地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (9): 2044-2064.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200373

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市场间邻近性与广东省出口企业的地理集聚

刘君洋1,2(), 朱晟君1()   

  1. 1.北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2.北京大学-林肯土地与政策研究院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-06 修回日期:2020-09-01 出版日期:2020-09-20 发布日期:2020-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱晟君
  • 作者简介:刘君洋(1997-),男,广东广州人,博士研究生,研究方向为经济地理与产业动态。E-mail: liujy73@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20010102);国家自然科学基金项目(41701115);国家自然科学基金项目(41971154);国家自然科学基金重点项目(41731278)

Proximity between markets and the geographical agglomeration of exporters in Guangdong province

LIU Junyang1,2(), ZHU Shengjun1()   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-05-06 Revised:2020-09-01 Online:2020-09-20 Published:2020-11-20
  • Contact: ZHU Shengjun

摘要:

对外贸易是塑造广东省产业空间分布格局的重要力量,深入地探讨出口贸易与广东省企业集聚的内在联系机制,具有重要意义。本文从出口市场与本地市场之间的多维邻近性角度,为广东省的企业集聚发生机制提供了新的解释,具有一定的理论与政策参考价值。本文认为,企业的出口市场与本地邻近性越低,企业自身越难以远距离地直接获取关于目的市场的出口知识。在这种情况下,企业为了实现出口的成功扩张,其在空间上倾向于集聚分布,以在本地获取相关知识的溢出。基于2000—2016年中国海关进出口贸易数据,本文对广东省出口企业的外部出口市场格局以及内部空间集聚格局进行了描述,并实证测度了企业的出口市场与广东省在地理、经济、文化、政治和制度五个维度上的邻近性与企业地理集聚水平之间的关系。特别地,本文运用DO方法对企业集聚水平进行定量测度,还原了企业集聚的原始微观形态,一定程度上弥补了现有对于集聚水平测度方法的不足。描述性分析表明,一方面,广东省企业的出口市场具有多样化的特点,其扩张一定程度上遵循“邻近性”原则;另一方面,广东省的企业空间分布呈现明显的“核心-边缘”格局。实证结果表明,当出口至与本地在经济、政治和制度三个维度上邻近性较低的市场时,企业在本地更加集聚。市场间地理和文化邻近性对企业集聚水平的影响不显著。同时,该影响效应在出口市场为发达地区和发展中地区的企业样本中具有差异。

关键词: 多维市场间邻近性, 企业集聚, 出口贸易

Abstract:

Trade has been an important force which shapes the industrial spatial pattern of Guangdong province. It is of great importance to conduct research on the relationship between export trade and firm agglomeration in Guangdong. From the perspective of multidimensional proximity between export destinations and local markets, this paper puts forward a new insight for the firm agglomeration in Guangdong, which has certain theoretical and practical significance. This paper argues that, the lower the proximity of a firm’s export destination to the local market is, the more difficult it is for the firm to directly gain comprehensive knowledge about the export destination at a distance. In this case, firms tend to agglomerate, in order to absorb the spillovers of relevant knowledge locally and achieve market expansion. Based on the data of China Customs Trade Statistics from 2002 to 2016, this paper describes the pattern of export markets and agglomeration of firms in Guangdong, and empirically measures the relationship between firms’ agglomeration level and the geographical, economic, political, institutional and cultural proximity between export destination and local market. In particular, the DO method is used to quantitatively measure the agglomeration level, which restores the original and micro form of firm agglomeration, making up for the shortcomings of the existing methods used to measure agglomeration level to a certain extent. Descriptive analysis shows that, on the one hand, the export markets of Guangdong’s firms are diversified, while the expansion of markets follows the principle of “proximity” to a certain extent. On the other hand, the distribution of firms presents an obvious “core-periphery” pattern. The empirical results show that when exporting to markets with low economic, political and institutional proximity to the local market, firms are more agglomerated. The geographical and cultural proximity has no significance effect on the agglomeration level of firms. At the same time, this effect is heterogenous in the sample of firms whose export markets are developed and developing regions.

Key words: multidimensional proximity between markets, firm agglomeration, export trade