility can reduce their health. Besides, migrants moving with family members and owning purchased houses exhibited better health than those moving on their own and living in rented houses, especially in female groups. Moreover, migrants residing in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of locals had a higher probability of reporting better health. This result was also obvious in female migrants who concerned more on neighborhood safety. Finally, the number of friends was positively correlated with migrants′ health, which implied the health promotion of social capital in cities. All in all, this study confirmed that residential instability had a significant impact on migrants′ health and that gender played a moderating role in this relationship. Men were more sensitive and vulnerable to mobility factors, while women′s poor health was attributed to housing and neighborhood instability. Therefore, we call for the government to strengthen the housing attainment, education, medical services, etc. to increase migrants′ settlement intentions and reduce the frequency of mobility. On the other hand, community committees should encourage migrants to interact with locals to build a cohesive and supportive neighborhood for health promotion.

Key words: migrants, residential instability, health, gender difference, determinants