地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 67-80.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200383

• 专栏:高原科学与可持续发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1972—2019年萨雷兹堰塞湖遥感时序监测与水文特征过程分析

王翔1(), 朱长明1,2(), 张新2, 王伟胜3,4, 方晖3,4   

  1. 1.江苏师范大学地理测绘与城乡规划学院,徐州 221116
    2.中国科学院空天信息创新研究院 遥感科学国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011
    4.中国科学院中亚生态与环境研究中心,乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-06 接受日期:2020-06-09 出版日期:2021-01-10 发布日期:2021-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 朱长明
  • 作者简介:王翔(1995-),男,安徽太湖人,硕士,主要研究方向为水文水资源遥感监测与生态环境遥感等。 E-mail: trywang@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0504201);国家自然科学基金项目(61473286);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目;江苏师范大学研究生科研与实践创新计划校级项目(2019XKT041)

Time series monitoring and analysis of hydrological change process of Sarez Dammed Lake from 1972 to 2019 by multi-source remote sensing

WANG Xiang1(), ZHU Changming1,2(), ZHANG Xin2, WANG Weisheng3,4, FANG Hui3,4   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Geomatics and Planning, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
    4. Center for Ecology and Environment for Central Asia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2020-05-06 Accepted:2020-06-09 Online:2021-01-10 Published:2021-03-10
  • Contact: ZHU Changming

摘要:

堰塞湖的水文特征过程对于库区洪水宏观调控、预报预警、安全防治等具有重要意义。为了及时掌握萨雷兹堰塞湖水文特征和历史演化过程,本文基于密集时间序列遥感数据,综合调查全面系统地分析了1972—2019年帕米尔高原萨雷兹堰塞湖的水文特征以及时空变化过程;并通过“面积-水位”关系模型重建了1972—2019年萨雷兹堰塞湖的历史水位面积演变时序过程;在此基础上采取M-K趋势和突变检验分析了水文变化特征。研究结果表明:① 萨雷兹堰塞湖水位总体上呈现波动性显著上升趋势,这种波动趋势主要表现为年内波动和高位震荡,但振幅在逐年减小。② 萨雷兹堰塞湖水文时序演化过程在2013年前后出现了一个突变拐点,面积水位变化特征表现为由原来的缓慢增加转变到加速上升。③ 1972—2019萨雷兹堰塞湖面积和水位关系模型为:y=-0.1003x2+18.181x+2440,(R2=0.63,P<0.05,双尾)。结合流域气象、径流以及相关文献数据分析得出萨雷兹堰塞湖的水文特征年内/际波动直接受穆尔加布河径流补给量的影响;区域冰川积雪加速消融带来的河道径流补给量增加是近年来面积水位加速上升的主要原因。

关键词: 堰塞湖, 多源遥感, 水文特征, 动态监测, 时序分析

Abstract:

The hydrological characteristic process of the dammed lake has practical guiding significance and scientific reference value for the macro-control, forecast and early warning, safety prevention and control of floods in the reservoir area. In order to acquire and grasp the hydrologic characteristics and historical evolution process of the Sarez Dammed Lake in Pamir Plateau in time, the spatiotemporal changes and hydrologic evolution process of this dammed lake from 1972 to 2019 are comprehensively and systematically analyzed by using the intensive time series remote sensing data and the measured data of the hydrological station. And through the "area-water level" relationship model, we reconstruct the historical water level and historical area evolution sequence process of the Sarez Dammed Lake from 1972 to 2019. On this basis, the Mann-Kendall trend and mutation test method is adopted to analyze the hydrological change of the lake. The research results show that: (1) In general, the water level process showed a significant upward trend in volatility, and this volatility trend was mainly manifested in fluctuations and high oscillations during the year, but the amplitude of the rising water level was decreasing year by year. (2) In terms of the hydrological evolution, the hydrological characteristics had an abrupt inflection point around 2013, where the lake area and water level changed from the original slow increase to the accelerated rise. (3) The relationship model between the area and the water level of the Sarez dammed lake is: y=-0.1003x2+18.181x+2440 (R 2=0.63, P<0.05, two tail). Combined with the analysis of river basin meteorology, runoff and related literature data, it is concluded that the intra-annual/inter-annual hydrological fluctuations of the lake are directly affected by the runoff recharge of the upstream Murgabu River. In terms of the causes of hydrological changes, we believe that the increase of river runoff caused by the accelerated melting of plateau glaciers and snow under the environment of global warming is the main reason for the accelerated increase of the area and water level of the lake in recent years.

Key words: dammed lake, multi-source remote sensing, hydrological characteristics, dynamic monitoring, time series analysis