地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 1018-1027.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191115

• 经济地理学理论前沿与反思 • 上一篇    下一篇

创新地理学的批判性思考——基于中国情境的理论创新

符文颖, 杨家蕊   

  1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25 修回日期:2020-04-03 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-07-20
  • 作者简介:符文颖(1984-),女,海南海口人,副教授,博士,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为产业集群与区域创新。E-mail: fuwenying@m.scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871107)

Critical reflections on the geography of innovation: A prospect of theoretical progress from Chinese scenarios

FU Wenying, YANG Jiarui   

  1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2019-12-25 Revised:2020-04-03 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-07-20

摘要:

本文在对西方创新地理学的产生逻辑和进展梳理的基础上,提出西方创新地理学置于新自由主义所驱动的“地方竞争”的发展背景下,过分强调地方的内生性特质对于地方竞争力的作用,在当前创新范式尺度上推的背景下面临理论重构的挑战。由此,本文试图从中国特色的社会主义内涵下的创新制度、跨空间尺度视角下的中国区域创新系统发展和全球经济重组格局下的中国创新动态三个方面对中国创新地理学的理论潜力进行评述,提出因中国创新中地理多样性、政府调控性和外生驱导性共同决定了中国研究对当今创新地理学创新的意义。最后总结认为当前世界观需要将中国纳入中心体系,以便更好的审查创新所表现出的多尺度、多过程嵌套反馈的辩证地理过程。

关键词: 创新地理学, 内生过程, 外生过程, 制度, 多尺度反馈

Abstract:

Through the critical engagement with current literature on the geography of innovation, this paper proposes that this sub-discipline of human geography has been developing within the context of post-Fordist and neoliberal transformation of western society since the 1990s whereby international and inter-regional competition became the accepted development ideology and policy discourse. Thus, the endogenous nature of local and regional traits and their role in promoting innovativeness and development are highly emphasized in the face of place competition, whilst paying undue attention to exogenous dynamism in innovation processes. With the recent new technological progress, as well as the increasing needs of innovation to address grand societal challenges, however, it becomes more pressing to upscale process of innovation activities. Moreover, the exogenous processes have been playing a key role in China’s after-reform development, and the globalization and localization has become highly interdependent and dialectical against the context of gradual institutional reform. Therefore, this paper attempts to discuss the potentials of Chinese studies to advancing the field from three aspects. First, it analyses the specific institutional arrangements of innovation through its evolution from pre-reform to post-reform era, and summarizes how it is characterized as a state-led system with aggressive investment in innovative inputs. Secondly, the development of territorial innovation system in China has been analysed through the lens of inter-scalar processes. It is noted that we must highlight the interplay between scalar forces, as illustrated in modern and global innovation systems framework to address the challenges such as aging society, public health, and climate change. Last but not least, the Chinese innovation dynamics within the emerging context of worldwide economic restructuring has been envisaged. As China’s innovation organization has been centered around the rising notion of techno-nationalism, the geopolitical tensions and power struggle inexorably influences the innovation processes. In general, it advocates that the diverse geography, governmentality and exogenous-driven model of Chinese innovation system jointly define the significance of Chinese studies to reconceptualise modern innovation geography. Finally, it is suggested that contemporary worldview should incorporate China into the fundamental system of global capital circulation, so that the dialectical geographic process of multi-scalar and multi-processes nesting and feedback system of innovation could be reflected in depth.

Key words: geography of innovation, endogenous process, exogenous process, institution, multi-scalar feedback